Political Cleavages• Ethnic• Religious• Regional
Religion• Major religions – 50% Muslim – 40% Christian – 10% indigenous religions
Ethnic Groups• Nigeria, which is Africas most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential:• Hausa and Fulani: 29%• Yoruba: 21%• Igbo (Ibo): 18%
Languages• English (official)• Hausa• Yoruba• Igbo (Ibo)• Fulani
Socialization• Family is important. Polygamy accepted in various ethnic groups. Extended family as a means of social security.• Schools have expanded and the last twenty years have seen large rises in enrolment. English as the language of instruction for the most part.• Media are very active in Nigeria, although there is the constant threat of government punishment and censorship.• Religion as a mobilizing political force in the North
Similarities to British System (1960)• Parliamentary democracy• House of Representatives (patterned after British House of Commons) elected in single member districts• Senate (patterned after British House of Lords) with tribal chiefs and traditional leaders playing a ceremonial role in the political process
Colonialboundaries dividedpeople with acommon ethnicheritage and threwtogether disparateethnic groups
Similarities to American System (1960)• Federal system developed by British during colonial period retained• Written constitution with powers of government and rights of citizens (Bill of Rights) promulgated• Supreme Court created
Alternation Between MilitaryRule and Attempts at Democracy
Democratization• Each attempt has been halted by a military coup• Present regime has successfully held two competitive elections• Regime is still plagued by corruption
Oil• The oil boom of the 1970’s led Nigeria to neglect other industries such as agriculture and light manufacturing in favor of oil.• Oil accounts for 97% of export earnings and 80% of federal revenue.
Economic Reform / Structural Adjustment Program• Abolition of most foreign exchange and import controls• Abolition of most price controls• Privatization of some state-owned enterprises• Abolition of dual exchange rate system, which distorted budgets and encouraged corruption• Liberalized rules for foreign investment• Ended indirect fuel subsidies, allowing fuel prices to double
1963• Nigeria became a republic• Effectively, this meant that the British monarch was no longer the head of state• Nnamdi Azikiwe was first president and new head of state• Nigeria, nevertheless, remained a member of the British Commonwealth
Elections of 1964-1965• Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, who had been elected Nigeria’s first Prime Minister (head of government), led his Northern based party to victory.• Balewa formed a new government.
1967-1970: Biafra Civil War• Ironsi killed less than a year later in another coup• Lieutenant Yakuba Gowon named head of the Federal Military Government, a northern Christian• Igbos, especially unhappy with his distribution of eastern oil revenues, established the independent Republic of Biafra under the leadership of the region’s governor.• Thousands of combat casualties and possibly over a million civilian deaths
Gowon and Muhammed• Unpopular due to corruption, high inflation, and poor economic planning of his rule during the oil boom years• Replaced by Murtala Muhammed, a Muslim Hausa-Fulani from the north, in 1975• Assassinated a year later and replaced by Olusegun Obasanjo, a Christian Yoruba, who laid the groundwork for the Second Republic
Nigerian Regimes Since lndependence Year Head of State Type of Regime1960-1966 Tafawa Balewa Republic1966 J. T. U. Aguiyu lronsi Military1966-1975 Yakubu Gowon Military1975-1976 Murtala Muhammed Military1976-1979 Olusegun Obasanjo Military1979-1983 Shehu Shagari Republic
Nigerian Regimes Since lndependence Year Head of State Type of Regime1984-1985 Muhammadu Buhari Military1985-1993 lbrahim Babangida Military1993 Ernest Shonekan Military1993-1998 Sani Abacha Military1998-1999 Abdulsalmi Abubakar Military1999- Olusegun Obasanjo Republic
1979: Second Republic• Constitution based on U.S. Constitution• 19-state federal republic• Presidential system• Designed to limit the impact of ethnicity on politics: – Obasanjo reasoned that 19 states would be less easily manipulated than 3. – The president was required to win a majority of the popular vote with at least 25 percent of the vote in 12 of the 19 states.
End of Second Republic• 1983 coup led to rule of Major-General Muhammed Buhari, a northern Muslim Hausa- Fulani• Replaced federal government with Supreme Military Council• Banned political parties• Dissolved the legislature• Overthrown in another coup in 1985 by lbrahim Babangida, a Muslim from the middle of the counry, who ruled under the banner of the Armed Forces Ruling Council
Third Republic• 1992 new constitution written• Two political parties chosen to contest in 1993 elections• Elections for legislature and president held in 1993• Babangida annulled the elections, when he lost to Chief Mashood Kastumawo Olawale Abiola• Riots in the cities, as a result, forced Babangida to resign
Fourth Republic• Succeeded by General Sani Abacha• Died in 1998 (heart attack) and replaced by Abdulsalami Abubakar• Abubakar held democratic elections in 1999• Olusegun Obasanjo returned to power by winning the presidential election• Won reelection in contested elections in 2003 and has been in power ever since
Executive• President is popularly elected, serving a maximum of two four-year terms.• President is head of government, head of state, and commander-in-chief.• President appoints government ministers, who are confirmed by Senate• Ministers must come from all 36 states• President and ministers comprise the Federal Executive Committee, which assures that enacted laws are properly implemented.
Legislative Branch• Bicameral legislature – Senate: 109 members (three from each state and one from capital Abuja) – House of Representatives: 360 members – Members from both houses popularly elected – Both houses serve four-year terms• All laws must pass both houses and be signed by the President
Judiciary• Court’s ensure actions and legislation passed by other branches is in accordance with the constitution• Supreme Court is highest court in land; there is also a Court of Appeal and a Federal High Court.• For each of the 36 states and Abuja there is a High Court, a Sharia Court of Appeal, and a Customary Court of Appeal.
The Military• Not democratic by nature• One of the few institutions that is national in character• More representative than political parties and other government institutions, which are subject to ethnic based patronage
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