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4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt
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  • Ant-like robots(early 1990s) Robot collectives have been developed Robots have been used for studying social insect behavior Ant-like robot is Social robot?
  • 2. Natural cues.. : gaze, gesture
  • COG : General purpose humanoid platform which is intended for exploring theories and models of intelligent behavior and learning
  • Transcript

    • 1. A Survey of socially interactive robots Ansi (Sang-ik An) Bear (Geonhyeok Go) SJ (Sujung Han) HARI (Hari Sankar) BK (Byoungkil Han) Human Robot Interaction 4 th Team
    • 2. Contents Introduction CH1 Methodology CH2 1.1. The history of social robots 1.2. Social robots and social embeddedness: concepts and definitions 1.3. The history of social robots 1.4. Why socially interactive robots? 2.1. Design approaches 2.2. Design issues 2.3. Embodiment 2.4. Emotion
    • 3. Chapter1. Introduction Human Robot Interaction 4 th Team
    • 4. 1.1. The history of social robots
      • Individual social robots vs. Group social collective robots
    • 5. 1.1. The history of social robots
      • Biologically inspired robots -> Possibility of interaction robot & environment
      • robot & robot
      • Walter’s robotic tortoises, Elmer and Elsie (late 1940s)
      • : No explicit communication or mutual recognition
    • 6. 1.1. The history of social robots
      • Group -oriented social robots
        • Collective or swarm robot behavior
        • Ant-like robots(early 1990s)
        • Multi-robot or distributed robotic systems
        • Maximizing benefit through collective action
        • Behavior inspired by social insect societies
        • Societies : anonymous, homogeneous groups
          • Individuals do not matter
      Sentinel, Matrix Khepera robots foraging for “food”
    • 7. 1.1. The history of social robots
      • Individual social robots
        • Individualized societies( Individual matters ) : mammals
        • Individuals live in groups, form relationships and social networks, create alliances
        • Stick to societal norms and conventions
      Early “individual” social robots: “getting to know each other” (left) and learning by imitation (right)
    • 8. 1.1. The history of social robots
      • Social robots
        • Embodied agents that are part of a heterogeneous group
        • Recognize each other
        • Engage in social interactions
        • Possess histories
        • Explicitly communicate with and learn from each other
      Proposed by “Dautenhahan” and “Billiard”
    • 9.
      • 4 classes of social robots(by Breazeal) + 3 classes added
        • Socially evocative
          • Human-like, anthropomorphic
        • Social interface
          • Natural interface by human-like social cues and communication modalities
        • Socially receptive
          • Learning from interaction
        • Sociable
          • Pro-actively engaging with humans in order to satisfy internal social aims
      1.2. Social robots and social embeddedness : concepts and definitions Sparky
    • 10. 1.2. Social robots and social embeddedness : concepts and definitions
      • 4 classes of social robots (by Breazeal) + 3 classes added
        • Socially situated
          • Distinguish between other social agents and various objects in the environments
        • Socially embedded
          • Structurally coupled with social environment
          • Partially aware of human interactional structures
        • Socially intelligent
          • Human style social intelligence
      R2-D2 and C-3PO from Star Wars
    • 11. 1.3. Socially Interactive Robots (1/4)
      • Focus on peer-to-peer HRI
        • Robots with “human social” characteristics : emotion, dialogue, relationship, natural communication, personality, and learning
      From B.J. Fogg, Persuasive Technology : Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do
    • 12. 1.3. Socially Interactive Robots (2/4)
      • Focus on peer-to-peer HRI
        • common assumption : “humans prefer to interact with machines in the same way that they interact with real people ”
      When your computer doesn’t work…
    • 13. 1.3. Socially Interactive Robots (3/4)
      • Robot as partners, peers or assistants
        • adaptability and flexibility with a wide range of humans
        • Used as research platforms, as toys, as educational tools, or as therapeutic aids
      (from P.S. Fiske “Put Your Science to Work”)
    • 14. 1.3. Socially Interactive Robots (4/4)
      • Human as designer, observer and interaction partner
        • Requires considering the human in the loop
        • From simple reaction to human behavior, to relying on humans’ mental states and emotions
      From P. Persson et al., Understanding Socially Intelligent Agents – A Multilayered Phenomenon
    • 15. 1.4. Why Socially Interactive Robots? (1/3)
      • Application domain
        • Robot as “persuasive machine” : used to change the behavior, feelings or attitudes of humans
        • Robot as “avatar” : a representation of or representation for the human
      Robot Emissary (from the animation “Animatrix”) Robot Doppelganger (Germinoid, by Hiroshi Ishiguro (right) )
    • 16. 1.4. Why Socially Interactive Robots? (2/3)
      • People want robots have social skills
        • develop their interaction skills themselves (learning machine)
        • support a wide range of users
        • Can be a part of single person’s life
      SAIL and Dav, Self-organizing Autonomous Incremental Learner
    • 17. 1.4. Why Socially Interactive Robots? (3/3)
      • So, robot designers try to…
        • Embed models of social behavior of humans in the robot
        • increase robot’s effectiveness
        • … for the robot as “natural” interaction partners
      Bender, your drinking partner (from the animation “Futurama”) Marvin, the paranoid android (from the movie “The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy”)
    • 18. Chapter2. Methodology 4 th Team Human Robot Interaction
    • 19. 2.1. Design Approaches Robot Shape Anthropomorphic Robot (Human-like interaction) Zoomorphic Robot (Creature-like interaction) Robot Feature Faces Speech Recognition Lip-Reading Skill Social Capacities Human Social Expectation enjoyable, feeling empowered, competent interaction
    • 20. 2.1. Design Approaches Biologically-inspired Robot Socially Intelligent Socially Interactive Functionally-designed Robot Functionally Structured Socially Interactive Design Methodology How are socially interactive robots built?
    • 21. 2.1.1. Biologically Inspired Robot - Cognitive, behavioral, motivational motor - Perceptual system - Primary Concepts - 1. Naturalistic Embodiment -> “life-like” activity 2. Direct Examination about basic scientific theories COG (MIT/ general purpose humanoid platform) Anthropology Structure of Interaction Cognitive Science Developmental Psychology Theory of Mind Ethology Interdisciplinary Research Sociology
    • 22. 2.1.1. Biologically Inspired Robot
      • Ethology
        • Observational study of animals in the natural setting
        • Natural types of activity -> life-like robot
        • Ex) AIBO
      • Structure of Interaction
        • Analysis of interactional structure
        • -> Key interaction patterns
        • -> Focus design of perception & cognition systems
        • Ex) ROBITA : Turn-Taking in dialogue
    • 23. 2.1.1. Biologically Inspired Robot
      • Theory of Mind ( 마음과학 )
        • Ex) Joint attention ( 상호주의하기 , selective attention to the object of mutual interest) -> gaze direction, pointing gestures
      • Developmental Psychology
        • Effective mechanism for creating robots that engage in natural social exchanges (dialogue)
        • Ex) Kismet’s “synthetic nervous system” <- Proto-conversational skill of human three-month infants with their caregiver (initiation, mutual-orientation, greeting, play-dialog, disengagement)
    • 24. 2.1.2. Functionally designed Robot Functionally Structured He is so intelligent and emotional!!! Socially Intelligent Functionally Designed Robot - Constrained operational and performance objectives Ex) restaurant robot - greeting, serving, cleaning… - Certain effects and experiences with the user Ex) greeting – joy serving – happiness mistake – sadness … function1 = happiness function2 = sadness function3 = anger function4 = fear
    • 25. 2.1.2. Functionally designed Robot
      • Motivations for functional design
        • Physical Limitation
          • Short-term interaction
          • Limited quality of interaction
          • Limited embodiment and capability of a robot
          • Constraint by the environment
        • Effects of Functional Design
          • Affordances (action possibilities) and usability can be improved even with the limited social expression. (recorded or scripted speech)
          • Artificial designs can provide compelling interaction. (video games and electronic toys)
    • 26. 2.1.2. Functionally designed Robot
      • Often Used Techniques
        • HCI
          • Robots are being developed using HCI tech.
          • cognitive modeling, contextual inquiry, heuristic evaluation, empirical user testing
        • Systems Engineering
          • Critical-path elements of design -> Effective and facilitated development and operation
          • Ex) A robot in highly structure domain needs navigation skills most importantly.
    • 27. 2.1.2. Functionally designed Robot
      • Often Used Techniques (continues)
        • Iterative Design
          • The process of revising a design through a series of test and redesign cycles
          • Ex) Willeke’s museum robots – design based on the lessons from preceding generations
    • 28. 2.2. Design Issues
      • Traditional Robot Design issues
        • Cognition- planning and decision making
        • Environment sensing and navigation
        • Actuation- mobility and manipulation
        • Interface, Inputs and display
        • System dynamics- control architecture, electro mechanics
    • 29. 2.2. Design Issues
      • Social Interaction Issues
      • Human oriented perception
        • Detecting and organizing gestures
        • Monitoring and classifying activity
        • Discerning intent
        • Measuring the feedback from human peers
      • Natural Human Robot Interaction
        • Believable behavior
        • Keep up with social norms
    • 30. 2.2. Design Issues
      • Social Interaction Issues
      • Readable social cues
        • Useful for expression and easy interaction
        • Social cues should be easy to understand
        • Expression, gestures or voice could be adopted
      • Real-Time performance
        • Should operate at human interaction rates
    • 31. 2.3. Embodiment
      • Concept of Embodiment
        • Extend to which a system can perturb the environment and get perturbed by the environment defines embodiment
        • Also looked upon as the complexity of interaction with the environment
        • The number of modes of interaction with the environment can also be a measure of the same
    • 32. 2.3.1. Morphology 2.3.3. Anthropomorphic 2.3.4. Zoomorphic
      • Factors affecting the impact and acceptance of a design
      • Morphology
        • Physical form has a great influence on the desirability, expressiveness and accessibility of a robot.
      • Anthropomorphic
        • Resembling human in form makes peer interaction easier and stronger.
        • Interaction with familiar forms are easier.
        • Appropriate balance of visual illusion and interactive functionality.
      • Zoomorphic
        • Entertainment robots and toy robots.
        • Avoiding Uncanny valley is easier as expectation is lower
    • 33. 2.3.2. Design Considerations
      • If its meant to do tasks for humanness it should portray product ness
      • If its meant for peer interaction Human ness is important
      • A considerable amount of robot ness should be maintained so as to prevent excess confidence in the robot’s abilities
      • A specific amount of familiarity is to be provided remembering the concept of uncanny valley
    • 34. 2.3.5. Caricatured 2.3.6. Functional
      • Caricatured
        • Its not essential to be realistic to be believable
        • But it can be used to focus or distract attention on to or away from certain robotic features.
      • Functionality – (Should be the primary concern)
        • Embodiment should reflect the task to be performed
        • Health care robots will have handles and carriage space
        • Toy robots should be cheap attractive and durable.
    • 35. 2.4. Emotion
      • Emotions play a significant role
        • In human behavior
        • Communication
        • Interaction
      • Theories used to describe emotions
        • Discrete categories
        • Continuous scales or basis dimensions
        • Componential theory: categories + dimensions
      • Why emotion is important?
        • People tend to treat computer as they treat other people
      Happy Sad Frustrated positive valence negative valence high arousal low arousal open stance closed stance
    • 36. 2.4.1. Artificial emotion
      • Artificial emotion used in social robots
        • Emotion helps HRI
        • Provide feedback to user
        • Act as a control mechanism
      • How robot display emotion?
        • From small DOF to many DOF
        • Kismet
    • 37. 2.4.2. Emotions as control mechanism
      • Determine control priority
        • Different behavior mode
        • Trigger learning and adaptation
      • Example – Sage
        • Person blocking Sage’s path
      [frustrated] “I am giving a tour to these visitors right now. Please let me continue!” [happy] playful and enticing, engaging the visitor and inviting the person on a tour
    • 38. 2.4.3. Speech
      • Emotional speech
        • Effective method for communicating
        • Parameters
          • Loudness
          • Pitch: level, variation, range
          • Prosody
      • Kismet’s vocalization system
    • 39.
      • Shortage of facial expression
        • Limitation of mechanical design
          • Abrupt change  rarely occurs in nature
      • Mechanical approach
        • Varies with DOF of actuators
        • Feelix, Kismet, Saya
      • Computer grahpic approach
        • Vikia
      2.4.4. Facial Expression fear surprise anger neutral sadness happy
    • 40. 2.4.5 Body language
      • Importance of body language
        • 90% of gesture occur during speech
        • Strong tendency to be cued by body language
      • Emotional body movements
        • Anger
        • Fear
        • Happiness
        • Sadness
        • Surprise
    • 41. Thank You ! Human Robot Interaction

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