ND Sport Karen Vaughan Jones<br />Sport and Society (SES / DCF) <br />Issues in Sport (P / E)<br />
Outcomes <br />To understand the cultural influences on sport<br />To review the barriers to sport<br />
Assessment<br />DCF / SES – P4, M4 describe and explain three cultural influences<br />P / E – Poster explaining the cultu...
Barriers<br />Last week – Barriers <br />What were they? <br />Time, Fitness, resources, Ability, Lifestyle and Medical Co...
Cultural Influences<br />These will differ from one society to an other <br />Main ones stem from 4 main areas <br />Gende...
Gender difference<br />Inequality – access and participation <br />Women – roles as domesticated, less opportunities<br />...
What aspects of society prevent women from participating in sport?<br />Poor<br />Sponsorship<br />Seen as<br />“The Weake...
Are there any other historical reasons which prevent females from participating in sports? … Yes! <br />Girls were always ...
The place of tennis in the development of female sport / Lletenisyndatblygiadchwaraeoniferchaid<br />In the early 19th cen...
Why was tennis eventually deemed acceptable for women?<br />Non-vigorous<br />activity – so<br />decorum was<br />preserve...
How are these views demonstrated within modern sport? / Sutmae’r barn hynyncaelei weld o fewnchwaraeonmodern?<br />Women’s...
And….?<br />More men are in leadership <br />roles within sport.<br />Women barred from certain<br />activities (hammer th...
Ethnicity<br />Based on genealogy or ancestry<br />United by language, culture or religion <br />Influence choice of sport...
What is racism? / Beth yw hiliaeth?<br />Racism is the suggestion that one particular ethnic group is more superior than a...
Racial Discrimination - is it a Factor in modern Sport? / Gwahaniaethu hiliol – yw yn ffactor?<br />National teams in Athl...
Racial Discrimination - is it a Factor in modern Sport? / Gwahaniaethu hiliol – yw yn ffactor?<br />However, many parts of...
What has happened in sport as a result of racism and racial stereotyping? / Sut mae chwaraeon wedi newid fel canlyniad o h...
Why have these issues arisen? / Pam fod y materion hyn wedi codi?<br />There are several reasons which answer this questio...
Kick Racism out of Football<br />Recent events in football games<br />have ensured this schemes success.<br />The edition ...
What about Islamic cultures? / Beth amdan y diwylliant islamaidd?<br />Due to the nature of the Islamic religion, Muslim w...
Is anything being done to solve this problem? / A yw rhywbeth yn cael ei gwneud i ddatrys y broblem?<br />NGB’s such as th...
Age<br />2006, law passed that made it illegal to discriminate against anyone on the basis of age<br />Older people they c...
Discrimination against the Elderly / Gwahaniaethuynerbyn yr hen<br />By the time British people reach 60+ they have little...
What barriers prevent older people from participating in physical activity? / Beth sy’n rhwystro rhag i pobl hen gymeryd r...
Are there any solutions to this issue? / A oes ateb i’r mater hyn? <br />Better public transport – even specialised transp...
Socio – Economic Groups<br />Groups were created in the 20th Century – classify society in different ways<br />Crude measu...
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PEShare.co.uk Shared Resource

  1. 1. ND Sport Karen Vaughan Jones<br />Sport and Society (SES / DCF) <br />Issues in Sport (P / E)<br />
  2. 2. Outcomes <br />To understand the cultural influences on sport<br />To review the barriers to sport<br />
  3. 3. Assessment<br />DCF / SES – P4, M4 describe and explain three cultural influences<br />P / E – Poster explaining the cultural influences – P6<br />
  4. 4. Barriers<br />Last week – Barriers <br />What were they? <br />Time, Fitness, resources, Ability, Lifestyle and Medical Condition<br />Some were subjective – age, fitness<br />Some were controlled by external factors – Monies, resources and weather<br />
  5. 5. Cultural Influences<br />These will differ from one society to an other <br />Main ones stem from 4 main areas <br />Gender differences<br />Ethnicity<br />Age<br />Socio – Economic groups<br />
  6. 6. Gender difference<br />Inequality – access and participation <br />Women – roles as domesticated, less opportunities<br />This only began changing in the 1980’s<br />Spurred on by the equal pay act, feminist activists and the formation of women only sports associations<br />
  7. 7. What aspects of society prevent women from participating in sport?<br />Poor<br />Sponsorship<br />Seen as<br />“The Weaker<br />Sex”<br />Poor<br />Media<br />Coverage<br />Role of<br />Housewife<br />Participation<br />Of<br />Peers<br />Considered<br />“Unfeminine”<br />By Society<br />
  8. 8. Are there any other historical reasons which prevent females from participating in sports? … Yes! <br />Girls were always discouraged from being aggressive and/or competitive, whereas these characteristics were encouraged in boys.<br />Equally, it was thought that sport was physiologically harmful to women, and thus, it was strongly discouraged.<br />Some people even used to believe that sport would affect a woman’s fertility! <br />
  9. 9. The place of tennis in the development of female sport / Lletenisyndatblygiadchwaraeoniferchaid<br />In the early 19th century, tennis became one of the most acceptable sports for women to play / Yngynaryn y 19fed ganrif, daethtenisfwydderbynioliferchaidchwarae<br />In fact, in middle class schools, girls were encouraged to play tennis / Roeddmerchaidyncaeleuannogichwaraetenis<br />This change in stereotypical opinion was a massive turning point for women and female sport / Roeddhynynnewidyn y barn stereotypical<br />This is because Victorian society was male dominated, and women were still seen as the inferior sex. The relaxation of gender roles meant that women were starting to be seen as able-bodied people – not just housewives and mothers! / RoeddhynganfodcymdeithasFictorianyncaeleidominydduganddynion<br />
  10. 10. Why was tennis eventually deemed acceptable for women?<br />Non-vigorous<br />activity – so<br />decorum was<br />preserved<br />Could play in <br />the privacy of <br />their own <br />gardens<br />They could<br />dress <br />appropriately<br />i.e. in <br />dresses<br />Seen as a <br />social occasion-<br />part of the<br />whole family’s<br />recreation<br />Tennis was played<br />outdoors – meaning<br />it was seen as <br />possessing<br />health benefits.<br />
  11. 11. How are these views demonstrated within modern sport? / Sutmae’r barn hynyncaelei weld o fewnchwaraeonmodern?<br />Women’s competition is given a lower status than men’s / Statws merchaid yn is na un dynion<br />e.g. Cricket - both England’s men and women won the ashes series in 2005 - but who got all the TV coverage?<br />Women’s prize monies/rewards are less then men’s / arian gwobr yn llai<br />e.g.Wimbledon prize money<br />Very few events where women compete on equal terms with men / ddim llawer o gampau lle mae merchiad yn cystadlu ar yr un lefel a merchaid<br />e.g. not in Athletics but yes in some equestrianism<br />
  12. 12. And….?<br />More men are in leadership <br />roles within sport.<br />Women barred from certain<br />activities (hammer throwing<br />and steeplechase for example, until recently)<br />More male role models<br />than female<br />VS<br />More male-orientated <br />sports than female<br />More male coaches than female<br />Some NGB’s slow to accept <br />female sport as they attract <br />less attention than male sport<br />
  13. 13. Ethnicity<br />Based on genealogy or ancestry<br />United by language, culture or religion <br />Influence choice of sport, progress and attitudes<br />
  14. 14. What is racism? / Beth yw hiliaeth?<br />Racism is the suggestion that one particular ethnic group is more superior than another on the basis of skin colour or religion / Hiliaeth yw fod un grwp cenhedlig yn well na llall<br />A different form of racism is racial stereotyping. This is whereby individuals are categorised into what they are/are not good at according to religion or skin colour / stereoteip hiliol<br />E.g. The notion that all black people are good at sprinting<br />A oes mwy?<br />
  15. 15. Racial Discrimination - is it a Factor in modern Sport? / Gwahaniaethu hiliol – yw yn ffactor?<br />National teams in Athletics, Soccer have a high proportion of black Afro-Caribbean participants / <br />Other sports like Rugby Union and League and Cricket have fewer but significant numbers. <br />But these same sports have far fewer persons of Asian backgrounds, particularly women.<br />Hockey, Swimming, Equestrianism, Rowing have relatively few black participants.<br />This pattern probably reflects the class discrimination - lack of opportunity because of the expense of the sport, or its traditional class base / gwahaniaethu dosbarth<br />
  16. 16. Racial Discrimination - is it a Factor in modern Sport? / Gwahaniaethu hiliol – yw yn ffactor?<br />However, many parts of our modern society are afflicted with institutional racism / Hiliaeth sefydliadol<br />This is not necessarily a conscious discrimination / (ddim yn gwahaniaethu ymwybodol) against non-white people, but more a feeling by white people that certain situations and activities are based around white people.<br />It is therefore a tradition that white people undertake these activities and exclude non-whites / Traddodiadol<br />Certain people also treat black people very stereotypically - this is also institutional racism.<br />
  17. 17. What has happened in sport as a result of racism and racial stereotyping? / Sut mae chwaraeon wedi newid fel canlyniad o hiliaeth a stereoteipio hiliol<br />‘Stacking’<br />Whereby ethnic groups<br />are pushed into certain<br />positions or sports due<br />to opinions regarding <br />physical strength/skills.<br />E.g. Black men and <br />sprinting.<br />There are very few <br />ethnic minority coaches<br />or managers. <br />Reduced participation – <br />this is particularly the case with<br />Female ethnic minority groups.<br />
  18. 18. Why have these issues arisen? / Pam fod y materion hyn wedi codi?<br />There are several reasons which answer this question / Llawer o rhesymau<br />Perhaps the most apparent reason is the lack of role models for ethnic minorities in specific sports / Dim digon o delfrydion ymddwyn i pobl cenhedlig<br />For example, is the abundance of black track athletes a result of the large number of role models in this sport? / Llawer o athletwy trac du fel canlyniad o llawer o delfrydion ymddwyn <br />Equally, there is a severe lack of Asian athletes within Premiership football.<br />
  19. 19. Kick Racism out of Football<br />Recent events in football games<br />have ensured this schemes success.<br />The edition of the black & white wrist<br />bands has also highlighted this<br />particular issue.<br />Anti-racist <br />policies<br />in sport<br />PESSCL Strategy<br />Living for Sport Initiative<br />Nike Girls Into Sport Project<br />Whilst these initiatives are not<br />directly aimed at ethnic minorities,<br />they are aimed at improving sport<br />access for disaffected groups. <br />Sporting Equals<br />‘Working Together for<br />Racial Equality in Sport’<br />This is an organisation which<br />aims to help integrate ethnic<br />minorities into sport.<br />
  20. 20. What about Islamic cultures? / Beth amdan y diwylliant islamaidd?<br />Due to the nature of the Islamic religion, Muslim women have encountered many barriers to their participation in sport / Am fod natur y pobl islamaidd fel y mae o, mae merchaid wedi dod ar draws llawer o rhwystrau i gyfranogiad i chwaraeon<br />Clothing restrictions, notions of sport leading to sexual promiscuity and the role of the female within Islamic society has meant that Muslim women are vastly under-represented within sport / Rhwystrau dillad yw beth sydd wedi arwain I beth rydem yn ei weld heddiw – fod merchaid mwslimaidd ddim yn cael eu cynrhychioli’n dda <br />
  21. 21. Is anything being done to solve this problem? / A yw rhywbeth yn cael ei gwneud i ddatrys y broblem?<br />NGB’s such as the Youth Sport Trust (YST) have recognised the lack of female Muslims in sports and are advising schools and clubs on how to promote physical activity for this minority group through initiatives such as Nike Girls (Nike/YST, 2000) / Mae’r CLLG wedi sylweddoli fod merchaid mwslimaidd ddim yn cael eu cynrhychioli’n dda ac yn cynghori ysgolion a clybiau sut i hybu gweithgareddau corfforol i’r grwp yma <br />This has led to many schools changing their policies on P.E. kit, times of extra-curricular clubs and the P.E. curriculum they deliver / Mae hyn wedi arwain I llawer o ysgolion yn newid polisiau cit, amser gweithgareddau allgrsiol ayyb<br />
  22. 22. Age<br />2006, law passed that made it illegal to discriminate against anyone on the basis of age<br />Older people they can carry on working if they wish <br />As people age they want to exercise less so more needs to be done to encourage them<br />Different rates as Pe in schools is compulsory<br />
  23. 23. Discrimination against the Elderly / Gwahaniaethuynerbyn yr hen<br />By the time British people reach 60+ they have little or no participation in sport or physical activity / Erbyn i pobl Prydain gyraedd 60 nid oess llawer o gyfranogiad i chwaraeon neu weithgareddau ymarferol<br />However, it is just as important for this specific group to be physically active, as it is for young people to be physically active / Ond mae hi yn bwysig fod rhain yn cadw’n heini hefyd<br />
  24. 24. What barriers prevent older people from participating in physical activity? / Beth sy’n rhwystro rhag i pobl hen gymeryd rhan<br />Poor Health<br />Health problems<br />Lead to caution in relation to activity.<br />Low Income<br />Funds for leisure activities may be limited due to insufficient income.<br />Lack of Transport<br />Unable to drive.<br />Poor public transport.<br />Activities offered may not be suitable for older people.<br />Poor Activity Choice<br />Notion that physical activity is only for the young and this the aged feel inferior.<br />Self-esteem<br />
  25. 25. Are there any solutions to this issue? / A oes ateb i’r mater hyn? <br />Better public transport – even specialised transport / Trafnudiaethcyhoeddusgwell<br />Free or subsidised activities / Gweithgareddaurhadneu am ddim<br />Increased media coverage of events for and by the elderly / Cynydduymdriniaeth y cyfryngau<br />
  26. 26. Socio – Economic Groups<br />Groups were created in the 20th Century – classify society in different ways<br />Crude measure based on income, job type – can be useful when considering reasons for participation <br />

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