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  1. 1. Department of Computer Science City College of New York Spring 2006 Copyright © 2006 by Abbe Mowshowitz CSc 375 SOCIAL ISSUES IN COMPUTING
  2. 2. TOPIC 14. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>Intellectual Challenge to Human Identity </li></ul>1. “Man is nothing but a meat machine.” - Marvin Minsky
  3. 3. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>Intellectual Challenge to Human Identity </li></ul><ul><li>2. Strong form of Church’s Thesis: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Any effective procedure can be programmed on a computer. AND Everything humans can do can be expressed as effective procedures.
  4. 4. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>A. Intellectual Challenge to Human Identity </li></ul><ul><li>3. Turing Test (Alan Turing. “Computing machinery and intelligence, 1950.): reformulation of the question “can machines think?” </li></ul>
  5. 5. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>A.3. Turing Test </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the “Imitation Game” in which </li></ul><ul><li>Human interrogator converses by means of a tele-typewriter with two unidentified respondents </li></ul><ul><li>- one a machine </li></ul><ul><li>- one a person </li></ul><ul><li>Object: distinguish between person and machine </li></ul>
  6. 6. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>A.3. Turing Test </li></ul>If in repeated trials with different human subjects, the interrogator cannot distinguish with better than 50% accuracy, the machine is said to simulate human intelligence.
  7. 7. Japanese scientists have unveiled a &quot;female&quot; android called Repliee Q1. Source: BBCNews, July 28, 2005 “ Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University says one day robots could fool us into believing they are human .”
  8. 8. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>A. Intellectual Challenge to Human Identity </li></ul><ul><li>4. Information processing model (Simon and Newell, 1964) </li></ul><ul><li>a. Science of information processing (IP) can be independent of particular IP mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>b. Thinking can be explained in IP terms </li></ul><ul><li>c. IP theories can be formulated in programming languages and simulated on computer </li></ul>
  9. 9. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>B. Practical Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Simon’s continuum of behavior: </li></ul><ul><li>Capabilities of computer applications have been moving steadily toward the non-programmed end since the 1960s </li></ul>PROGRAMMED NON-PROGRAMMED
  10. 10. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>C. Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth pushed from center stage by the heliocentric theory of Copernicus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans linked to apes by Darwin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denied conscious control by Freud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now AI would turn us into machines without free will </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>D. Challenge Posed by AI </li></ul><ul><li>1. Until 1980s AI was an obscure academic discipline </li></ul><ul><li>2. Support for research came mostly from government (DoD in the US) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent command and control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guidance for automatic weapons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spying, reconnaissance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>D.2. Support </li></ul><ul><li>spying/reconnaissance calls for: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural language processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speech recognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Image processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: unmanned, armored tank; automated co-pilot </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>D. Challenge Posed by AI </li></ul><ul><li>4. AI in the spotlight </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan Fifth Generation Computer Project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Announced 1980 by MITI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Projected as 10 year $500 m. program </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed to develop revolutionary computer systems incorporating AI concepts: problem solving functions, intelligent interfaces, inference & knowledge-based functions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>D.4. AI in the spotlight </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. answer to Fifth Generation Project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DARPA’s Strategic Computing Program </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$600 m. funding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Envisioned developing AI systems and advanced computer technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>D. Commercial Developments in AI </li></ul><ul><li>1. Emergence of start-up firms marketing expert systems with </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge base containing rules of thumb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inference engine that makes decisions based on rules in a specialized domain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Major challenge: capturing knowledge of human expert and embedding in system (knowledge engineering) </li></ul>
  16. 16. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>D. Commercial Developments in AI </li></ul><ul><li>2. Expert system applications are now widespread (e.g., authorizer’s assistant) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Motivation: reduce labor costs, provide consistent performance </li></ul>
  17. 17. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>D. Differences in Cognitive Capabilities of Humans and Machines? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Affirmative answer calls for rejection of Church’s Thesis (e.g., Dreyfus’ argument based on need for a body) </li></ul><ul><li>2. What cannot be done today may be realized tomorrow? </li></ul>
  18. 18. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>E. Ethical Implications of AI </li></ul><ul><li>1. Robots and ‘ethical brakes’ </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., Asimov’s three laws of robotics) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Are there areas of application that should be off limits to machines? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment in criminal cases? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>F. Literary Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>1. Background </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early Post WW II period </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated by the first computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Themes echo those in science fiction and futuristic literature </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>F.2. Central Figures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capek’s R.U.R. ( Rossum’s Universal Robots ), 1923 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Czech word “robota” means work </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robots limited in action by design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually obedient servants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>F.2. Central Figures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Androids (or humanoids): living beings not created by human birth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computers: based loosely on contemporary machines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrids (cyborgs): mixed organic and computer components </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Distinctions hard to maintain in practice. </li></ul>
  22. 22. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>F.3. Major Themes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dehumanization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over-reliance on machines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disregard of human needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive standardization and inflexibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identity crisis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superfluity (nothing to do) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myth of regeneration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>F.3. Major Themes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence of human impulses (especially in negative utopias) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unanticipated consequences (Pandora’s Box) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and power (cosmic mind, computer as God) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forbidden knowledge and the Word of God </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sorcerer’s apprentice, Golem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computers as adjunct to social power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>F.3. Major Themes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partnership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human-robot interaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis of man and machine into higher entity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. HUMAN MACHINES <ul><li>F. Literary Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>4. Views and attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ambivalence towards technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machine take-over of human functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety over role of humans in society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of diminished human worth and dignity </li></ul></ul></ul>