Blended FamiliesParents, children, and stepchildren merged intofamilies through remarriages.
Cognitive DevelopmentChanges in problem solving, memory, language,reasoning, and other aspects of thinking.
ComprehensionThe understanding and comprehending of whatis read.
Decodingability to apply your knowledge of letter-soundrelationships, including knowledge of letterpatterns, to correctly pronounce written words.
DevelopmentallyAppropriate Practices(DAP)Educational materials and practices that areadapted to fit the emotional, physical, andcognitive characteristics and needs of childrenat different stages.
DifferentiationThe process of specialization of embryonic cellsto perform particular functions.
Emotional Self-RegulationThe quality that enables individuals to remainfocused on goals, even in the face of difficultand stressful circumstances. It involveseffortful, voluntary control ofemotions, attention, and behavior.
Emotional/SocialDevelopmentChanges over time in an individual’sfeelings, personality, self-concept, and relationswith other people.
Extended FamiliesFamily members such as grandparents, aunts,uncles, and cousins living in the samehousehold, or at least in daily contact with eachother, cooperating to take care of children.
Fine Motor SkillsSmall muscle movements that are more limitedand controlled (e.g., eating with a fork orspoon, tying shoelaces, cutting with a pair ofscissors).
FluencyThe ability to read with speed, accuracy, andproper expression.
Gross Motor SillsThe movement of the large muscle groups.
Individual EducationPlan (IEP)An IEP defines the individualized objectives of achild who has been found with a disability, asdefined by federal regulations. The IEP isintended to help children reach educationalgoals more easily than they otherwise would.
Learning CommunitiesGroups of teachers and students who careabout and support one another to learn. Theyshare goals and values and have a groupidentity.
LearningDisabilityDisorders that involve central processingproblems and affect the ability to understand oruse spoken or written language, domathematical calculations, coordinatemovements, or direct attention.
Metacognitive SkillsSkills to self-regulate based on knowledge aboutour own thinking processes.
PhonemesThe individual sounds in spoken words.Phonemes are the smallest units comprisingspoken language. Phonemes combine to formsyllables and words.
Phonemic Awarenessthe specific ability to focus on and manipulateindividual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words.
PhonicsPhonics instruction helps children learn therelationships between the letters of writtenlanguage and the sounds of spoken language.Children are taught, for example, that the letter nrepresents the sound /n/, and that it is the firstletter in words such as nose, nice and new.
PhonologicalAwarenessPhonological awareness is a broad skill thatincludes identifying and manipulating units oforal language – parts such aswords, syllables, and onsets and rimes. Childrenwho have phonological awareness are able toidentify and make oral rhymes, can clap out thenumber of syllables in a word, and canrecognize words with the same initial sounds likemoney and mother.
ScaffoldingSupport for learning and problem solving. Thesupport could beclues, reminders, encouragement, breading theproblem down into steps, providing anexample, or anything else that allows the studentto grow in independence as a learner.
SyntaxThe order of words in phrases or sentences.
VocabularyVocabulary refers to the words children mustknow to communicate effectively. In schoolterms, it can be described as oral vocabulary orreading vocabulary.
ValidityThe degree to which a test measures what it isintended to measure.