Adesina Iluyemi PhD Candidate CHMI, Univ of Portsmouth, UK Member, eMobility ETP [email_address] 22.04.2008 WWRF #20 eHEAL...
Content <ul><li>Health Problems in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Definition and Policy drivers for eHealth in Africa through wi...
Health Problems in Africa <ul><li>Africa has a population of about ONE billion people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 70% live...
eHealth as a developmental tool <ul><li>eHealth is the use of  information  (data) and  communication  technologies for  h...
Policy for eHealth in Africa <ul><li>Africa Union/ New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) </li></ul><ul><li>NEPA...
<ul><li>Global initiatives in favour of eHealth is being championed by The World Health Organisation (WHO) under the Globa...
<ul><li>To provide access to distributed health knowledge and information to mostly rural health workers. </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Mobile devices are relatively cheaper that Fixed computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumes less power (Lack of elec...
Wireless tools use for  eHealth in Africa <ul><li>Wireless technologies use: GSM/GPRS/3G, WiFi, WiMAX, WLL (Fixed or Mobil...
Health Workers using mobile devices Page  WWRF#20  ·  Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless...
<ul><ul><li>Health Systems in Africa are operated through a District Health System (DHS)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H...
i-DeHI Innovation <ul><li>i-DeHI as the basic unit for an Africa-wide eHealth Infrastructure </li></ul>Page  i-DeHI WWRF#2...
A District eHealth Network <ul><li>Basic architecture for health care delivery in Africa </li></ul>Page  WWRF#20  ·  Adesi...
A Cluster of District Wireless eHealth Network = Regional eHealth Network <ul><li>Regional or National eHealth Infrastruct...
Lessons from African Cases <ul><li>UHIN-GPRS:- still limited in bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early generation PDAs-Plan...
Page  WWRF#20  ·  Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
A District eHealth Network <ul><li>A rural eHealth project in rural South  Africa using low-cost Mesh Wi-Fi networks </li>...
Barriers to Wireless eHealth in Africa <ul><li>Technological </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunication Infrastructure ( policy, ...
<ul><li>Lessons from  an Africa-wide eHealth Network </li></ul><ul><li>Multilateral Initiative  on Malaria Communication N...
MiMCom continent-wide  eHealth Network in Africa <ul><li>This depicts national nodes with different networks </li></ul>Pag...
Lessons from African Cases <ul><li>Melanges of devices and networks: Need for Ambient Network </li></ul>Page  FMFI 2007 WW...
<ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-availability of Low-cost Broadband Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High costs o...
<ul><li>European Research Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Framework Programme 7 (2007-2013) just started </li></ul></ul><u...
User-centric mHealth conceptual model
mHealth Users’ Context
Users issues 1 <ul><li>Technical  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Computer Interface (HCI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Sou...
Users issues: software & interface design <ul><li>HCI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen size and design (Adaptive) </li></ul></...
Users issues: Hardware 1 <ul><li>Open Source design? </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-wireless connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Power...
Users issues: Hardware 2 <ul><li>Device Morphology/Transition  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile  portable  nomadic </li></ul><...
 
 
Users: Social issues <ul><li>Doctors in South Africa (Banderker et al 2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job relevance </li></ul>...
Organizational issues 1 <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is not enough!  </li></ul><ul><li>Positive economi...
Organizational issues 2 <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Health Policies, regulation, structure and financing </li></...
<ul><li>70% of IT investments globally are failures: Note failure here is multifaceted </li></ul><ul><li>Africa is not far...
<ul><li>Building a sustainable Business Model for ‘Win-Win Situation’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding and Meeting Mult...
Sustainable Solutions <ul><li>High investment, implementation and purchasing costs of wireless telecom infrastructures as ...
<ul><li>User-centric wireless products & services in developing countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies demonstrate t...
Opportunities for WWRF-WG 2 <ul><li>Transmission  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Broadband for eHealth web services and ap...
<ul><li>Reviewing all eHealth projects in developing countries especially on mHealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus is specif...
<ul><li>A call to WWRF to support research into: </li></ul><ul><li>Low-cost mobile/wireless technologies for Development i...
Dr Adesina Iluyemi PhD Candidate CHMI, Univ of Portsmouth, UK Member, eMobility ETP [email_address] 22.04.2008 WWRF #20 eH...
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Adesina Iluyemi PhD Candidate CHMI, Univ of Portsmouth, UK

  1. 1. Adesina Iluyemi PhD Candidate CHMI, Univ of Portsmouth, UK Member, eMobility ETP [email_address] 22.04.2008 WWRF #20 eHEALTH NETWORK FOR AFRICA: NEED FOR LOW-COST MOBILE/WIRELESS INFRASTRUCTURES RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Health Problems in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Definition and Policy drivers for eHealth in Africa through wireless technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing the concept of wireless i-DeHI in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to wireless i-DeHI in AfricA </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for WWRF </li></ul><ul><li>Research and Development proposal </li></ul>Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  3. 3. Health Problems in Africa <ul><li>Africa has a population of about ONE billion people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 70% lives in isolated rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half lives on half a dollar per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor telecom & transportation infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of Infrastructure and Capacity Healthcare delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Drain: International and Local (Rural vs. Urban) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa has 10% of world population with 25% of global health burden but with only 3% of global health workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty & Financial constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS accounted for 2.4 million deaths alone in 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40% survive on less than $1 per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaria related mortality is at 1 million deaths (mostly children) yearly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enormous economic cost on health systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of individual income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of Africa’s population pays out of pocket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources impact </li></ul></ul>Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  4. 4. eHealth as a developmental tool <ul><li>eHealth is the use of information (data) and communication technologies for health processes (Health System) either locally and at a distance (WHO 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>eHealth involves telemedicine, telehealth, telecare, health management information systems, health knowledge systems etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Health System is information, data and communication intensive and requires more than SMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Workers as “Knowledge Workers” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients as citizens (Citizen-centric eHealth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health System as Data processing organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless technologies plus eHealth = mHealth </li></ul>Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  5. 5. Policy for eHealth in Africa <ul><li>Africa Union/ New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) </li></ul><ul><li>NEPAD’s Action Plan Strategy on sector development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alignment between telecom and health sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls for a continental-wide eHealth infrastructure based on wireless telecom infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NEPAD’s eHealth for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of & access to vertical HISs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extending healthcare to isolated and rural communities and populations </li></ul></ul>Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  6. 6. <ul><li>Global initiatives in favour of eHealth is being championed by The World Health Organisation (WHO) under the Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe) (WHA 58.18) </li></ul><ul><li>The European Union has plans for eHealth in Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using wireless/mobile technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Telecommunication Union (ITU) since 1998 has commissioned eHealth projects in developing countries using mostly wireless technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ITU-D Q14 Working Group is focussed on eHealth strategy and policy development with interest in mobile/wireless technologies especially in developing countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All support Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) for eHealth </li></ul>Global Policy for eHealth Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  7. 7. <ul><li>To provide access to distributed health knowledge and information to mostly rural health workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Urgency is required to meet the MDGs targets and to reverse the poor health and developmental ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical barriers to access health service provision especially in Africa (rural areas). </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity ( wireless telecommunications) is becoming widely accessible and available even in rural communities </li></ul><ul><li>But there are issues: Cost, telecom infrastructure, existing health problems etc </li></ul>Why eHealth for Africa Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  8. 8. <ul><li>Mobile devices are relatively cheaper that Fixed computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumes less power (Lack of electricity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are portable, hence more secured? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless networks are relatively cheaper and faster to build relative to build than fixed networks. For example , the Nigerian case </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile/ Wireless technologies provide the best opportunity for Africa to achieve the “ Africa interconnectivity objective and for building eHealth Infrastructure </li></ul>Rationale for Wireless eHealth in Africa Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  9. 9. Wireless tools use for eHealth in Africa <ul><li>Wireless technologies use: GSM/GPRS/3G, WiFi, WiMAX, WLL (Fixed or Mobile CDMA), Broadband wireless, Satellite, VSAT (Mobility vs Universal Access) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile devices: PDAs, Smartphone, Cellular phones, Tablet PCs, Laptops, smart cards, memory sticks, USB keys, sensors. </li></ul>Page FMFI 2007 WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  10. 10. Health Workers using mobile devices Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Health Systems in Africa are operated through a District Health System (DHS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical and pyramidal territorial enterprise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A distributed and geographically dispersed Enterprise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An information and process intensive Enterprise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A central urban hospital linked to peripheral semi-urban/rural health centres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has different cadres of Health (Knowledge) Workers with information needs for patient care & enterprise management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated District eHealth Infrastructure (i-DeHI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built on Wireless Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Including mobile/portable hardware, software & wireless networks </li></ul></ul>A Innovative Concept Proposal Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  12. 12. i-DeHI Innovation <ul><li>i-DeHI as the basic unit for an Africa-wide eHealth Infrastructure </li></ul>Page i-DeHI WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  13. 13. A District eHealth Network <ul><li>Basic architecture for health care delivery in Africa </li></ul>Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  14. 14. A Cluster of District Wireless eHealth Network = Regional eHealth Network <ul><li>Regional or National eHealth Infrastructure will require use of different devices and wireless networks with implications for interoperability and integration </li></ul>Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  15. 15. Lessons from African Cases <ul><li>UHIN-GPRS:- still limited in bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early generation PDAs-Planning for Smartphones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solar Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Cell-Life- GPRS/3G- Business model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDAs/Smartphones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FMFI/MUTI Telehealth- Long distance WiFi- WAN&LAN, VSAT- expensive, policy barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considering 3G </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop Laptops WiFi -CellPhones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Energy </li></ul></ul>Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  16. 16. Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  17. 17. A District eHealth Network <ul><li>A rural eHealth project in rural South Africa using low-cost Mesh Wi-Fi networks </li></ul>Page FMFI 2007 WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  18. 18. Barriers to Wireless eHealth in Africa <ul><li>Technological </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunication Infrastructure ( policy, high investment costs , availability) </li></ul><ul><li>Power /Electrical Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Economic/Financial Infrastructure - Low-income </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational/Management issues </li></ul>Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  19. 19. <ul><li>Lessons from an Africa-wide eHealth Network </li></ul><ul><li>Multilateral Initiative on Malaria Communication Network (MiMCom) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A continental-wide eHealth Infrastructure with 12 National nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inter-national nodes mostly with VSATs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VSATs chosen over fibre-optics at inception </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intra-national communication with terrestrial wireless-WiFi, microwave link </li></ul><ul><li>Devices-Laptops, PDAs, PCs </li></ul><ul><li>Reveals different solutions for national nodes- depends on availability and costs of bandwidths </li></ul>Barrier 1: Telecom/Technological Infrastructures Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  20. 20. MiMCom continent-wide eHealth Network in Africa <ul><li>This depicts national nodes with different networks </li></ul>Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  21. 21. Lessons from African Cases <ul><li>Melanges of devices and networks: Need for Ambient Network </li></ul>Page FMFI 2007 WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  22. 22. <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-availability of Low-cost Broadband Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High costs of broadband access especially of satellite connectivity access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible solution ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-cost Broadband Wireless Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introducing EU funded Digital World Foundation project on Low-cost Technology initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring this issue into global business and developmental agendas </li></ul></ul>Barrier 2: Financial Infrastructure Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  23. 23. <ul><li>European Research Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Framework Programme 7 (2007-2013) just started </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DigitalWorld FP7-216513 is an 18 month research project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT-1-9.1 - International Cooperation (Africa and Latin America) </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination and Support Action </li></ul><ul><li>Started January 1, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Duration: 18 Months </li></ul>Introducing DigitalWorld EU Project Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  24. 24. User-centric mHealth conceptual model
  25. 25. mHealth Users’ Context
  26. 26. Users issues 1 <ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Computer Interface (HCI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source (Hardware & Software) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption issues (Development & Implementation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Users issues: software & interface design <ul><li>HCI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen size and design (Adaptive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Configuration-Thin & Thick clients, remote & located synchronisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palm OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Android </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Users issues: Hardware 1 <ul><li>Open Source design? </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-wireless connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Power- Solar? (Global Green Movement) </li></ul><ul><li>Memory (Stable and Labile) </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Structure- (Ruggedized) </li></ul><ul><li>Low-cost devices- </li></ul><ul><li>Simputer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLPC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classmate, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EeePC </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Users issues: Hardware 2 <ul><li>Device Morphology/Transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile portable nomadic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultra mobile portable devices (UMPCs)? </li></ul><ul><li>Isomerism? </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ opinion from Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop Laptops WiFi -CellPhones </li></ul></ul>UMPCs <ul><li>Low-cost UMPCs for Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLPC case </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Device Morphology/Transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile portable nomadic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultra mobile portable devices (UMPCs)? </li></ul><ul><li>Isomerism? </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ opinion from Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop Laptops WiFi -CellPhones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low-cost UMPCs for Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLPC case </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Device Morphology/Transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile portable nomadic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultra mobile portable devices (UMPCs)? </li></ul><ul><li>Isomerism? </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ opinion from Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop Laptops WiFi -CellPhones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low-cost UMPCs for Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLPC case </li></ul></ul>UMPCs <ul><li>Device Morphology/Transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile portable nomadic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultra mobile portable devices (UMPCs)? </li></ul><ul><li>Isomerism? </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ opinion from Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop Laptops WiFi -CellPhones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low-cost UMPCs for Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLPC case </li></ul></ul>UMPCs <ul><li>Device Morphology/Transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile portable nomadic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultra mobile portable devices (UMPCs)? </li></ul><ul><li>Isomerism? </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ opinion from Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop Laptops WiFi -CellPhones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low-cost UMPCs for Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLPC case </li></ul></ul>UMPCs <ul><li>Device Morphology/Transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile portable nomadic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultra mobile portable devices (UMPCs)? </li></ul><ul><li>Isomerism? </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ opinion from Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop Laptops WiFi -CellPhones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low-cost UMPCs for Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLPC case </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Users: Social issues <ul><li>Doctors in South Africa (Banderker et al 2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usefulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived User resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports from Public National government & hospital administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal issues (Decision Support Systems, Drug directories) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Organizational issues 1 <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is not enough! </li></ul><ul><li>Positive economic benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Users led and focus </li></ul><ul><li>Social and ethical issues </li></ul><ul><li>Health workers’ responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Device and applications development and regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>(HealthService 24- 2006) </li></ul>
  32. 34. Organizational issues 2 <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Health Policies, regulation, structure and financing </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation in real-life contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple actors and structures </li></ul><ul><li>Health IT infrastructure (organisation). </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ led model </li></ul><ul><li>(MOSAIC -2005) </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>70% of IT investments globally are failures: Note failure here is multifaceted </li></ul><ul><li>Africa is not faring better either </li></ul><ul><li>Same problem with eHealth projects especially in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, problem is sustainability which can be : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational /Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social/cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human (Health Workers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological </li></ul></ul>Sustaining eHealth projects in Africa Page 80% cause of IT Failure WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  34. 36. <ul><li>Building a sustainable Business Model for ‘Win-Win Situation’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding and Meeting Multiple Stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End-users needs for design: Pro Poor vs. Niche markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding Organizational Process for innovation diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding Environmental Constraints and Enablers: Policies/Regulation, Electricity (Renewable Energy), Financial/Economic/Funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instituting sustainable Global & Local Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting Local Small & Medium Enterprise (SMEs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting Low Access/Entry costs models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological- Low cost Broadband Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Telecom such as WiMax, WiFi, Broadband Satellite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost mobiles devices and Laptops (OLPC, Intel Classmate etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source vs. Proprietary Software & Hardware? </li></ul></ul></ul>Sustainability issues Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  35. 37. Sustainable Solutions <ul><li>High investment, implementation and purchasing costs of wireless telecom infrastructures as barriers (Gilhooly 2005, World Bank 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Policy needed to stimulate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public service innovation/re-engineering (eHealth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass and low-cost production of components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate Business models- “Bottom of the Pyramid” (BOP) model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local and Global Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) (NEPAD e-Schools project) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and developmental inputs in Telecom regulation & business </li></ul></ul>Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  36. 38. <ul><li>User-centric wireless products & services in developing countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies demonstrate the feasibility of mHealth in Africa Health System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-cost portable and mobile devices like the OLPC are needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-cost broadband wireless infrastructure are also required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research to influence future design and development </li></ul><ul><li>To support wireless eHealth business model in developing countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being developed with Rural Living Labs Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be instituted in four regions of Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop a sustainable wireless eHealth model </li></ul></ul>Opportunities for WWRF-WG 1 Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  37. 39. Opportunities for WWRF-WG 2 <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Broadband for eHealth web services and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of optimal/low-cost mobile/portable/nomadic devices, infrastructures and software </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient Wireless Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melanges of wireless networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to explore interoperability for facility, community, district, provincial, national regional and continental access and connectivity </li></ul></ul>Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  38. 40. <ul><li>Reviewing all eHealth projects in developing countries especially on mHealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus is specifically on the factors affecting eHealth sustainability or success in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational & strategic management of eHealth implementation & use in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a holistic framework to evaluate existing eHealth systems in Africa i.e. linking operational with strategic (policy) level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Framework will capture process and outcome impacts from design to implementation and use </li></ul><ul><li>Funding required for field trips to Africa </li></ul>Ongoing Research Work @ CHMI Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  39. 41. <ul><li>A call to WWRF to support research into: </li></ul><ul><li>Low-cost mobile/wireless technologies for Development in Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eHealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Business, e-Commerce, e-Banking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scoping change management issues in using mobile/wireless technologies for eHealth in Africa / Developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>THANK YOU FOR LISTENING! </li></ul>Conclusion Page WWRF#20 · Adesina Iluyemi · adesina.iluyemi@port.ac.uk · 22.04.2008 · Wireless eHealth for Africa
  40. 42. Dr Adesina Iluyemi PhD Candidate CHMI, Univ of Portsmouth, UK Member, eMobility ETP [email_address] 22.04.2008 WWRF #20 eHEALTH NETWORK FOR AFRICA: NEED FOR LOW-COST MOBILE/WIRELESS INFRASTRUCTURES RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL

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