Newark is amongst the leaders of cities in the United States tackling the issue of child lead poisoning.
Model Basic BTW Presentation
OVERVIEW Problem: The difficulty in eradicating lead poisoning. Population: The lead poisoned patients of The University Hospital. Models: Newark Lead Poisoning Prevention and Control Program The Treatment of Lead-Exposed Children Clinical Trial Plan: A monthly community workshop for lead poisoned University Hospital patients and their families. Patron: The University Hospital’s Lead Poisoning Program Price: $18,200
Where does lead poisoning comefrom? Today exposure to the toxin is due to paint and dust. Lead’s use in paint was not prohibited by the government until 1978. A vast amount of American homes are over 100 years old. (Mahoney, 1990)
Who is affected? The majority of lead poisoning cases are known to be in poor areas consisting of low-income families and devastating housing. Areas like these lack the money not only for lead removal but also for nutrition and legal action. Calcium for example has the ability to block lead absorption. However children living in poor areas lack sufficient calcium intake. (Bruening, 1999) Children are more affected by lead than adults are. Why? hand-to-mouth activity A child’s gut absorbs lead more readily than an adult’s. The developing CNS is less tolerant of toxicants than the mature CNS. The mere exposure of kids to lead paint surroundings, without the child necessarily eating paint chips, can cause lifelong affliction. (Needleman, 2003)
Effects of Lead Poisoning neurological damage mental retardation cerebral palsy seizures visual-motor deficiencies behavioral problems (Mahoney, 1990, p.50). Lead poisoned children are more likely to do poorly in or drop out of school. (Needleman, 2003)
Negative teachers’ ratings in relation to dentin lead concentrations 45 40 35 % Reported by Teachers 30 <5.1 (ppm) 25 5.1-8.1 (ppm) 20 8.2-11.8 (ppm) 11.9-17.1 (ppm) 15 17.2-27.0 (ppm) 10 >27.0 (ppm) 5 0 Distractible Day Dreamer Low Overall Functioning (Needleman, 2003)
Remove all lead paint. This is the best and only way to eradicate lead from homes. However it would cost a great deal to do so. The removal of lead paint needs to be done professionally. Temporary housing would need to be supplied for families during the process. Total costs are therefore in the thousands per household. Implementation of a law in order to speed up the process of lead removal has been an issue because the government does not know whether a law should be enforced on the tenant, owner or the tax payers. (Mahoney, 1990)
Besides prevention what otheroption is there? The medical approach CDC’s Action Level for uses children as the Blood Lead in Children lead detectors. 70 Medical action is not considered 60 until children test positive for lead. 50 ug/dL 40 30 20 10 Children must meet 0 CDC standards in order to be treated. (U.S. Department of Human Services, Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, 1992)
Let us take a look atNewark. Newark has been tackling the issue of lead poisoning since 1969. The Newark Lead Poisoning Prevention and Control Program (1972-1980) The Treatment of Lead-Exposed Children clinical trial (1994-2003) Lead Poisoning Program at The University Hospital
The Newark Lead PoisoningPrevention and ControlProgram Admission Rates by Year of First It failed due to Admission per 10,000 Newark Children 1-6 Years of Age budget cuts and 30 Newark’s increase in25 poverty level. Admission 20 Rate 15 10 5 0(Schneider & Lavenhar, 1986) Year of Admission
Treatment of Lead-ExposedChildren (TLC) It was conducted in 4 total cities showing the highest rate of success in Newark. The following six guidelines are why the trial was a success in Newark. 1. Be accessible 2. Relate to the patient 3. Offer the patient consolation 4. Educate the patient 5. Keep the patient up to date 6. Implement a change in the patient’s lifestyle
Plan Start a monthly community workshop for lead poisoned University Hospital patients and their families. More efficient than hiring individual social workers. Patients’ and their families will be able to offer consultation, advice and friendship to one another. They are also more likely to relate to one another than to a social worker.
Costs 12 Workshops/year Facilitators……………………$12,000 Refreshments………………..$1,200 Activity Essentials…………...$5,000 Space…………………………$0 Provided by the city of Newark TOTAL: $18,200 (estimations made based on 100 workshop members)
Patron The Lead Poisoning Program at The University Hospital headed by Dr. Steven M. Marcus The addition of the workshop would complete the 6 guidelines for the lead poisoning program and therefore improve treatment outcomes.