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Michael Idvorsky Pupin, Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, NASA, NACA

Michael Idvorsky Pupin, Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, NASA, NACA

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  • SmartArt custom animation effects: radial list (Intermediate) To reproduce the SmartArt effects on this slide, do the following: On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout , and then click Blank . On the Insert tab , in the Illustrations group, click SmartArt . In the Choose a SmartArt Graphic dialog box, in the left pane, click Relationship . In the Relationship pane, click Radial List (fifth row, fourth option from the left), and then click OK to insert the graphic into the slide. To enter text, select the graphic, and then click one of the arrows on the left border. In the Type your text here dialog box, in the top level bullets, enter the text for the three, smaller circle shapes in the graphic. In the second-level bullets, type the text for the bullets to the right of the three, smaller circle shapes. On the slide, select the SmartArt, and then on the Design tab, in the Themes group, click Colors , and under Built-In , select Technic . Press and hold CTRL, and on the slide, select the large circle and all three small circles. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the arrow to the right of Shape Effects , point to Preset , and then under Presets select Preset 2 (first row, second option from the left). On the slide, click the picture placeholder in the center of the large circle. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert . ( Notes: (1) If the picture in the large circle is distorted, tile the picture as a texture by selecting the large, picture-filled circle, and then on the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and in the Fill pane check Tile picture as texture. (2) If necessary, change the tile position of the picture within the shape. To do this, in the Format Shape dialog box, in the Fill pane, under Tiling options, enter values into the Offset X and Offset Y boxes to reposition the focal point of the picture. To resize the picture, in the Format Shape dialog box, in the Fill pane, under Tiling options, enter values into the Scale X and Scale Y boxes.) Select the top, small circle in the SmartArt graphic. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and in the Fill pane click Solid fill , and then in the Color list, select Gray-25%, Background 2, Darker 75% (fifth row, third option from the left). Select the middle small circle in the SmartArt graphic. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, click Solid fill in the Fill pane, and then in the Color list select Gold, Accent 2 (first row, sixth option from the left). Select the bottom small circle in the SmartArt graphic. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, click Solid fill in the Fill pane, and then in the Color list select Lavender, Accent 3 (first row, seventh option from the left). Press and hold CTRL, and select all three lines connecting the large circle to the three smaller circles. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, do the following: Click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane click Solid line . Also in the Line Color pane, in the Color list select White, Background 1, Darker 25% (fourth row, first option from the left). Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Style in the left pane, and in the Line Style pane, do the following: In the Width box, enter 2.5 pt . In the Dash type list, select Round Dot (second option from the top). Press and hold CTRL, and select all three text boxes in the SmartArt graphic. On the Home tab, in the Font group, in the Font Size box, enter 22. To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following: On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click Custom Animation . Select the SmartArt graphic on the slide, and then in the Custom Animation task pane, do the following: Click Add Effect , point to Entrance , and select More Effects . In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Subtle , select Fade . Click the arrow to the right of the fade entrance effect and select Effect Options . In the Fade dialog box, do the following: On the Timing tab, in the Start list, select With Previous . On the Timing tab, in the Speed list, select 1 seconds (Fast) . On the SmartArt Animation tab, in the Group graphic list, select One by one . Click the double arrow under the animation effect to expand the list of effects. Select the first effect in the list (fade entrance effect), and then click Change , point to Entrance, and select More Effects . In the Change Entrance Effect dialog box, under Moderate , select Grow & Turn . Select the second effect in the list (fade entrance effect), and then click Change , point to Entrance and select More Effects . In the Change Entrance Effect dialog box, under Basic , select Wipe . Select the second effect in the list again (wipe entrance effect). Under Modify: Wipe , do the following: In the Start list, select After Previous . In the Direction list, select From Left . In the Speed list, select Very Fast . Select the third effect in the list (fade entrance effect), and then click Change , point to Entrance , and select More Effects . In the Change Entrance Effect dialog box, under Subtle , select Faded Zoom . Select the third effect in the list again (faded zoom entrance effect). Under Modify: Faded Zoom , do the following: In the Start list, select With Previous . In the Speed list, select Fast . Select the fourth effect in the list (fade entrance effect), and under Modify: Fade , in the Start list select With Previous . Press and hold CTRL, and select the fifth and eighth effects in the list (fade entrance effects), and then click Change , point to Entrance , and select More Effects . In the Change Entrance Effect dialog box, under Basic select Wipe , and then click OK . With the fifth and eighth effects in the list still selected (wipe entrance effects), under Modify: Wipe , do the following: In the Direction list, select From Left . In the Speed list, select Very Fast . Press and hold CTRL, and select the sixth and ninth effects in the list (fade entrance effects). Click Change , point to Entrance , and select More Effects . In the Change Entrance Effect dialog box, under Subtle , select Faded Zoom . With the sixth and ninth effects in the list still selected (faded zoom entrance effects), under Modify: Faded Zoom , do the following: In the Start list, select With Previous . In the Speed list, select Very Fast . Press and hold CTRL, and select the seventh and 10 th animation effects in the list (fade entrance effects), and then under Modify: Fade , in the Start list, select After Previous . To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following: Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background . In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following: In the Type list, select Radial . Click the button next to Direction , and then click From Center (third option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list. Also under Gradient stops , customize the gradient stops that you added as follows: Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 0% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select White, Background 1, Darker 35% (fifth row, first option from the left).

Pupin 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Petar Kocovic July 10, 2013 Gradjevinski fakultet, Beograd Pupin NASA founder
  • 2. Michael Pupin •Serbian: Mihajlo Pupin •Born: October 9th, 1854, Idvor,Austro Hungarian Empire •Dead: March 12, 1935, New York, USA •Number of patents: 35 (USA), 49 (outside USA)
  • 3. PIVOTAL point 1900 – Pupin, Father of Long Distance Telephony 1900 – 0 yr1900 – 0 yr
  • 4. 1900 – Contract with AT&T, June 19 2012 – 11,125,000$2012 – 11,125,000$ 1897 – 445,000$1897 – 445,000$ 1900 – 0 yr1900 – 0 yr Highest price ever paid for the formula! AT&T bought patent rights for patents 632,230 632,231
  • 5. FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE
  • 6. Mihajlo Pupin (1854, Idvor- 1935, USA) Mihajlo had 5 sisters and 4 brothers. He was 9th . 1854 – 46 yr1854 – 46 yr
  • 7. Parents • Alimpijada Milovanov Aleksic – Pupin (1814-1885) – Michael’s Mother Married November 8 (21) 1832 in Opovo Konstantin (1814-1873)
  • 8. Idvor – Austro-Hungarian Empire Pupin’s grandfather Arsenije, his brother (Mihajlo) and sister moved to Zemun, than to Idvor
  • 9. Ali Pasha (1740-1822) of Yannina •was born into a powerful clan in the village Beçisht at the foot of the Këlcyrë mountains near the Albanian town of Tepelenë •1768: married the daughter of the wealthy pasha of Delvina, with whom he entered an alliance. •1787: awarded the pashaluk of Trikala in reward for his services at Banat during the Austro-Turkish War (1787–1791). •1788: seized control of Ioannina. Ioannina would be his power base for the next 33 years. He took advantage of a weak Ottoman government to expand his territory still further until he gained control of most of Albania, western Greece and the Peloponnese. •Ali Pasha could assemble an army of 50,000 men in a matter of two to three days, and could double that number in two to three weeks. 1789 – 111 yr1789 – 111 yr
  • 10. Moskopole (Voskopoja) •Most important center of the Aromanians (Tsintsars, Vlahs). •Small settlement until the end of the 17th century, but afterwards showed a remarkable financial and cultural development. •Moscopolis in its glory days (1730–1760) had as many as 70,000 inhabitants; •...other estimates placed its population closer to 35,000
  • 11. Nicha Albania, Graves of Pupin Ancestors – Pupa Family
  • 12. Vasile Pupa -Koza •Killed some Turk •In vendetaVasile Pupa -Koza was killed •His wife Pupa escaped with 500 goats and 100 sheeps toVevcani village with four sons –Djordji –Nikola –Stojan Konstantin (~1740) ~1760 – 140yr~1760 – 140yr
  • 13. Konstantin Pupin •Arsenije (~1765-?) –Married Stana (1770-1848) •Mihajlo (~1770-?) •Brothers moved to Zemun. Mihajlo Constantine Popp was punished May 11, 1787 (Apelacioni sud) 1765 – 135 yr1765 – 135 yr
  • 14. Arsenije Pupin •Moved to Zemun with his brother Mihajlo –Zivan (1790-1847) –Nikola (1806-1848) –Konstantin (1814-1873) 1814 – 86 yr1814 – 86 yr
  • 15. EARLY INVENTIONS IN TELEPHONY
  • 16. Samuel Finley Breese Morse (27. 4. 1791, Charlestown – 2. 4. 1872) 18361836 - Invented first telegraph- Invented first telegraph Adopted magnetism forAdopted magnetism for electromagnetic telegraphyelectromagnetic telegraphy 1836– 64 yr1836– 64 yr
  • 17. Long distance communication before Morse code
  • 18. ... With the bugs... 
  • 19. AlfredVail (25. 9 . 1807 Morristown– 18. 1. 1859) 1837-18451837-1845 work with Morse on commercializationwork with Morse on commercialization of telegraphof telegraph 18451845 – was built first telegraph line Baltimor –– was built first telegraph line Baltimor – WashingtonWashington He made taster with second key and electromagnetsHe made taster with second key and electromagnets 1945– 55 yr1945– 55 yr
  • 20. 1856 - NIKOLATESLA was Born 1900 – 44 yr1900 – 44 yr
  • 21. 1857 -TransatlanticTelegraph Cable • Cyrus Field organized second expedition to change 700 miles of cable what was broken under Atlantic Ocean • August 5, 1858- first messages exchanged between British Queen Victoria and USA president Buchanan 1943– 0 yr1943– 0 yr
  • 22. Transatlantic Cable • First cable had 7 copper wires • Cable weight: 26kg/km • Triple shield from gutaper • Strength Force: few tons • 1866 – first commercialization of Transatlantic cable • transmission speed: equivalent of 1⁄15 baud.
  • 23. Civil War 1861-1865 1861 – 39 yr1861 – 39 yr
  • 24. Lincoln was Killed – April 14, 1865 1865 – 35 yr1865 – 35 yr
  • 25. Thomas Alva Edison (11. 2. 1847 – 18. 10. 1931) 18681868 – inventor of Ticker, for sending data from New– inventor of Ticker, for sending data from New York Stock ExchangeYork Stock Exchange Ticker – at one side was punched tapeTicker – at one side was punched tape First ticker Edison sold for $30,000, what is equalFirst ticker Edison sold for $30,000, what is equal $454,000 in 2012$454,000 in 2012 1900 – 32 yr1900 – 32 yr$30,000/454,000USD2012$30,000/454,000USD2012
  • 26. 1869 -Western Union • Shawk and Barton built first network of telegraph stations – Western Union 1900 – 31 yr1900 – 31 yr
  • 27. Higher Education in Pancevo Gymnasium 1900 – 30 yr1900 – 30 yr
  • 28. 1873 Panic – Stock Exchange was closed 10 days (Sept 18) 1900 – 27 yr1900 – 27 yr
  • 29. Westphalia ship •1874, March 26 – Michael Pupin entered to Castle Garden (Long Island-NewYork) in Westphalia ship.Trip started in Hamburg (Germany). •He was passenger of 3rd class. •Pupin attended high school in Prague 1900 – 26 yr1900 – 26 yr
  • 30. Pupin was obsessed by picture – American Inventors
  • 31. Alexander Graham Bell (3. 3. 1847 – 2. 8 . 1922) 7. 3.7. 3. 18761876 – Patent no 174 465, for– Patent no 174 465, for “transmitting the voice...”“transmitting the voice...” 1900 – 32 yr1900 – 32 yr
  • 32. Phone First Bell’s commercialFirst Bell’s commercial telephonetelephone
  • 33. 1877- BellTelephone Company founded Gardiner Green Hubbard – 30% Thomas Sanders – 30% Thomas Watson – 10% Alexander Bell – 30% 1900 – 23 yr1900 – 23 yr
  • 34. 1877- Bell Telephone Company founded 1. July 9, 1877, by Alexander Graham Bell’s father-in- law Gardiner Greene Hubbard July 11, 1877, Bell married Mabel Hubbard 2.  New England Telephone and Telegraph Company The Bell Telephone Company was started on the basis of holding "potentially valuable patents", principally Bell's master telephone patent #174465 1900 – 23 yr1900 – 23 yr
  • 35. 1878-79- Bell Telephone Company The two companies merged on February 17, 1879, to form two new entities, the National Bell Telephone Company of Boston, and the International Bell Telephone Company, HQ in Brussels, Belgium On honeymoon trip to Europe Bell presents his invention. No contract from UK BTC doesn’t run well. Returning from honeymoon Bell asks BTC for money BTC in crisis All telephone rights offered to Western Union for $ 100,000/1.95 milUSD2012. Refused by WU (toy!) Blake offers his transmitter to BTC (as good as Edison’s of WU) September 1878: WU starts lawsuit on Bell’s telephone patents November 1879: WU stops the lawsuit. Agreement between BTC and WU 1900 – 21 yr1900 – 21 yr$100,000/1,703,200USD2012$100,000/1,703,200USD2012
  • 36. 1882-85- Bell Telephone Company •1882: Sanders, Hubbard and Watson sell their shares; Bell offers his shares to his bride •Bell is offered position of chief inventor He refuses: “I can not invent on command” •125 telephone companies in operation •1885: Foundation of AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph Company) 1900 – 18 yr1900 – 18 yr
  • 37. Bell Telephone Company business model BTC business model introduced by Theodore Vail (first president) •BTC partner in entire telephone business •no equipment sold, only leasing •only BTC produced equipment is allowed to be connected to BTC network •local telephone companies under BTC umbrella •every agent had to report on infringement of Bell’s patents (expired 1893-1894) •new inventions (patents) in the field of telephony are bought or a lawsuit is started against the inventor •standardized telephone equipment by control of production 1900 – 6 yr1900 – 6 yr
  • 38. Lawsuit 1 1878: WU starts lawsuit: Elisha Gray, Amos Dolbear, Thomas Edison 1879: Agreement: •Bell was confirmed as the inventor of the telephone •WU sold his telephone network to BTC •BTC will not operate a telegraph network in the US •WU gave BTC use of its telephone patents David won the battle against Goliath, and became a Goliath itself within a few years
  • 39. Lawsuit 3 Edison invented a.o. the carbon microphone, which was superior to Bell’s micro Dolbear invented a.o. the “tin can telephone”, static telephone Gray: •co-founder of Gray & Barton, which later became Western Electric •invented the liquid microphone, initially used by Bell •filed a caveat similar to Bell’s patent on February 14, 1876, the same day as Bell applied for his famous patent; Gray was 2 hours later (“Of all the men who did not invent the telephone, Gray was the nearest”)
  • 40. Today AT&T
  • 41. Poet 1900 – 22 yr1900 – 22 yr J.P. Morgan Invested 4.87Mil$ in Edison Electric Illuminating Company Morgan Age 40Age 40 Edison Age 31Age 31 2012 – 83Mil$2012 – 83Mil$ 1877 – 4.87Mil$1877 – 4.87Mil$
  • 42. 1878 - Columbia University – Pupin started his studies 1900 – 22 yr1900 – 22 yr
  • 43. 1880 – Wrestling champion in Columbia University 1900 – 20 yr1900 – 20 yr
  • 44. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) •Pupin expressed interest in Light Theory. •At this time, leading authority was Maxwell, student of Michael Faraday. Maxwell Faraday
  • 45. 1882 – J.P. Morgan financed First DC Station – Pearl Street Station – New York 1882 – 18 yr1882 – 18 yr Originally powered by custom-made Porter-Allen high-speed steam engines designed to provide 175 horsepower at 700 rpm Unreliable with their sensitive governors They were removed and replaced with new engines from Armington & Sims that proved to be much more suitable for Edison's dynamos
  • 46. 1882 –Tesla worked in Edison Office in Paris Edison Age 35Edison Age 35 Tesla Age 26Tesla Age 26 1900 – 18 yr1900 – 18 yr
  • 47. 1883 – American Citizenship •Day before he finished studies at Columbia College, Pupin received American Citizenship •Diploma from Columbia College •He received Tyndall fellowship 1900 – 17 yr1900 – 17 yr
  • 48. 1883-1885 at Cambridge University – Trinity College 1900 – 15 yr1900 – 15 yr 1900 – 17 yr1900 – 17 yr
  • 49. 1884 –Tesla moved to Edison Office in NewYork Edison Age 37Edison Age 37 Tesla Age 28Tesla Age 28 Edison Tesla For improving DC, Edison promised to Tesla $50,000 2012 – 973,250$2012 – 973,250$ 1884– 50,000$1884– 50,000$ 1900 – 16 yr1900 – 16 yr
  • 50. 1884 – Pearl Street Station – New York had 508 Users and 10,164 Bulbs Original Edison two-wire dc distribution line showing the half-moon cross section of the conductors and the conduit and insulation used 1900 – 16 yr1900 – 16 yr
  • 51. 1885 –Tesla worked for Edison for $10/Week Edison Age 38Edison Age 38 Tesla Age 29Tesla Age 29 Edison Tesla 2012 – 202$2012 – 202$ 1897 – 10$1897 – 10$ 1900 – 15 yr1900 – 15 yr
  • 52. 1885-1887 - Oliver Heaviside (1850- 1925)—An inventor who failed to file crucial patents •Patent GB 1407 – 1880, Coaxial-Cable •1892 – attend Tesla presentation held in British Electrical Engineers Institute: “Experiments with high voltage, high frequency alternate currents” •In 1885 and 1887 in British magazine Electrician stated: “Without sufficient inductance (word first used in English Language), permitting energy to be stored in the magnetic field of the line, efficient transmission would not be possible and much of the energy of the signal would be transformed into the heat” 1900 – 15-13 yr1900 – 15-13 yr
  • 53. Heaviside coined the following terms of art in electromagnetic theory: •Electromagnetic terms •admittance (December 1887); •conductance (September 1885); •electret for the electric analogue of a permanent magnet, or, in other words, any substance that exhibits a quasi-permanent electric polarization (e.g. ferroelectric); •impedance (July 1886); •inductance (February 1886); •permeability (September 1885); •permittance (later susceptance; June 1887); reluctance (May 1888).
  • 54. 1885 – Last visit of Idvor •Went to Pancevo to ask ms Jelisaveta (Duta) Hadija to marry him. •She resigned •Ms Jelisaveta was of Tsintsar origin 1900 – 15 yr1900 – 15 yr
  • 55. 1886 –Tesla Resigned Edison Age 39Edison Age 39 Tesla Age 30Tesla Age 30 Edison Tesla 2012 – 392$2012 – 392$ 1886 – 18$1886 – 18$ •Tesla made improvement on DC motor, but Edison said that Tesla did not understood American humor about 50,000$. •Edison offered to Tesla 18$/week. •Tesla immediately resigned. •Tesla open his own company: The Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing Co. •Business did not go well – so Tesla start to dig channels for 2$ week. 1900 – 14 yr1900 – 14 yr
  • 56. 1886 –TheTesla Electric, Light and Manufacturing Co.
  • 57. 1888, May 1st –Tesla Patent No 381,968 Tesla Age 32Tesla Age 32
  • 58. 1888, July Start Negotiations with Westinghouse Tesla Age 32Tesla Age 32 Tesla Westinghouse Tesla Electric Company received 75,000$ in Cash for 7 patents 2.5$ from manufactured HP of Electrical Energy 2,000$ monthly fee for consulting activities in Westinghouse company in period of 12 months 1888 – 2.5$HP/2012 – 55$1888 – 2.5$HP/2012 – 55$ 1888 – 75,000$/2012- 1,635,060$ 1888 – 75,000$/2012- 1,635,060$ 1888 – 2,000/2012 –1888 – 2,000/2012 –
  • 59. Lagrange Equations Joseph Louis Lagrange (Jan 25, 1736, Turin, Italy – April 10, 1813, Paris, France) •Pupin studied Lagrange Equations. Later he used this theory to calculate wave speed, what was foundation for long distance telephony. •Lagrange’s paper: “Research sur la nature et la propagation de Sou” was the basis for Pupin’s invention of loaded line in telephone signal transmission
  • 60. 1885-1889 at University of Berlin Disertation: Der Osmotische Druck und Seine Bezichung zur Freien Energie, June 1889 1900 – 15-11 yr1900 – 15-11 yr
  • 61. Ceremony was in Greek Orthodox Church in London 1900 – 12 yr1900 – 12 yr … sister of his classmate A.V.Williams Jackson (1862-1937) • 1888 - MARRIED WITH SARAH KATHERINE JACKSON (APRIL 7, 1859- APRIL 25, 1896)
  • 62. 1889 Back to Columbia University • Pupin returned to Columbia University to become a lecturer of mathematical physics in the newly formed Department of Electrical Engineering. • Pupin's research pioneered carrier wave detection and current analysis. 1900 – 11 yr1900 – 11 yr
  • 63. Pupin’s portrait around 1890
  • 64. Broadway around 1890 and before 1874
  • 65. 1893 Panic 1900 – 7 yr1900 – 7 yr
  • 66. Unemployment Rate on 100 Citizens Year Lebergott 1890 4.0 1891 5.4 1892 3.0 1893 11.7 1894 18.4 1895 13.7 1896 14.5 1897 14.5 1898 12.4 1899 6.5 1900 5.0
  • 67. 1894 – Expired Bells patents for the telephone… … opening the telephone industry to competition. Within a decade, over 6,000 companies went into the telephone business in localities across the country. Phone and phone central station around 1890 1900 – 6 yr1900 – 6 yr
  • 68. 1895 William Jennings Bryan – Candidate for USA President – Speeches againstTycoons 1900 – 5 yr1900 – 5 yr
  • 69. 1895 Rockefeller, Carnegie & Morgan donate to William McKinley, opponent of Bryan – 200,000$ each, with intention to buy President who will protect their wealth 2012 – 13,080,480 Mil$2012 – 13,080,480 Mil$ 1895 – 600,000$1895 – 600,000$ 1900 – 5 yr1900 – 5 yr
  • 70. Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen (27.3.1845-10.2.1925) November 8th 1895 – made first photos of X-raysNovember 8th 1895 – made first photos of X-rays 1900 – 5 yr1900 – 5 yr
  • 71. Tesla X-ray in Electrical Review 1896
  • 72. Pupin’s X - rays January 2, 1896 – replicate X rays asJanuary 2, 1896 – replicate X rays as secondary products of fluo tubes lightsecondary products of fluo tubes light 1900 – 4 yr1900 – 4 yr
  • 73. X-ray palm
  • 74. Pupin’s patent of X-ray tray
  • 75. X-ray tube - today model
  • 76. 1896 Pupin contracted Hemorrhagic Pneumonia 1900 – 4 yr1900 – 4 yr • During curing of Mihajlo– his wife died • He stopped research in the field of X-rays
  • 77. Sarah Katherine Jackson Pupin died on April 25, 1896 1900 – 4 yr1900 – 4 yr
  • 78. Varvara Pupin (1889 (?)Yonkers-1962 August (2?) NewYork) Paja Jovanovic – Varvara Pupin, 1903 Patent 1936
  • 79. 1896 William McKinley was Elected as 25th President of USA Average Salary: 100$ Panic 1896 2012 – 2,180$2012 – 2,180$ 1896 – 100$1896 – 100$ 1900 – 4 yr1900 – 4 yr
  • 80. 1896 Adams Power Station Facts •Notable features: Largest power station ever built until 1895. Attracted national attention due to the enormous size of the project, and collaboration of both electric giants of the continent: GE and Westinghouse contributed to the publicity engine. •Frequency: 25 Hz, Two-Phase, Alternating Current •Power Transmission Length: 25 miles at 11,000 volts using #1 wire •Power system built by: Westinghouse •Notable Engineers: Thomas Evershed •Cataract Company: George Forbes •Westinghouse: Benjamin G. Lamme, Oliver Shallenberger, Nikola Tesla •General Electric: William Stanley, Dr. Louis Bell, Charles P. Steinmetz •Maximum Power Output: 37 Megawatts: 50,000 horsepower (1896) 1900 – 4 yr1900 – 4 yr
  • 81. 1896 – J.P. Morgan bought all Edison’s Shares in General Electric •GE was most valuable company in the world – 50,000,000$ •GE used AC! •Morgan was 3rd most influenced men in USA after Rockefeller and Carnegie 2012 – 1,090,004,000$2012 – 1,090,004,000$ 1896 – 50,000,000$1896 – 50,000,000$ 1900 – 4 yr1900 – 4 yr
  • 82. 1896 – John Stone Stone – AT&T •Worked for the AT&T •First to attempt to apply Heaviside's ideas to real telecommunications. •Stone used (1896) a bimetallic iron- copper cable which he had patented •His cable would increase the line inductance due to the iron content and had the potential to meet the Heaviside condition. •Left the company in 1899 - the idea was never implemented. Before 1896 – only iron cables are used for signal transmitting. 1900 – 4 yr1900 – 4 yr
  • 83. 1898Tesla Wireless Boat/Madison Square Garden Exhibition 1900 – 2 yr1900 – 2 yr
  • 84. 1898 Wireless Control •First commercial use – after 1960 1900 – 2 yr1900 – 2 yr
  • 85. 1899 –Tesla – Colorado Springs, May 17 1900 – 1 yr1900 – 1 yr
  • 86. 1899-George Ashley Campbell •Tasked with continuing the investigation into Stone's bimetallic cable, but soon abandoned it in favor of the loading coil. •Campbell was aware of Heaviside's work in discovering the Heaviside condition, but unaware of Heaviside's suggestion of using loading coils to enable a line to meet it. •The motivation for the change of direction was Campbell's limited budget. •The very first demonstration of loading coils on a telephone cable was on a 46-mile length of the so-called Pittsburgh cable (the test was actually in Boston, the cable had previously been used for testing in Pittsburgh) on September 6, 1899 carried out by Campbell himself and his assistant. •Campbell's work on loading coils provided the theoretical basis for his subsequent work on filters which proved to be so important for frequency-division multiplexing. 1900 – 1 yr1900 – 1 yr
  • 87. 1899 – NikolaTesla Company Value $300,000/$200x1,500shares Tesla entered 17 wireless patents as the value of the company Owners of Tesla Electric Co: -- Astor 33% -- Simpson and Crawford 3.3% -Mr Mils 3.3% -- Nikola Tesla 60.4% 1900 – 1 yr1900 – 1 yr
  • 88. Professor Michael Pupin cca 1900 Published 2 papers: -1899: “Propagation of Long Electrical Waves” - 1900: “Wave transmission over Non- uniform Cables and Long Distance Lines” …“with special designed coils (later called Pupin Coils), at regular intervals, telephony on underground cable could be extended by few hundred kilometers and on o/w by several thousand kilometers without an increase of cable diameter.” 1900 – 0 yr1900 – 0 yr
  • 89. 1900 – Second Mandate William McKinley as USA President Vice-president – Theodore Roosevelt 1900 – 0 yr1900 – 0 yr
  • 90. 1900Tesla start Wardenclyffe Project Morgan Invest 150,000$ for 51% ofTesla Electric Co. 1900 – 0 yr1900 – 0 yr2012 – 3,270,120$2012 – 3,270,120$ 1900 – 150,000$1900 – 150,000$ Morgan bought Tesla wireless Patents Owners of Tesla Electric Co: -Morgan 51% -- Astor 33% -- Simpson and Crawford 3.3% -Mr Mils 3.3% -- Nikola Tesla 9.4%
  • 91. 1900 – Contract with AT&T, June 19 2012 – 9,919,000$2012 – 9,919,000$ 1900 – 445,000$1900 – 445,000$ 1900 – 0 yr1900 – 0 yr Highest price ever paid for the formula! AT&T bought patent rights for patents (1900) 632,230 632,231
  • 92. Pupin’s Loading Coil – Schematic Diagram Heaviside Line model – Schematic Diag.
  • 93. Loading coil Original Pupin’s Loading Coil in Smithsonian Museum
  • 94. Producing Coils-Hose
  • 95. Pupin’s Coil •Pupin's 1894 patent "loads" the line with capacitors rather than inductors, a scheme that has been criticised as being theoretically flawed and never put into practice. •One variant of the capacitor scheme proposed by Pupin does indeed have coils. •These are not intended to compensate the line in any way.They are there merely to restore DC continuity to the line so that it may be tested with regular equipment. •Pupin states that the inductance is to be so large that it will block all AC signals above 50 Hz. (Start fight withTesla) •Consequently, only the capacitor is adding any significant impedance to the line and "the coils will not exercise any material influence on the results before noted
  • 96. Heviside-Pupin Legal Battle Campbell was the first to actually construct a telephone circuit using loading coils. Heaviside never patented his idea; no commercial advantage of any of his work. Heaviside was the first to publish and many would dispute Pupin's priority. AT&T fought a legal battle with Pupin over his claim. Pupin was first to patent but Campbell had already conducted practical demonstrations before Pupin had even filed his patent (December 1899). Campbell's delay in filing was due to the slow internal machinations of AT&T. AT&T foolishly deleted from Campbell's proposed patent application all the tables and graphs detailing the exact value of inductance that would be required before the patent was submitted. Since Pupin's patent contained a (less accurate) formula, AT&T was open to claims of incomplete disclosure. By January 1901 Pupin had been paid $200,000 /$4.36milUSD2012 and by 1917, when the AT&T monopoly ended and payments ceased, he had received a total of $455,000 / 9.9milUSD2012
  • 97. Benefit to AT&T It has been estimated that AT&T saved $100 million in the first quarter of the 20th century. $100mil/1,816milUSD2012$100mil/1,816milUSD2012
  • 98. 1901 US President McKinley was killed –Theodore Roosevelt was 26th President of USA 1901 + 1 yr1901 + 1 yr
  • 99. 1901 – Marconi sent “Letter S” over Atlantic Ocean 1901 + 1 yr1901 + 1 yr Marconi Age 27Marconi Age 27 Marconi used Morse code to transfer signal from Newfoundland to England Morgan lost interest for Tesla experiments
  • 100. Implementation of Pupin Coil •1902 – 17km – NewYork – Newark •1906 – 127km – NewYork – New Heaven •1906 – 140km – NewYork – Philadelphia •724km – Boston – NewYork- Washington (before telephone amplifiers) – Coil on every 1,850m 1902-1906 + 2-6 yr1902-1906 + 2-6 yr
  • 101. Pupin in Europe 1902 + 2 yr1902 + 2 yr •1902 – 32km – Berlin-Postdam
  • 102. Pupin in Europe •1904, February 4 – Pupin improved patent with the help of Siemens-Halske company •Siemens immediately bought patent •Pupin got 1/3 of the Siemens profit 1904 + 4 yr1904 + 4 yr
  • 103. Twisted-pair cables •Beginning of twisted-pairing cables –1.5mm – w/o Pupin coils – 40 km, w Pupin coils 220km –2mm – w/o Pupin coils – 60km, w Pupin coils 320km •1906 – underwater paper-taped insulating cables – 12km – 7 pairs. Depth – 250m, 22 Pupin Coils – Lake Constance 1906 + 6 yr1906 + 6 yr
  • 104. First underground cable Berlin-Cologne (600km)
  • 105. 1904 -Theodore Roosevelt 26th President of USA – Second Mandate 1904 + 4 yr1904 + 4 yr
  • 106. 1904 – Roosevelt start Campaign against Rockefeller and Morgan 1904 + 4 yr1904 + 4 yr
  • 107. 1905 – First Flight, Dec 5,Wright Brothers 1905 + 5 yr1905 + 5 yr
  • 108. 1905 – Albert Einstein GeneralTheory of Relativity Einstein Age 26Einstein Age 26 1905 + 5 yr1905 + 5 yr
  • 109. 1907 - Panic 1907 + 7 yr1907 + 7 yr
  • 110. 1909 – William HowardTaft – 27. President of the USA 1909 + 9 yr1909 + 9 yr
  • 111. 1911 – Honorary deputy Consul of Kingdom of Serbia in NewYork 1911 + 11 yr1911 + 11 yr
  • 112. 1915 – Albert Einstein SpecialTheory of Relativity Einstein Age 36Einstein Age 36 1915 + 15 yr1915 + 15 yr
  • 113. 1915, March 3- NACA founders (today NASA) 1915 + 15 yr1915 + 15 yr
  • 114. 1917 – Pupin Patents expired He realized more than $1 million 1917 + 17 yr1917 + 17 yr$1mil/18.6MilUSd2012$1mil/18.6MilUSd2012
  • 115. Our Dreams about Size of Serbia
  • 116. Serbia toTokio
  • 117. Serbia toTokio
  • 118. Today Anatoly Aleksievic Klyosov (Harvard) Serbs are oldest in Europe
  • 119. Vinca Civilization -5000B.C.
  • 120. King Dusan Empire, cca 1350
  • 121. Balkan 1355 -Turkish Maps
  • 122. King Dusan Empire - Military Archive in Pecsuj
  • 123. Douchan Le Grand Empire - Population of Serbs
  • 124. Europe cca 1350 A.D.
  • 125. Rumelia & Anatolia
  • 126. Europe - 1490 A.D.
  • 127. Sanjak of Bosnia 17 c
  • 128. Serbia 1833- 1878 I Serbian Uprising 1804 II Serbian Uprising 1815 The Convention of Ackerman 1826 & Treaty in Adrianople 1829 & Hatt-I-Shariff recognized suzerainity of Serbia I Serbian Constitution - February 15, 1835
  • 129. 1821 Greek War Of Indenpendence
  • 130. SerbianVojvodina – after Austrian 1848 Revolution
  • 131. Herzegovina Uprising (1875-1878) Omar Pasha
  • 132. Congress of Berlin - 1878
  • 133. 1876 Serbia proclaimed unification with Bosnia and declared war on the Ottoman Emire
  • 134. Albanian FourVilayets (1875- 1878)
  • 135. Ethnical Map on Balkans -1880
  • 136. Vilayet of Kosovo 1881-1912
  • 137. First Balkan War (October 1912-May 1913) Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Montenegro & Bulgaria) against Ottoman Empire Some Extension of Balkan Countries Creation of independent Albanian state) London Conference was signed on Dec 3, 1912 Bulgaria was not satisfied
  • 138. Balkans –Treaty of Bucharest June 29, 1913 - August 10, 1913 Bulgaria vs Serbia+Greece Treaty in Bucharest signed August 10, 1913
  • 139. Macedonia 1913
  • 140. After WWI
  • 141. 1918 - Pupin Negotiator in Versaille Agreement 1918 + 18 yr1918 + 18 yr
  • 142. Man-Wolf-Boat-Cabbage Problem
  • 143. Friendship with Woodrow Wilson Pupin was member of Republican Party – Wilson of Democrat party American president Wilson was Pupin’s friend. This friendship helped Pupin to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 for the formation of former Yugoslavia
  • 144. Pupin was assistant of Nikola Pasic onVersailles Treaty – 1918 - 1919 1918 – 18 yr1918 – 18 yr • Pupin was assistant of Nikola Pasic, Serbian Prime Minister of Kingdom of Serbia (later prime minister of Kingdom of Yugoslavia)
  • 145. Pupin was assistant of Nikola Pasic on VersaillesTreaty – 1918 - 1919 • He motivated American President Woodrow Wilson to give to Serbia parts of Austro-Hungarian Empire (Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina).At this time Macedonia and Montenegro were part of Serbian Kingdom. 1918 – 18 yr1918 – 18 yr
  • 146. ... cont. • Because Pupin’s authority, Pasic, who had strong karma, did not accept to be minor player, and removed Pupin from his negotiation team • Negotiations without Pupin did not advanced, so Pasic call Pupin back after 3 months. Pupin accepted his call because of higher interests of the situation. • In his speech to Congress on January 8, 1918, known as the Fourteen Points speech, U.S. president Woodrow Wilson, inspired by his conversations with Pupin, insisted on the restoration of Serbia and Montenegro, as well as autonomy for the peoples of
  • 147. Woodrow Wilson speech in Congress: January 8, 1918 – 14 points • 1.Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. • 2.Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants. • 3.The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. • 4.Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. • 5.A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined. • 6.The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy. • 7.Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired. • 8.All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all. • 9.A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality. • 10.The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development. • 11.Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into. • 12.The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees. • 13.An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant. • 14.A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.
  • 148. Serbia then and now
  • 149. 1929 – Great Depression 1929 + 29 yr1929 + 29 yr2012 – 1.062$2012 – 1.062$ 1929 – 100$1929 – 100$
  • 150. 1931- Coaxial Cable Patent, Dec 8, 1931 - Bell Labs Project 1931 + 31 yr1931 + 31 yr
  • 151. 1935 –Tesla visited Pupin in Hospital Tesla Age 79Tesla Age 79 Pupin Died – Tesla visited him in the hospital Pupin Died at Age 81Pupin Died at Age 81 1935 + 35 yr1935 + 35 yr
  • 152. Died on March 12, 1935 1935 – 35 yr1935 – 35 yr Pupin Died at Age 81Pupin Died at Age 81
  • 153. Newspapers about Pupin’s Death
  • 154. HONORS ANDTRIBUTES
  • 155. 1904 – Honorary Member of Electrical Engineering Society
  • 156. 1915 – Ph.D. Law – Johns Hopkins University
  • 157. 1920 - Edison Medal to Micheal Pupin
  • 158. Friend withThomas Edison
  • 159. 1922 – Fellow of American Geographical Society
  • 160. 1922 – Woodrow Wilson Award
  • 161. 1924 – Pulitzer Prize Circulation: 100,000
  • 162. 1924 – Pulitzer Prize Letter
  • 163. 1924 -Doctor of Law Diploma
  • 164. 1925 – Ph.D in Humane Letters
  • 165. 1926 – Ph.D. Of Law - Berkeley
  • 166. 1932 – John Fritz Medal
  • 167. 1932 – Engineerings Honor
  • 168. After Pupin’s Death
  • 169. Pupin Hall at Columbia University
  • 170. Painting of Michael Pupin in Pupin Hall – Columbia University
  • 171. Pupin Medalist
  • 172. Cont...
  • 173. OnYugoslav banknote – cca 1990
  • 174. 2002 –Yugoslav President Kostunica donate Pupin’s Bust to Columbia University
  • 175. 2004 Pupin Medal – Serbian Academy of Science – 150Years from Pupin Birth
  • 176. Pupin’s Portrait in Idvor
  • 177. Institute “Mihajlo Pupin” – Belgrade, Serbia
  • 178. ONE MORETHING
  • 179. Donations
  • 180. Value of donation in original USD USD0.00 USD200,000.00 USD400,000.00 USD600,000.00 USD800,000.00 USD1,000,000.0 0 USD1,200,000.0 0 USD1,400,000.0 0 USD1,600,000.0 0 USD1,800,000.0 0 1914 1919 1921 1923 1925 1927 1929 1931 1933 1935 1937 1939 1941 1943 In original USD 340,681-3,928,339USD2012• Fond Pijade Aleksic Pupin • $8,342/108,194USD2012
  • 181. Golden bell for Church on Kajmakcalan Bell was stolen
  • 182. 1919 – Donation of Canbanaria in Ochrid • Pupin donate Golden Bell to church Sveta Bogorodica Perivlepta • Value of donation 50,000 USD in
  • 183. Pupin NASA founder Petar Kocovic July 10, 2013 Gradjevinski fakultet, Beograd