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4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
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4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt

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  • Ant-like robots(early 1990s) Robot collectives have been developed Robots have been used for studying social insect behavior Ant-like robot is Social robot?
  • 2. Natural cues.. : gaze, gesture
  • COG : General purpose humanoid platform which is intended for exploring theories and models of intelligent behavior and learning
  • Transcript

    • 1. A Survey of socially interactive robots Ansi (Sang-ik An) Bear (Geonhyeok Go) SJ (Sujung Han) HARI (Hari Sankar) BK (Byoungkil Han) Human Robot Interaction 4 th Team
    • 2. Contents Introduction CH1 Methodology CH2 1.1. The history of social robots 1.2. Social robots and social embeddedness: concepts and definitions 1.3. The history of social robots 1.4. Why socially interactive robots? 2.1. Design approaches 2.2. Design issues 2.3. Embodiment 2.4. Emotion
    • 3. Chapter1. Introduction Human Robot Interaction 4 th Team
    • 4. 1.1. The history of social robots <ul><li>Individual social robots vs. Group social collective robots </li></ul>
    • 5. 1.1. The history of social robots <ul><li>Biologically inspired robots -> Possibility of interaction robot & environment </li></ul><ul><li> robot & robot </li></ul><ul><li>Walter’s robotic tortoises, Elmer and Elsie (late 1940s) </li></ul><ul><li>: No explicit communication or mutual recognition </li></ul>
    • 6. 1.1. The history of social robots <ul><li>Group -oriented social robots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective or swarm robot behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ant-like robots(early 1990s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-robot or distributed robotic systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximizing benefit through collective action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior inspired by social insect societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Societies : anonymous, homogeneous groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals do not matter </li></ul></ul></ul>Sentinel, Matrix Khepera robots foraging for “food”
    • 7. 1.1. The history of social robots <ul><li>Individual social robots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualized societies( Individual matters ) : mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals live in groups, form relationships and social networks, create alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stick to societal norms and conventions </li></ul></ul>Early “individual” social robots: “getting to know each other” (left) and learning by imitation (right)
    • 8. 1.1. The history of social robots <ul><li>Social robots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embodied agents that are part of a heterogeneous group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage in social interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possess histories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicitly communicate with and learn from each other </li></ul></ul>Proposed by “Dautenhahan” and “Billiard”
    • 9. <ul><li>4 classes of social robots(by Breazeal) + 3 classes added </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially evocative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human-like, anthropomorphic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural interface by human-like social cues and communication modalities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially receptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning from interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-actively engaging with humans in order to satisfy internal social aims </li></ul></ul></ul>1.2. Social robots and social embeddedness : concepts and definitions Sparky
    • 10. 1.2. Social robots and social embeddedness : concepts and definitions <ul><li>4 classes of social robots (by Breazeal) + 3 classes added </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially situated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguish between other social agents and various objects in the environments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially embedded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structurally coupled with social environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partially aware of human interactional structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially intelligent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human style social intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul>R2-D2 and C-3PO from Star Wars
    • 11. 1.3. Socially Interactive Robots (1/4) <ul><li>Focus on peer-to-peer HRI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robots with “human social” characteristics : emotion, dialogue, relationship, natural communication, personality, and learning </li></ul></ul>From B.J. Fogg, Persuasive Technology : Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do
    • 12. 1.3. Socially Interactive Robots (2/4) <ul><li>Focus on peer-to-peer HRI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common assumption : “humans prefer to interact with machines in the same way that they interact with real people ” </li></ul></ul>When your computer doesn’t work…
    • 13. 1.3. Socially Interactive Robots (3/4) <ul><li>Robot as partners, peers or assistants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adaptability and flexibility with a wide range of humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as research platforms, as toys, as educational tools, or as therapeutic aids </li></ul></ul>(from P.S. Fiske “Put Your Science to Work”)
    • 14. 1.3. Socially Interactive Robots (4/4) <ul><li>Human as designer, observer and interaction partner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires considering the human in the loop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From simple reaction to human behavior, to relying on humans’ mental states and emotions </li></ul></ul>From P. Persson et al., Understanding Socially Intelligent Agents – A Multilayered Phenomenon
    • 15. 1.4. Why Socially Interactive Robots? (1/3) <ul><li>Application domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robot as “persuasive machine” : used to change the behavior, feelings or attitudes of humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robot as “avatar” : a representation of or representation for the human </li></ul></ul>Robot Emissary (from the animation “Animatrix”) Robot Doppelganger (Germinoid, by Hiroshi Ishiguro (right) )
    • 16. 1.4. Why Socially Interactive Robots? (2/3) <ul><li>People want robots have social skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>develop their interaction skills themselves (learning machine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support a wide range of users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a part of single person’s life </li></ul></ul>SAIL and Dav, Self-organizing Autonomous Incremental Learner
    • 17. 1.4. Why Socially Interactive Robots? (3/3) <ul><li>So, robot designers try to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embed models of social behavior of humans in the robot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase robot’s effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… for the robot as “natural” interaction partners </li></ul></ul>Bender, your drinking partner (from the animation “Futurama”) Marvin, the paranoid android (from the movie “The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy”)
    • 18. Chapter2. Methodology 4 th Team Human Robot Interaction
    • 19. 2.1. Design Approaches Robot Shape Anthropomorphic Robot (Human-like interaction) Zoomorphic Robot (Creature-like interaction) Robot Feature Faces Speech Recognition Lip-Reading Skill Social Capacities Human Social Expectation enjoyable, feeling empowered, competent interaction
    • 20. 2.1. Design Approaches Biologically-inspired Robot Socially Intelligent Socially Interactive Functionally-designed Robot Functionally Structured Socially Interactive Design Methodology How are socially interactive robots built?
    • 21. 2.1.1. Biologically Inspired Robot - Cognitive, behavioral, motivational motor - Perceptual system - Primary Concepts - 1. Naturalistic Embodiment -> “life-like” activity 2. Direct Examination about basic scientific theories COG (MIT/ general purpose humanoid platform) Anthropology Structure of Interaction Cognitive Science Developmental Psychology Theory of Mind Ethology Interdisciplinary Research Sociology
    • 22. 2.1.1. Biologically Inspired Robot <ul><li>Ethology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observational study of animals in the natural setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural types of activity -> life-like robot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) AIBO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure of Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of interactional structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-> Key interaction patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-> Focus design of perception & cognition systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) ROBITA : Turn-Taking in dialogue </li></ul></ul>
    • 23. 2.1.1. Biologically Inspired Robot <ul><li>Theory of Mind ( 마음과학 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) Joint attention ( 상호주의하기 , selective attention to the object of mutual interest) -> gaze direction, pointing gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmental Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective mechanism for creating robots that engage in natural social exchanges (dialogue) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) Kismet’s “synthetic nervous system” <- Proto-conversational skill of human three-month infants with their caregiver (initiation, mutual-orientation, greeting, play-dialog, disengagement) </li></ul></ul>
    • 24. 2.1.2. Functionally designed Robot Functionally Structured He is so intelligent and emotional!!! Socially Intelligent Functionally Designed Robot - Constrained operational and performance objectives Ex) restaurant robot - greeting, serving, cleaning… - Certain effects and experiences with the user Ex) greeting – joy serving – happiness mistake – sadness … function1 = happiness function2 = sadness function3 = anger function4 = fear
    • 25. 2.1.2. Functionally designed Robot <ul><li>Motivations for functional design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Limitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited quality of interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited embodiment and capability of a robot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constraint by the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of Functional Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affordances (action possibilities) and usability can be improved even with the limited social expression. (recorded or scripted speech) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial designs can provide compelling interaction. (video games and electronic toys) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 26. 2.1.2. Functionally designed Robot <ul><li>Often Used Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HCI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robots are being developed using HCI tech. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive modeling, contextual inquiry, heuristic evaluation, empirical user testing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical-path elements of design -> Effective and facilitated development and operation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) A robot in highly structure domain needs navigation skills most importantly. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 27. 2.1.2. Functionally designed Robot <ul><li>Often Used Techniques (continues) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iterative Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process of revising a design through a series of test and redesign cycles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) Willeke’s museum robots – design based on the lessons from preceding generations </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 28. 2.2. Design Issues <ul><li>Traditional Robot Design issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition- planning and decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment sensing and navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actuation- mobility and manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface, Inputs and display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System dynamics- control architecture, electro mechanics </li></ul></ul>
    • 29. 2.2. Design Issues <ul><li>Social Interaction Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Human oriented perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detecting and organizing gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and classifying activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discerning intent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring the feedback from human peers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural Human Robot Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believable behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep up with social norms </li></ul></ul>
    • 30. 2.2. Design Issues <ul><li>Social Interaction Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Readable social cues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for expression and easy interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social cues should be easy to understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression, gestures or voice could be adopted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Real-Time performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should operate at human interaction rates </li></ul></ul>
    • 31. 2.3. Embodiment <ul><li>Concept of Embodiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extend to which a system can perturb the environment and get perturbed by the environment defines embodiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also looked upon as the complexity of interaction with the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of modes of interaction with the environment can also be a measure of the same </li></ul></ul>
    • 32. 2.3.1. Morphology 2.3.3. Anthropomorphic 2.3.4. Zoomorphic <ul><li>Factors affecting the impact and acceptance of a design </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical form has a great influence on the desirability, expressiveness and accessibility of a robot. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anthropomorphic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resembling human in form makes peer interaction easier and stronger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction with familiar forms are easier. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate balance of visual illusion and interactive functionality. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zoomorphic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment robots and toy robots. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding Uncanny valley is easier as expectation is lower </li></ul></ul>
    • 33. 2.3.2. Design Considerations <ul><li>If its meant to do tasks for humanness it should portray product ness </li></ul><ul><li>If its meant for peer interaction Human ness is important </li></ul><ul><li>A considerable amount of robot ness should be maintained so as to prevent excess confidence in the robot’s abilities </li></ul><ul><li>A specific amount of familiarity is to be provided remembering the concept of uncanny valley </li></ul>
    • 34. 2.3.5. Caricatured 2.3.6. Functional <ul><li>Caricatured </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its not essential to be realistic to be believable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But it can be used to focus or distract attention on to or away from certain robotic features. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functionality – (Should be the primary concern) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embodiment should reflect the task to be performed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health care robots will have handles and carriage space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toy robots should be cheap attractive and durable. </li></ul></ul>
    • 35. 2.4. Emotion <ul><li>Emotions play a significant role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In human behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theories used to describe emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrete categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous scales or basis dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Componential theory: categories + dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why emotion is important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People tend to treat computer as they treat other people </li></ul></ul>Happy Sad Frustrated positive valence negative valence high arousal low arousal open stance closed stance
    • 36. 2.4.1. Artificial emotion <ul><li>Artificial emotion used in social robots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion helps HRI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide feedback to user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as a control mechanism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How robot display emotion? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From small DOF to many DOF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kismet </li></ul></ul>
    • 37. 2.4.2. Emotions as control mechanism <ul><li>Determine control priority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different behavior mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger learning and adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example – Sage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person blocking Sage’s path </li></ul></ul>[frustrated] “I am giving a tour to these visitors right now. Please let me continue!” [happy] playful and enticing, engaging the visitor and inviting the person on a tour
    • 38. 2.4.3. Speech <ul><li>Emotional speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective method for communicating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loudness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch: level, variation, range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prosody </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Kismet’s vocalization system </li></ul>
    • 39. <ul><li>Shortage of facial expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitation of mechanical design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abrupt change  rarely occurs in nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanical approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies with DOF of actuators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelix, Kismet, Saya </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer grahpic approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vikia </li></ul></ul>2.4.4. Facial Expression fear surprise anger neutral sadness happy
    • 40. 2.4.5 Body language <ul><li>Importance of body language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of gesture occur during speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong tendency to be cued by body language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional body movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul></ul>
    • 41. Thank You ! Human Robot Interaction

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