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Biology Dept. / Mycology Seminar

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  1. 1. Overview• Candida ssp is an opportunistic fungus (yeast).• It can infect the mouth, vagina, skin, sto mach, and urinary tract.• About 75% of women will get a vaginal yeast infection during their lifetime.
  2. 2. Candidiasis• A yeast infection results from an overgrowth of yeast anywhere in the body.• Candidiasis is by far the most common type of yeast infection.• There are more than 20 species of Candida, the most common being Candida albicans.
  3. 3. ClassificationKingdom: Fungi Phylum: Ascomycota Subphylum: Saccharomycotina Class: Saccharomycetes Order: Saccharomycetales Family: Saccharomycetaceae Genus: Candida
  4. 4. Candidiasis• These fungi live on all surfaces of our bodies. Under certain conditions, they can become so numerous they cause infections, particularly in warm and moist areas.• Candidiasis encompasses infections that range from superficial, such as oral thrush and vaginitis, to systemic and potentially life-threatening diseases.
  5. 5. Yeast
  6. 6. Signs and symptoms• Most candidial infections are treatable and result in minimal complications such as redness, itching and discomfort, though complication may be severe or fatal if left untreated in certain populations.• Thrush is commonly seen in infants.• Children, mostly between the ages of three and nine years of age, can be affected by chronic mouth yeast infections, normally seen around the mouth as white patches. However, this is not a common condition.
  7. 7. Causes• A weakened or undeveloped immune system or metabolic illnesses such as diabetes are significant predisposing factors of candidiasis.• Candida yeasts are commonly present in humans, and their growth is normally limited by the human immune system and by other microorganisms, such as bacteria occupying the same locations in the human body.
  8. 8. Conditions• Candida infection more likely to develop in some cases, including: -Diabetes, -HIV infection, -Cancer, -Dry mouth, and -Pregnancy.
  9. 9. Candidiasis
  10. 10. Oral Candidiasis (Thrush)
  11. 11. Thrush• Thrush is a yeast infection of the mucus membrane lining the mouth and tongue.• Oral infections are most common in infants, elderly people, and those with a weakened immune system.
  12. 12. Causes• Thrush is caused by forms of a fungus called Candida. A small amount of this fungus lives in your mouth most of the time. It is usually kept in check by your immune system and other types of germs that also normally live in your mouth.• However, when your immune system is weak, the fungus can grow.• Thrush is commonly seen in infants. It is not considered abnormal in infants unless it lasts longer than a couple of weeks.
  13. 13. Symptoms• Thrush usually develops suddenly, but it may become chronic, persisting over a long period of time.• A common sign of thrush is the presence of creamy white, slightly raised lesions in your mouth -usually on your tongue-.• The lesions, can be painful and may bleed slightly when you scrape them or brush your teeth.
  14. 14. Symptoms• In severe cases, the lesions may spread into your esophagus, or swallowing tube, causing pain or difficulty swallowing.• Thrush can spread to other parts of the body, including the lungs, liver, and skin.
  15. 15. Thrush
  16. 16. Treatment• Medications that inhibit the growth of fungi (antifungals) are the standard treatment for thrush. These medications are either applied directly to the affected area (topical) or swallowed (oral).
  17. 17. Cutaneous candidiasis• Cutaneous candidiasis include: – Paronychia and onychomycosis. – Diaper candidiasis. – Intertrigo candidiasis.
  18. 18. Cutaneous candidiasisParonychia:-• Paronychia of the finger nails may develop in persons whose hands are subject to continuous wetting, especially with sugar solutions or contact with flour, that macerates the nail folds and cuticle.• In chronic cases the infection may progress to cause onychomycosis with total detachment of the cuticle from the nail plate.
  19. 19. Paronychia
  20. 20. Cutaneous candidiasisDiaper:-• Diaper candidiasis is common in infants under unhygienic conditions of chronic moisture and local skin maceration associated with ammonitic irritation due to irregularly changed unclean diapers.
  21. 21. • References• /article_em.htm• 000030.htm• /Candidiasis/• on/article_em.htm•••