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Aims and Objectives Be aware of what constitutes a balanced diet and food types in terms of the nutrients required. Be aware of the proportions of food that should be consumed to ensure a balanced diet. Consider some of the problems that can occur through an incorrect diet. Consider how diet is linked to levels of activity and the correct time to eat food in relation to performing Be aware of special diets that particular performers might consider using
Carbohydrates(Sugars and Starch) Carbohydrates(Sugars and Starch) Carbohydrates(Sugars and Starch) Function: Most readily form of energy for everyday living. Examples: bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, cakes, beer, sweets, fruit. For the athlete: Source of energy when muscles require it. Athletes training hard use carbohydrates quickly, so diet should be high in carbohydrates. Extras: Stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. Excess carbohydrates are converted to fat.
Proteins Function: Builds body muscle, repairs tissue, enzymes and hormones. Examples: Red meat, fish, nuts, eggs, poultry (birds) For the athlete: Essential after injury to help repair and build muscle and other body tissue. Sports that require strength and muscle bulk need to eat extra protein. Extras: Broken down in the body into amino acids. Excess protein is converted to fat.
Fats Function: Provides energy to the body Examples: Milk, cheese, butter, oils, chocolate, fatty meats, soya beans. For the athlete: Increases size and weight of the body. Important for athletes who benefit from extra bulk such as shot putters. Unnecessary weight can hinder performance. Are released for energy when there is a lack of carbohydrate stores. Extras: should make up 1/3 or less of our daily intake. Made up of saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. High levels of fat intake can lead to high cholesterol levels.
Vitamins Function: general health of vision, skin condition, forming of red blood cells and blood clotting, good condition of bones and teeth. Fat soluble A, D, K, E Water soluble B, C For the athlete: General health is important to be able to perform well. Vitamin B is used more when training hard so need to be replenished. Extras: Deficiencies include Night blindness (A), Rickets – softening of bones (D), scurvy – bleeding gums (C).
Minerals Calcium: helps with the growth of bones. e.g. milk, cheese and cereals. Iron: formation of red blood cells, carrying oxygen around the body. e.g. red meat, liver and green veg. Iodine: formation of hormones. e.g. milk and saltwater fish. Sodium: regulates bodily fluids. e.g. fast foods, crisps. For the athlete: increase efficiency of carrying oxygen to the muscles – prevents fatigue, blood clotting, bone and muscle strengthening – aiding recovery after injury. Extras: excessive sodium leads to high blood pressure
Fibre Function: helps to keep the digestive system functioning properly – prevents constipation, helps to reduce cholesterol – keeping the heart healthy. Examples: Leaves, seed cases, cereals and whole grains. For the athlete: Less cholesterol makes the heart more efficient. Body retains less waste.
Water Function: chemical reactions in the body, prevents overheating Examples: Fluids and food For the athlete: allows the blood to flow more easily around the body therefore will increase oxygen reaching the working muscles when exercising. This will also increase nutrient transport, heat control, and waste removal. Extras: we need to replenish water that is lost through urine, sweat and condensation as we breathe.
4.1 – Food Diary Keep a food diary over a 7 day period between now and next lesson, to check how balanced your diet actually is. RESEARCH TASK: Find out about diseases that can be caused by incorrect diet. Malnutrition Obesity Anorexia
Dietary Imbalances Malnutrition – This is a physical weakness resulting from insufficient food or an unbalanced diet. Obesity – This is a condition of being extremely fat or overweight, which frequently results in health problems Anorexia – This is an eating disorder primarily occurring in girls and women, related to the fear of gaining weight, self starvation and a distorted body image.
Key Terms Nutrients – The substances that make up food Dehydration – The rapid loss of water from the body Body Image – A Personal concept of your own physical appearance.
4.2 – Specific Diets The main purpose of any diet is that it must be balanced. A Balanced Diet An athlete on occasions may need to adjust their diet depending on their sporting activity.
Levels of Participation Eating food is necessary to provide the body with energy. Eating the correct food will ensure that you are also able to maintain the correct body weight for your particular needs. Energy is still needed even at rest. BASAL METABOLIC RATE The number of CALORIES you take in need to balance.
Key Terms BMR – The minimum rate of energy required to keep all of the life processes of the body maintained when it is at rest. Calorie – A unit that measures heat or energy production in the body. Glycogen – The form of carbohydrate, which is converted into glucose as needed by the body to satisfy its energy needs
When to Eat? Before an activity – do not eat too close to performing. Try to wait about two hours after eating. During an activity – Generally you should not eat during an activity but something light and in small quantity, such as a banana would be fine. After activity – You should try to leave the same two hour gap.
Liquids Liquids may need to be taken before, during and after the activity to avoid dehydration, but do not take in too much liquid immediately after finishing as this can result in discomfort.
Carbohydrate Loading Endurance athletes will benefit from this, mainly marathon runners. Need to eat plenty of starch rich foods such as rice and pasta in the week leading up to the activity. The starch increases the amount of glycogen in the muscles which can delay tiredness as it is a slow release form of energy.
High Protein Diets Often used by body builders as a means of building muscle and losing fat. Extra protein alone does not build muscle alone and it can be very difficult to digest.
Videos Eating Your way to success Foods to provide energy Quiz
Questions Which of the following food groups is not essential for a healthy diet? Fruit and Veg Food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non dairy sources of protein What are nutients?
Name the two types of carbohydrate and give an example of each one. What are the main benefits of fat as a food source? What are proteins also commonly known as? What is the main source of essential vitamins? In which types of food are the minerals mainly found? Why is it essential to maintain levels of fluids/water? What is obesity and how is it caused? What is meant by basal metabolic rate?
What is a calorie? What is the time period during which you should not eat both before and after exercise? What is meant by carbohydrate loading and which types of performer would be likely to make use of it? Who might decide to use a high profile protein diet? What possible problems could be caused by following this?