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  • Ant-like robots(early 1990s) Robot collectives have been developed Robots have been used for studying social insect behavior Ant-like robot is Social robot?
  • 2. Natural cues.. : gaze, gesture
  • COG : General purpose humanoid platform which is intended for exploring theories and models of intelligent behavior and learning

4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt 4조_SociallyInteractiveRobots_.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • A Survey of socially interactive robots Ansi (Sang-ik An) Bear (Geonhyeok Go) SJ (Sujung Han) HARI (Hari Sankar) BK (Byoungkil Han) Human Robot Interaction 4 th Team
  • Contents Introduction CH1 Methodology CH2 1.1. The history of social robots 1.2. Social robots and social embeddedness: concepts and definitions 1.3. The history of social robots 1.4. Why socially interactive robots? 2.1. Design approaches 2.2. Design issues 2.3. Embodiment 2.4. Emotion
  • Chapter1. Introduction Human Robot Interaction 4 th Team
  • 1.1. The history of social robots
    • Individual social robots vs. Group social collective robots
  • 1.1. The history of social robots
    • Biologically inspired robots -> Possibility of interaction robot & environment
    • robot & robot
    • Walter’s robotic tortoises, Elmer and Elsie (late 1940s)
    • : No explicit communication or mutual recognition
  • 1.1. The history of social robots
    • Group -oriented social robots
      • Collective or swarm robot behavior
      • Ant-like robots(early 1990s)
      • Multi-robot or distributed robotic systems
      • Maximizing benefit through collective action
      • Behavior inspired by social insect societies
      • Societies : anonymous, homogeneous groups
        • Individuals do not matter
    Sentinel, Matrix Khepera robots foraging for “food”
  • 1.1. The history of social robots
    • Individual social robots
      • Individualized societies( Individual matters ) : mammals
      • Individuals live in groups, form relationships and social networks, create alliances
      • Stick to societal norms and conventions
    Early “individual” social robots: “getting to know each other” (left) and learning by imitation (right)
  • 1.1. The history of social robots
    • Social robots
      • Embodied agents that are part of a heterogeneous group
      • Recognize each other
      • Engage in social interactions
      • Possess histories
      • Explicitly communicate with and learn from each other
    Proposed by “Dautenhahan” and “Billiard”
    • 4 classes of social robots(by Breazeal) + 3 classes added
      • Socially evocative
        • Human-like, anthropomorphic
      • Social interface
        • Natural interface by human-like social cues and communication modalities
      • Socially receptive
        • Learning from interaction
      • Sociable
        • Pro-actively engaging with humans in order to satisfy internal social aims
    1.2. Social robots and social embeddedness : concepts and definitions Sparky
  • 1.2. Social robots and social embeddedness : concepts and definitions
    • 4 classes of social robots (by Breazeal) + 3 classes added
      • Socially situated
        • Distinguish between other social agents and various objects in the environments
      • Socially embedded
        • Structurally coupled with social environment
        • Partially aware of human interactional structures
      • Socially intelligent
        • Human style social intelligence
    R2-D2 and C-3PO from Star Wars
  • 1.3. Socially Interactive Robots (1/4)
    • Focus on peer-to-peer HRI
      • Robots with “human social” characteristics : emotion, dialogue, relationship, natural communication, personality, and learning
    From B.J. Fogg, Persuasive Technology : Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do
  • 1.3. Socially Interactive Robots (2/4)
    • Focus on peer-to-peer HRI
      • common assumption : “humans prefer to interact with machines in the same way that they interact with real people ”
    When your computer doesn’t work…
  • 1.3. Socially Interactive Robots (3/4)
    • Robot as partners, peers or assistants
      • adaptability and flexibility with a wide range of humans
      • Used as research platforms, as toys, as educational tools, or as therapeutic aids
    (from P.S. Fiske “Put Your Science to Work”)
  • 1.3. Socially Interactive Robots (4/4)
    • Human as designer, observer and interaction partner
      • Requires considering the human in the loop
      • From simple reaction to human behavior, to relying on humans’ mental states and emotions
    From P. Persson et al., Understanding Socially Intelligent Agents – A Multilayered Phenomenon
  • 1.4. Why Socially Interactive Robots? (1/3)
    • Application domain
      • Robot as “persuasive machine” : used to change the behavior, feelings or attitudes of humans
      • Robot as “avatar” : a representation of or representation for the human
    Robot Emissary (from the animation “Animatrix”) Robot Doppelganger (Germinoid, by Hiroshi Ishiguro (right) )
  • 1.4. Why Socially Interactive Robots? (2/3)
    • People want robots have social skills
      • develop their interaction skills themselves (learning machine)
      • support a wide range of users
      • Can be a part of single person’s life
    SAIL and Dav, Self-organizing Autonomous Incremental Learner
  • 1.4. Why Socially Interactive Robots? (3/3)
    • So, robot designers try to…
      • Embed models of social behavior of humans in the robot
      • increase robot’s effectiveness
      • … for the robot as “natural” interaction partners
    Bender, your drinking partner (from the animation “Futurama”) Marvin, the paranoid android (from the movie “The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy”)
  • Chapter2. Methodology 4 th Team Human Robot Interaction
  • 2.1. Design Approaches Robot Shape Anthropomorphic Robot (Human-like interaction) Zoomorphic Robot (Creature-like interaction) Robot Feature Faces Speech Recognition Lip-Reading Skill Social Capacities Human Social Expectation enjoyable, feeling empowered, competent interaction
  • 2.1. Design Approaches Biologically-inspired Robot Socially Intelligent Socially Interactive Functionally-designed Robot Functionally Structured Socially Interactive Design Methodology How are socially interactive robots built?
  • 2.1.1. Biologically Inspired Robot - Cognitive, behavioral, motivational motor - Perceptual system - Primary Concepts - 1. Naturalistic Embodiment -> “life-like” activity 2. Direct Examination about basic scientific theories COG (MIT/ general purpose humanoid platform) Anthropology Structure of Interaction Cognitive Science Developmental Psychology Theory of Mind Ethology Interdisciplinary Research Sociology
  • 2.1.1. Biologically Inspired Robot
    • Ethology
      • Observational study of animals in the natural setting
      • Natural types of activity -> life-like robot
      • Ex) AIBO
    • Structure of Interaction
      • Analysis of interactional structure
      • -> Key interaction patterns
      • -> Focus design of perception & cognition systems
      • Ex) ROBITA : Turn-Taking in dialogue
  • 2.1.1. Biologically Inspired Robot
    • Theory of Mind ( 마음과학 )
      • Ex) Joint attention ( 상호주의하기 , selective attention to the object of mutual interest) -> gaze direction, pointing gestures
    • Developmental Psychology
      • Effective mechanism for creating robots that engage in natural social exchanges (dialogue)
      • Ex) Kismet’s “synthetic nervous system” <- Proto-conversational skill of human three-month infants with their caregiver (initiation, mutual-orientation, greeting, play-dialog, disengagement)
  • 2.1.2. Functionally designed Robot Functionally Structured He is so intelligent and emotional!!! Socially Intelligent Functionally Designed Robot - Constrained operational and performance objectives Ex) restaurant robot - greeting, serving, cleaning… - Certain effects and experiences with the user Ex) greeting – joy serving – happiness mistake – sadness … function1 = happiness function2 = sadness function3 = anger function4 = fear
  • 2.1.2. Functionally designed Robot
    • Motivations for functional design
      • Physical Limitation
        • Short-term interaction
        • Limited quality of interaction
        • Limited embodiment and capability of a robot
        • Constraint by the environment
      • Effects of Functional Design
        • Affordances (action possibilities) and usability can be improved even with the limited social expression. (recorded or scripted speech)
        • Artificial designs can provide compelling interaction. (video games and electronic toys)
  • 2.1.2. Functionally designed Robot
    • Often Used Techniques
      • HCI
        • Robots are being developed using HCI tech.
        • cognitive modeling, contextual inquiry, heuristic evaluation, empirical user testing
      • Systems Engineering
        • Critical-path elements of design -> Effective and facilitated development and operation
        • Ex) A robot in highly structure domain needs navigation skills most importantly.
  • 2.1.2. Functionally designed Robot
    • Often Used Techniques (continues)
      • Iterative Design
        • The process of revising a design through a series of test and redesign cycles
        • Ex) Willeke’s museum robots – design based on the lessons from preceding generations
  • 2.2. Design Issues
    • Traditional Robot Design issues
      • Cognition- planning and decision making
      • Environment sensing and navigation
      • Actuation- mobility and manipulation
      • Interface, Inputs and display
      • System dynamics- control architecture, electro mechanics
  • 2.2. Design Issues
    • Social Interaction Issues
    • Human oriented perception
      • Detecting and organizing gestures
      • Monitoring and classifying activity
      • Discerning intent
      • Measuring the feedback from human peers
    • Natural Human Robot Interaction
      • Believable behavior
      • Keep up with social norms
  • 2.2. Design Issues
    • Social Interaction Issues
    • Readable social cues
      • Useful for expression and easy interaction
      • Social cues should be easy to understand
      • Expression, gestures or voice could be adopted
    • Real-Time performance
      • Should operate at human interaction rates
  • 2.3. Embodiment
    • Concept of Embodiment
      • Extend to which a system can perturb the environment and get perturbed by the environment defines embodiment
      • Also looked upon as the complexity of interaction with the environment
      • The number of modes of interaction with the environment can also be a measure of the same
  • 2.3.1. Morphology 2.3.3. Anthropomorphic 2.3.4. Zoomorphic
    • Factors affecting the impact and acceptance of a design
    • Morphology
      • Physical form has a great influence on the desirability, expressiveness and accessibility of a robot.
    • Anthropomorphic
      • Resembling human in form makes peer interaction easier and stronger.
      • Interaction with familiar forms are easier.
      • Appropriate balance of visual illusion and interactive functionality.
    • Zoomorphic
      • Entertainment robots and toy robots.
      • Avoiding Uncanny valley is easier as expectation is lower
  • 2.3.2. Design Considerations
    • If its meant to do tasks for humanness it should portray product ness
    • If its meant for peer interaction Human ness is important
    • A considerable amount of robot ness should be maintained so as to prevent excess confidence in the robot’s abilities
    • A specific amount of familiarity is to be provided remembering the concept of uncanny valley
  • 2.3.5. Caricatured 2.3.6. Functional
    • Caricatured
      • Its not essential to be realistic to be believable
      • But it can be used to focus or distract attention on to or away from certain robotic features.
    • Functionality – (Should be the primary concern)
      • Embodiment should reflect the task to be performed
      • Health care robots will have handles and carriage space
      • Toy robots should be cheap attractive and durable.
  • 2.4. Emotion
    • Emotions play a significant role
      • In human behavior
      • Communication
      • Interaction
    • Theories used to describe emotions
      • Discrete categories
      • Continuous scales or basis dimensions
      • Componential theory: categories + dimensions
    • Why emotion is important?
      • People tend to treat computer as they treat other people
    Happy Sad Frustrated positive valence negative valence high arousal low arousal open stance closed stance
  • 2.4.1. Artificial emotion
    • Artificial emotion used in social robots
      • Emotion helps HRI
      • Provide feedback to user
      • Act as a control mechanism
    • How robot display emotion?
      • From small DOF to many DOF
      • Kismet
  • 2.4.2. Emotions as control mechanism
    • Determine control priority
      • Different behavior mode
      • Trigger learning and adaptation
    • Example – Sage
      • Person blocking Sage’s path
    [frustrated] “I am giving a tour to these visitors right now. Please let me continue!” [happy] playful and enticing, engaging the visitor and inviting the person on a tour
  • 2.4.3. Speech
    • Emotional speech
      • Effective method for communicating
      • Parameters
        • Loudness
        • Pitch: level, variation, range
        • Prosody
    • Kismet’s vocalization system
    • Shortage of facial expression
      • Limitation of mechanical design
        • Abrupt change  rarely occurs in nature
    • Mechanical approach
      • Varies with DOF of actuators
      • Feelix, Kismet, Saya
    • Computer grahpic approach
      • Vikia
    2.4.4. Facial Expression fear surprise anger neutral sadness happy
  • 2.4.5 Body language
    • Importance of body language
      • 90% of gesture occur during speech
      • Strong tendency to be cued by body language
    • Emotional body movements
      • Anger
      • Fear
      • Happiness
      • Sadness
      • Surprise
  • Thank You ! Human Robot Interaction