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  • http://www.ne.jp/asahi/art/dorian/R/Raphael/Athens.htm 1510年頃、ラファエロ27歳の作品。 『アテネの学堂』とは、ルネサンスの知的理想の源である古代哲学の世界を表している。 想像上の古典的な建築の、巨大な半円筒形の天井の下で、古代の有名な哲学者たちがそれぞれの流派の哲学を論じているところである。

04harashima3eng.ppt 04harashima3eng.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Global Focus on Knowledge Lecture Series Information Changes the World #4 Why Information Technology Now ? the 3rd day Hiroshi Harashima
  • Information Foundation Information Society Information Machinery Word Computer Printing Network Multimedia Personal Computer Communication Internet Database Simulation Virtual Reality Search Engine Mobile Ubiquitous Artificial Inteligence Life Brain Cyborg Community Medical System Net Society Information Explosion e-administration Electric Money Information Economics Globalization Environment Industry Robot Body Expression Physicality Contents Media Art Entertainment Movie Music New Art “ Otaku” Culture Museum Intellectual Property Journalism Picture Cognition Information Changes the World   - the Global View - Ikuo Takeuchi “ Interface of Information and Art” Information Culture Osamu Sudo “ Information Explosion and Creation of New Network Society” Tomomasa Sato “ Robot, Information and Life” Knowledge of Information Hiroshi Harashima “ Why Information Technology Now?” Hiroshi Komiyama “ The University and Information”  - Information Changes Learning - Paper Telecommunication Information Gap Security Public Media Information Distribution Science Calculation Anime Game Drama Public Art Education Manga Film WEB2.0 Intelligent Robot Android Digital Human Mass Media Environmental Robot Neural Network Industrial production Ultimate Frontier Robot Life-supporting Robot Cell Production-supporting Robot Industrial Robot
  •   Basic Theme Now, information technology is in a drastic developmental progress. Let us see this in terms of 10 years, 100 years and 1000 years. Why is this ?
  • How would a historian after 1000 years write about today ’ s development of information technology in his book?
  • Observing progress of IT in terms of 100 years … Let’s review the last lecture.
  • Competition for Dominance of the World ・ Domination of the Land     Mongol (13-14c), Ottoman Turks(15-16c) ・ Domination of the Sea   ( sailing )     Spain ・ Portugal (16c), Netherlands (17c)   France ・ England (18c) ・ Domination of Network   ( information technology ) - industrial revolution -  ( railroad technology ) ・ Domination of the Sky   ( aviation/ space technology )     the World War   England, France, USA vs Germany, Italy, Japan   the Cold War   USA vs Soviet
  • In the past, England who won out in the age of sea had experienced industrial revolution.   21 st century, the age of information, has started as the age of the USA. Now, the USA who won out in the age of sky experienced informational revolution.
  • But would this age last long? How would the 21 st century be?
  • Club of Rome (1972) resource population production pollution many few The 21st Century would be a troublesome age .
  • hands -> machinery Progressed for improvement of production, and only toward quantitative enhancement of human’s abilities The “Superman” Technology Past Technologies legs -> transportation eyes, ears -> media brain -> computer As a matter of course, Superman expends a huge amount of energy.
  • Tatsuo Motokawa “Time of Elephant, Time of Rat” Chuko Shinsho Energy consumption at rest is proportional to the power 3/4. Fig.3-1 Relationship between metabolism and bodyweight (mammals).Unit of basic metabolism is watt. The watt is equal to one joule of energy per second. Bodyweight (kg) Basic Metabolism (watt) rat mouse cat monkey dog goat guinea pig chimpanzee sheep human elephant horse wild boar sow cow ox
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  • American diet     3 billion In the late 21 st century, population on the Earth will rise above 10 billion. Population Expansivity of the Earth Japanese diet     5 billion developing countries’ diet   10 billion The American model of mass consumption does not work in the 21 st century.
  • Maybe, a book of history after 1000 years would write about the modern age as follows.
  • resource population production pollution many few The 20 th Century and the early 21 st Century was the bubble age. The Industrial Revolution provided humans with technology to use up earth resources in industrial production. Humans prospered instantaneously in this period by chewing up the Earth. Humans had to deal with the aftermath of this in the late 21 st Century.
  • Had such bubble and collapse ever happened in the past ?
  • Demographic Change in Europe It happened in the 14-15 th century!
  • Demographic Change in Europe European economy developed steadily in the 12, 13 th Century, but the change came in the 14, 15 th Century. Climate instability such as cold temperature and long rain, poor harvest, starvation, war, and epidemics devastated European societies. Population decreased and villages vanished one after another. The 14 th and 15 th Century was the worst age in the European history. During this collapse, social structure of Europe in manorialism underwent a great change. Plague Epidemic Plague Patients’ Nurse warmed patients’ bed with charcoal fire The Crisis in the 14 th and 15 th Century Europe
  •  
  • Demographic Change in Europe European economy developed steadily in the 12, 13 th Century, but the change came in the 14, 15 th Century. Climate instability such as cold temperature and long rain, poor harvest, starvation, war, and epidemics devastated European societies. Population decreased and villages vanished one after another. The 14 th and 15 th Century was the worst age in the European history. During this collapse, social structure of Europe in manorialism underwent a great change. Plague Epidemic Plague Patients’ Nurse warmed patients’ bed with charcoal fire The Crisis in the 14 th and 15 th Century Europe
  • Medieval time 4-10 th Century Started from volkerwanderung   Germanean   Normanean Modern times 15-17 th Century Started from geographical discovery   Spain, Portugal,     Netherlands, France, England 11-13 th Century Enhancement of Vaticanism Agricultural technology revolution   Reclamation of the continent led by churches and monasteries 14-15 th Century Destruction of ecosystem Plague epidemic Famine, Wars 18-20 th Century Prosperity of modern science Industrial revolution   Wide development of the Earth led by industries 21 st Century Destruction of ecosystem, environment, energy risk Starvation? War?
  • History repeats in the perspective of civilization.
  • Civilization has life-span. Acquisition of technology   ↓ Improvement in productivity, population increase      ↓ Wastage of natural resources, environment deterioration   ↓ Depression in productivity, population decrease   ↓ Starvation, epidemic, civil war   ↓ The end of civilization
  • Period of Woods and Prairie ( Prehistoric Times )   The birth of humans ( upright walking), food-gathering, hunting   Period of Cities ( Ancient Times )   agriculture, cattle breeding, formation of cities Period of Continents ( Medieval Times )   volkerwanderung, reclamation of lands, plague epidemic Period of the Earth ( Modern Times )   geographical discovery, global development, ecological destruction Period Division
  • Now, the modern age ( the period of the Earth) is coming to an end. What kind of age would come next? All the civilization had its life-span since Tigris and Euphrates.    ->  New civilization had been built on newly found continents. In the modern times, we built civilization on whole earth. Now, there is no more continent on the Earth.
  • So, what should we do?
  • After “The Period of the Earth” Comes “The Period of Space” Space boom (first landing on moon) in the late 20 th century was maybe a preparation for this. Can technology catch up? Is there an utopia in the outer space? SF predicted the period of space.
  • If there is no new continent ( new planet ) in the space, we have to look for a new continent on the Earth. The information boom from the late 20 th century to the early 21 st century was maybe a preparation for this. One possibility is the construction of “ a new information continent” that needs no resource or energy.
  • Anyway, what we need now is “ technology to sustain the Earth”. toward a perfect recycling-based society
  • A perfect control toward energy and resources saving       ->  Realize perfect recycling    ->  Stop wasting energy Information technology would be a key technology to sustain the Earth. Networking all the contents on the Earth          ↓ Networking all the “materials” on the Earth
  • In the 20-21 st century, development of information technology was thought to have nothing to do with energy and resources. However, there was a close relationship between information technology and energy. In the 21 st century, humans challenged to sustain the Earth by information technology, and succeeded in constructing “the New Continent of Information” that does not consume any material nor energy. The history book after 1000 years might say …
  • Would this be a real solution? There might be some other thing which is more important. Maybe, this is only a temporary life extension. However …
  • The important thing now is to change the quality of civilization.
  • Let’s look back again on the history.
  • How is beginning of the modern age written in a history textbook? The Modern Society Formation of modern civil society Renaissance Geographical discovery Reformation
  • During transition from medieval times to modern times, there were great changes in conception of humans and values.    Renaissance, Religious Reformation Thoughts and philosophy which become leading principles in the next period prosper in revolutionary times.
  • Period of Woods and Prairie ( Prehistoric Times )   The birth of humans ( upright walking), food-gathering, hunting   Period of Cities ( Ancient Times )   agriculture, cattle breeding, formation of cities Period of Continents ( Medieval Times )   volkerwanderung, reclamation of lands, plague epidemic Period of the Earth ( Modern Times )   geographical discovery, global development, ecological destruction Period Division Renaissance, religious reformation, modern rationalism Hellenic culture, Roman culture, 3 major religions
  • Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) the man who had both total knowledge and sensitivity knowledge
  • Knowledge to judge right, good, and beauty total knowledge Knowledge to overview the whole sensitivity knowledge Now, a person who has both total knowledge and sensitivity knowledge is needed.
  • Can anyone be a Da Vinci now? A question. Leonardo Da Vinci could have both total knowledge and sensitivity knowledge alone because it was 500 years ago. This is far impossible now!
  • Da Vinci Today A single person cannot be a Da Vinci. But if experts from various fields collaborate, they can be a Da Vinci as a group.
  • It is the age for Da Vinci as a group.
  • University is a group of knowledge. If there is a system for all campus to collaborate with each other, an university can be a Da Vinci.
  • The new academic institution where humanities and sciences cross each borders   The University of Tokyo Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies (Founded in 2000)
  • And more … Junichi Hamada / Tohru Nishigaki / Hidetaka Ishida / Akira Baba / Yuhei Yamauchi / Masato Ishizaki … People in iii humanitiessciences fine arts non-classified … Kang Sang-jung social thought Osamu Sakura evolutionary biology Yoichiro Kawaguchi CG artist Katsushi Ikeuchi computer vision Shunya Yoshimi cultural studies Shin Mizukoshi media studies TRON , ubiquitous computing Ken Sakamura Osamu Sudoh electric society
  • “ Scuola d’Atene” Rafaello Vatican, Stanza della Segnatura, Rome For the new scuola
  • Summary
  • Progress in information technology gave birth to new thoughts and philosophy. Ancient times->Medieval times Invention of paper ( BC 2) 3 Major Religions ( Buddhism, Christianity, Islamism) Medieval times->Modern times Gutenberg printing press (1447) Renaissance, Reformation, Modern rationalism Modern times-> ?? Computer (1946) , Internet (1969) ?????
  • Environment got set. Information technology such as internet will create new values.
  • You are the next leaders.
  • End
  • Thank you for listening these 3 lectures.
  • Dr. Fujiwara, Dr. Yoshimi, Dr. Tanaka, Dr. Kitsuregawa and Ms. Otaki Thank you!