Can Open Data lead to      Open Government?      An investigation of the state of Canadian      municipal government open ...
What is Open Government?                          A movement towards                          creating a government that  ...
What is Open Data?                  “A piece of content or data is open if anyone is                  free to use, reuse, ...
What is Open Data?                          1. Access (free, convenient)                          2. Redistribution (shari...
open.gc.ca action plan                          • Availability of Information                          • Citizen Participa...
http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/                                TransparencyandOpenGovernmentFriday, 30 November,...
Friday, 30 November, 12
http://www.regionofwaterloo.ca/en/    regionalGovernment/OpenDataCatalogue.asp           http://ottawa.ca/en/city_hall/sta...
http://resto-net.caFriday, 30 November, 12
Bus Buddy vs.  OC Transpo official               appFriday, 30 November, 12
Friday, 30 November, 12
Scope of Open Data in                Canadian Municipalities                    •     Preliminary web research on formats,...
Q: How ‘open’ is open                data?                 • Data format/file type                  • open or proprietary? ...
Format Frequency n=139               20                             19                                   18               ...
Open           ClosedFriday, 30 November, 12
Open           ClosedFriday, 30 November, 12
“Open” vs. “Closed” Format n=124                          80                                  74                          ...
Open           ClosedFriday, 30 November, 12
Expert                          Non-expertFriday, 30 November, 12
Format Frequency n=124                           90                                   87                          67.5    ...
Format Frequency n=124                                 Usable    Readable                           90                    ...
License Characteristics          • Set the terms for:           • Access           • Type of use permitted           • Use...
Access          • Is open data offered?           • n = 20          • Price           • Free vs. $?                        ...
Type of use permitted          • Can modify or                  make derivatives          • Commercial use          • Can ...
User Responsibilities          • Attribution                  required                                                 Yes...
User Responsibilities          • Attribution                  required          • Track usage                    Yes      ...
User Responsibilities          • Attribution                  required          • Track usage          • Share-alike      ...
Liability          • Misrepresentation                  of data provider                  clause                 No       ...
Liability          • Misrepresentation                  of data provider                  clause          • Provider retai...
Liability          • Misrepresentation                  of data provider                  clause          •       Provider...
Free ≠ OpenFriday, 30 November, 12
Free ≠ Open                          Free          Open                    Published          Reusable                    ...
Municipal                          Open Data             Educational Institutions                                         ...
open.gc.ca action plan                          • Availability of Information                          • Citizen Participa...
http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/                                TransparencyandOpenGovernmentFriday, 30 November,...
Municipal                          Open Data             Educational Institutions                                         ...
Municipal                          Open Data              Educational Institutions                                        ...
Municipal                          Open Data              Educational Institutions                                        ...
Municipal                          Open Data              Educational Institutions                                        ...
Elected Government                               Municipal                               Open Data                        ...
Open data as a                participatory conduit                    • 2 ways:                     • citizen sensors - i...
Benefits                    • Update cycles reduced                    • Citizens inform data and data                     ...
Challenges                    • Most Open data is not suited for a mass                          audience                 ...
Elected Government                               Municipal                               Open Data                        ...
Elected Government                               Municipal                               Open Data                        ...
Elected Government                             volunteerism       neoliberalization            privacy                    ...
Elected Government                             volunteerism       neoliberalization            privacy                    ...
Thank You - and have a happy             GIS Day!              For more information:              geothink.ca             ...
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Can Open Data lead to Open Government?

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This is a presentation given at GIS Day 2012, at the University of Waterloo by Dr. Peter A. Johnson.

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Can Open Data lead to Open Government?

  1. 1. Can Open Data lead to Open Government? An investigation of the state of Canadian municipal government open data portals Peter A. Johnson GEM Departmental Lecture Series + GIS Day November 14th, 2012Friday, 30 November, 12
  2. 2. What is Open Government? A movement towards creating a government that is increasingly transparent, accountable, and engaged with citizens in its activities and policy formation.Friday, 30 November, 12
  3. 3. What is Open Data? “A piece of content or data is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike.” http://opendefinition.orgFriday, 30 November, 12
  4. 4. What is Open Data? 1. Access (free, convenient) 2. Redistribution (sharing) 3. Reuse (derivatives) 4. Absence of technological restriction (format) 5. Attribution 6. No discrimination of users or use http://opendefinition.org/okd/Friday, 30 November, 12
  5. 5. open.gc.ca action plan • Availability of Information • Citizen Participation • Professional Integrity • New Technologies for Openness and AccountabilityFriday, 30 November, 12
  6. 6. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/ TransparencyandOpenGovernmentFriday, 30 November, 12
  7. 7. Friday, 30 November, 12
  8. 8. http://www.regionofwaterloo.ca/en/ regionalGovernment/OpenDataCatalogue.asp http://ottawa.ca/en/city_hall/statisticsdata/opendata/info/index.htmFriday, 30 November, 12
  9. 9. http://resto-net.caFriday, 30 November, 12
  10. 10. Bus Buddy vs. OC Transpo official appFriday, 30 November, 12
  11. 11. Friday, 30 November, 12
  12. 12. Scope of Open Data in Canadian Municipalities • Preliminary web research on formats, licenses (27 organizations) • Identified 13 most developed municipal Open Data platforms in Canada - innovators • Follow-up telephone interviews with key development staff • objectives of initiative • development process (costs, time, policies, etc.) • use of open data in communications • evaluation of initiativeFriday, 30 November, 12
  13. 13. Q: How ‘open’ is open data? • Data format/file type • open or proprietary? • consumer or expert? • License type • currently no standard • range from restrictive to permissiveFriday, 30 November, 12
  14. 14. Format Frequency n=139 20 19 18 15 16 15 14 14 13 12 10 11 7 5 0 MZ le V r G S N ds F age he XL PD CS efi W SO e Im Fe Ot L/K ap F/D L/J G/ Sh KM XM DX JPEFriday, 30 November, 12
  15. 15. Open ClosedFriday, 30 November, 12
  16. 16. Open ClosedFriday, 30 November, 12
  17. 17. “Open” vs. “Closed” Format n=124 80 74 60 50 40 20 0 ats at rm rm Fo Fo sed en Op CloFriday, 30 November, 12
  18. 18. Open ClosedFriday, 30 November, 12
  19. 19. Expert Non-expertFriday, 30 November, 12
  20. 20. Format Frequency n=124 90 87 67.5 45 37 22.5 0 t t per er xp Ex n-e NoFriday, 30 November, 12
  21. 21. Format Frequency n=124 Usable Readable 90 87 67.5 45 37 22.5 0 t t per er xp Ex n-e NoFriday, 30 November, 12
  22. 22. License Characteristics • Set the terms for: • Access • Type of use permitted • User responsibilities • LiabilityFriday, 30 November, 12
  23. 23. Access • Is open data offered? • n = 20 • Price • Free vs. $? Yes 100% License Characteristic = FreeFriday, 30 November, 12
  24. 24. Type of use permitted • Can modify or make derivatives • Commercial use • Can redistribute Yes 100%Friday, 30 November, 12
  25. 25. User Responsibilities • Attribution required Yes 35% No 65% License Characteristic = AttributionFriday, 30 November, 12
  26. 26. User Responsibilities • Attribution required • Track usage Yes 10% No 90% License Characteristic = Track UsageFriday, 30 November, 12
  27. 27. User Responsibilities • Attribution required • Track usage • Share-alike Yes 40% No 60% License Characteristic = Share AlikeFriday, 30 November, 12
  28. 28. Liability • Misrepresentation of data provider clause No 20% Yes 80% License Characteristic = MisrepresentationFriday, 30 November, 12
  29. 29. Liability • Misrepresentation of data provider clause • Provider retains No ownership 45% Yes 55% License Characteristic = Retain OwnershipFriday, 30 November, 12
  30. 30. Liability • Misrepresentation of data provider clause • Provider retains Yes 35% ownership • Indemnity clause No 65% License Characteristic = IndemnityFriday, 30 November, 12
  31. 31. Free ≠ OpenFriday, 30 November, 12
  32. 32. Free ≠ Open Free Open Published Reusable Available Mashable Strings attached No strings Free like beer Free like speechFriday, 30 November, 12
  33. 33. Municipal Open Data Educational Institutions Average Citizen Community Groups Hacker/Developer Other Governments Corporations “Informational Approach”Friday, 30 November, 12
  34. 34. open.gc.ca action plan • Availability of Information • Citizen Participation • Professional Integrity • New Technologies for Openness and AccountabilityFriday, 30 November, 12
  35. 35. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/ TransparencyandOpenGovernmentFriday, 30 November, 12
  36. 36. Municipal Open Data Educational Institutions Average Citizen Community Groups Hacker/Developer Other Governments Corporations “Informational Approach”Friday, 30 November, 12
  37. 37. Municipal Open Data Educational Institutions Average Citizen Community Groups Hacker/Developer Other Governments Corporations “Participatory Approach”Friday, 30 November, 12
  38. 38. Municipal Open Data Educational Institutions Average Citizen Community Groups Hacker/Developer Other Governments Corporations “Participatory Approach”Friday, 30 November, 12
  39. 39. Municipal Open Data Educational Institutions Average Citizen Community Groups Hacker/Developer Other Governments Corporations “Participatory Approach”Friday, 30 November, 12
  40. 40. Elected Government Municipal Open Data Average CitizenFriday, 30 November, 12
  41. 41. Open data as a participatory conduit • 2 ways: • citizen sensors - improving, validating existing data • citizen partners - requested and spontaneous inputFriday, 30 November, 12
  42. 42. Benefits • Update cycles reduced • Citizens inform data and data informs decisions • Open data is an opportunity for conversationFriday, 30 November, 12
  43. 43. Challenges • Most Open data is not suited for a mass audience • Technical issues of concurrency, quality, identity verification of participants • Massive organizational risk • Indirectly supports state retrenchment by downloading data collection servicesFriday, 30 November, 12
  44. 44. Elected Government Municipal Open Data Average CitizenFriday, 30 November, 12
  45. 45. Elected Government Municipal Open Data Average Citizen TextFriday, 30 November, 12
  46. 46. Elected Government volunteerism neoliberalization privacy copyright accuracy ‘real’ participation Municipal Open Data media education digital divides technology adoption jurisdictionality virtual vs. ‘real’ space mobility Average Citizen TextFriday, 30 November, 12
  47. 47. Elected Government volunteerism neoliberalization privacy copyright accuracy ‘real’ participation Municipal Open Data media education digital divides technology adoption jurisdictionality virtual vs. ‘real’ space mobility Average CitizenFriday, 30 November, 12
  48. 48. Thank You - and have a happy GIS Day! For more information: geothink.ca Twitter: #geothink, #geowebchat or email: peter.johnson@uwaterloo.ca This research has been supported by: 
Friday, 30 November, 12

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