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  1. 1. Methods of Training <ul><li>Effects of regular training and exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Increased stroke volume and cardiac output (so heart pumps more blood per beat) </li></ul><ul><li>Quicker recovery rate </li></ul><ul><li>Lower resting HR </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient CV system </li></ul><ul><li>Increase number of capillaries </li></ul>
  2. 2. Methods of Training <ul><li>Long term benefits of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Lower blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced risk of coronary heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>You can work harder for longer </li></ul>
  3. 3. Methods of Training <ul><li>Target Zone </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a guide to measure intensity of exercise, and can be worked out in the following way: </li></ul><ul><li>Max HR = 220 – age </li></ul><ul><li>Lower end of target zone will be 60% of max HR </li></ul><ul><li>Top end of target zone will be 80% of max HR </li></ul>
  4. 4. Methods of Training <ul><li>E.g. 220 – 20 = 200 bpm (max HR) </li></ul><ul><li>Low end target zone is 60% of 200 bpm = 120 bpm </li></ul><ul><li>Top end target zone is 80% of 200 bpm = 160 bpm </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore the target zone is 120 – 160 bpm </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Aerobic (with air) activity </li></ul><ul><li>Any sustained activity requiring increased breathing and oxygen consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic activities normally last for a minute or more </li></ul><ul><li>Increases cardio - vascular fitness and efficiency of respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. long distance running </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic (without air) activity </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic activities are high intensity activities over a short period of time </li></ul><ul><li>They only last for 40 second or so, even the fittest athletes cannot work at this intensity for longer </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include 100m sprint </li></ul>Methods of Training
  6. 6. The Circulatory system Right ventricle Left ventricle Septum Tricuspid valve Bicuspid valve Right atrium Semilunar valves Vena cavae Aorta Pulmonary artery Pulmonary veins Left atrium Cardiac muscle
  7. 7. The Circulatory system To the lungs To the body From the lungs The left side pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body for use. The right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen . From the body
  8. 8. The Circulatory system <ul><li>Blood flows around the body in a ‘figure of eight’ circuit, passing through the heart twice on each circuit. Hence the name the Double Pump System. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 separate ‘loops’ to the circuit: </li></ul><ul><li>The top loop – carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back. </li></ul><ul><li>The bottom loop – carries blood from the heart to all over the body and back . </li></ul>(A) (A) (V) (V) Heart Body Lungs
  9. 9. The Circulatory system <ul><li>Heart rate is: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The number of times the heart beats each minute” </li></ul><ul><li>During exercise your HR will increase </li></ul><ul><li>With continued training your resting HR will be lower as your heart is stronger and more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke volume is: </li></ul><ul><li>“ the volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction” </li></ul><ul><li>At rest stroke volume may be 85ml, but when exercising it will increase up to 130ml </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Circulatory system <ul><li>Cardiac output is: </li></ul><ul><li>“ the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute” </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac output is governed by the HR and stroke volume </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac output = stroke volume x HR </li></ul><ul><li>When you train your cardiac output will increase because your heart is be bigger, stronger and more efficient </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Circulatory system <ul><li>There are three main types of blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Circulatory system Arteries Veins Capillaries Thick walls Much thinner walls than arteries Microscopic vessels Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart Carry deoxygenated blood to the heart They link the arteries with the veins More elastic than veins Less elastic than arteries At one end they carry arterial blood which transfers oxygen and nutrients to the muscles Cope with higher blood pressure Carry blood at lower pressures The channel the blood passes through (lumen) widens to cope with increased blood flow during exercise They contain many valves to stop blood flowing backwards, as venous blood is often flowing upwards against gravity At the other end, they pick up waste and carry venous blood into the veins as they pass through the system
  13. 13. The Circulatory system <ul><li>Blood structure: Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>It is the liquid part of the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Its functions include transporting: </li></ul>Glucose from the small intestine to the cells for use in energy production. Transporting carbon dioxide away from cells to the lungs for removal from the body. Other waste products away from cells for removal from the body, e.g. urea and heat when the body is hot.
  14. 14. The Circulatory system <ul><li>White blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>These have a nucleus (control centre) and vary in size and shape </li></ul><ul><li>Function includes: protecting the body from disease by </li></ul>Engulfing any invading microbes, defending the body from disease. Producing antibodies which help the body attack disease .
  15. 15. The Circulatory system <ul><li>Platelets </li></ul><ul><li>These are tiny pieces of cell which have no nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Their main function is to: </li></ul>Clump together when blood vessels are damaged and help to clog a ‘meshwork’ of fibres which create a clot, to help stop bleeding.
  16. 16. The Circulatory system <ul><li>Red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>These have no nucleus and are very flexible so they can pass through the extremely tiny capillaries of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Their main role is to: </li></ul>Collect and carry oxygen to all the cells of the body so they can create energy. In order to do this, red blood cells contain Haemoglobin, which combines with oxygen to become Oxyhaemoglobin.
  17. 17. The Respiratory System Trachea (wind pipe) Alveoli Bronchioles Intercostal muscles Ribs Bronchus Lung Diaphragm
  18. 18. The Respiratory System <ul><li>Inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>The intercostal muscles contract pulling the rib cage up and out </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm contracts causing it to flatten </li></ul><ul><li>Chest cavity gets larger causing pressure in the lungs to fall </li></ul><ul><li>Air moves into the lungs from the higher outside pressure </li></ul>Air flowing in
  19. 19. The Respiratory System <ul><li>Expiration </li></ul><ul><li>The intercostal muscles relax and so the rib cage returns to normal </li></ul><ul><li>The diaphragm relaxes pushing it up </li></ul><ul><li>The chest cavity gets smaller so the pressure in the lungs increases </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows out of the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>During periods of exercise expiration becomes an active process involving the forced expulsion of air </li></ul>Air flowing outward
  20. 20. The Respiratory System <ul><li>Alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Are tiny structures were diffusion of o2 and co2 takes place </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries have thin walls as well to allow exchange of o2 and co2 </li></ul><ul><li>The more training you do the more alveoli become available for gaseous exchange </li></ul>Thin wall Capillaries Red blood cells
  21. 21. The Respiratory System <ul><li>Gaseous exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli in close contact with blood capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>O2 in alveoli is diffused into blood capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Whilst the o2 is taken co2 is given out to the alveoli and breathed out </li></ul><ul><li>O2 is carried via circulatory system around the body in the red blood cells before being deposited in living cells </li></ul><ul><li>O2 is combined with glucose in the cell to produce energy along with waste products of co2 and water </li></ul><ul><li>The process then begins again when the deoxygenated blood returns to the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>During exercise there is increased demand for energy and therefore o2, there is also more co2 produced during exercise which must be removed </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Respiratory System <ul><li>Inhaled air into the </li></ul><ul><li>lungs (%) </li></ul>Exhale air out of the lungs (%) Oxygen 16% Nitrogen 79% Carbon Dioxide 4.0% Water vapour 1% Oxygen 20.95 % Nitrogen 79% Carbon Dioxide 0.04% Water vapour 0.01%
  23. 23. The Respiratory System <ul><li>Tidal volume </li></ul><ul><li>“ The volume of air you breath in and out in one breath” </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal volume increases during exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Vital capacity </li></ul><ul><li>“ the maximum amount of air you can breathe out after breathing in as much air as possible ” </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Respiratory System <ul><li>Oxygen debt </li></ul><ul><li>“ the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest (this results in a shortfall in the oxygen available) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Bones <ul><li>Bone Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Bone grows from Cartilage in the body, from when we are born. </li></ul><ul><li>It hardens with Calcium and other minerals, to form bone, called Ossification. </li></ul><ul><li>Bone growth begins at the centre of the bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth continues at the end of bones, but cartilage remains at the end of bones. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Bones <ul><li>Composition of bone </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphsis : End of a long bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphysis : The Shaft of a long bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage : A dense, elastic, connective tissue that cushions and connects many bones in the skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Periosteum : Tough membrane which surrounds bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium : A mineral vital for healthy bones, found in dairy products, eg milk, cheese, yogurt etc… </li></ul>
  27. 27. Bones
  28. 28. Bones <ul><li>Functions of skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Shape – without it we would be a pile of jelly. </li></ul><ul><li>Support – Allows us to hold positions, standing up. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement – Allows activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Production – Marrows within the bone produces all the vital ingredients of blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection – Protects the vital organs, eg, brain, hearts, lung etc.. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Bones <ul><li>Classification of bones </li></ul><ul><li>Long – Lever bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg Humerus, femur, phalanges etc.. </li></ul>2 . Short – Small Levers. Eg Carpals, tarsals. 3. Flat – Protecting bones. Cranium, patella, ribs etc.. 4. Irregular – More protection. Eg Vertebrae, protect the spinal cord.
  30. 30. Bones <ul><li>Bone forms part of our lean body mass, which relate to weight and can affect performance (Diet and Nutrition Year 10). </li></ul><ul><li>Bone determines size of body and length of limb, rugby players, gymnasts, high jumpers. </li></ul><ul><li>Bones influences Body Composition and can therefore influence participation and performance in Sport. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Bones <ul><li>You must also be able to identify the major bones of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Remember bone size will determine body size, weight and composition. </li></ul><ul><li>This will in turn affect your performance in sport </li></ul><ul><li>A good diet and regular exercise will help ensure healthy bone formation and long term health </li></ul>
  32. 32. Joints, tendons and ligaments <ul><li>A joint is: </li></ul><ul><li>“ a place were two bones meet” </li></ul><ul><li>Joints allow use to move freely during everyday life and in sporting activities </li></ul><ul><li>Without them our movement would be restricted </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. joints in our fingers allow us to grip (a racket, ball etc) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Joints, tendons and ligaments <ul><li>You need to now the different types of joint </li></ul><ul><li>Ball and socket (I.e shoulder0 </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial joint (I.e. knee) </li></ul><ul><li>You also need to know the role of cartilage, synovial fluid and membrane (give examples form the knee joint </li></ul>
  34. 34. Joints, tendons and ligaments <ul><li>Joint movements </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul>
  35. 35. Muscles and muscle action Hamstring Gluteals Gastrocnemius Muscle Position in the body Main Action In the middle of the body at the back, forming the bottom Pull the legs back at the hips. At the top of each leg at the back. Bend the legs at the knees At the bottom of each leg at the back. Also known as the calf muscles. Straighten the foot so you can stand on your toes.
  36. 36. Muscles and muscle action Pull your arms down at the shoulders and back behind your back. Straighten the arms at the elbow. Hold and rotate the shoulders and also move the head back and sideways. At the back of the body, either side of the chest. At the top of each arm at the back. In the centre of the chest at the back of the body, spreading up. Trapezius Latissimus dorsi Triceps Muscle Position in the Body Main Action
  37. 37. Muscles and muscle action Deltoids Biceps Quadriceps In the upper part of the body, covering the shoulders. At the top of each arm at the front. At the top of each leg at the front. Raise the arms in all directions at the shoulders. Bend the arms at the elbows. Straighten the legs at the knees. Muscle Position in the Body Main Action
  38. 38. Muscles and muscle action Pectorals In the upper part of the chest at the front. At the front of the body in the middle, just below the chest. Raise the arms up, sideways and across the chest at the shoulders. Pull in the abdomen and bend the spine so you can bend forward. Abdominals Muscle Position in the body Main Action
  39. 39. Muscles and muscle action <ul><li>Muscle types </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle </li></ul><ul><li>cardiac muscle works without you thinking about it (there is no conscious control) </li></ul><ul><li>It is only found in the walls of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Never tires and important for pumping blood around body during periods of activity </li></ul>
  40. 40. Muscles and muscle action <ul><li>Involuntary muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Also works without you thinking about it </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as smooth muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the walls of arteries, veins, stomach and intestines </li></ul>
  41. 41. Muscles and muscle action <ul><li>Voluntary muscles </li></ul><ul><li>You have full control over voluntary muscles </li></ul><ul><li>They are also know as striated or skeletal muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>They are attached to bone and cause the skeleton to move . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include the triceps and hamstrings. </li></ul><ul><li>They are the largest group of muscles in the body </li></ul>
  42. 42. Muscles and muscle action <ul><li>Antagonistic muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscles work across a joint and are attached to the bones by strong cords known as tendons. </li></ul><ul><li>They work in pairs, each contracting or relaxing in turn to create movement. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Muscles and muscle action <ul><li>Flexion (bending) of the arm </li></ul><ul><li>The muscle doing the work (contracting) and creating the movement is called the agonist or prime mover. </li></ul><ul><li>The muscle which is relaxing and letting the movement take place is called the antagonist. </li></ul>Agonist or Prime Mover (Biceps contract) Antagonist (Triceps relax)
  44. 44. Muscles and muscle action <ul><li>Fast twitch fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle Fibre Type </li></ul>Fast Twitch Very Powerful <ul><li>Endurance </li></ul>Can only work for short periods <ul><li>Energy Production </li></ul>Anaerobic Respiration Ideal for Sprinters <ul><li>For Who? </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Slow twitch fibres </li></ul>Muscles and muscle action Slow Twitch Weaker Can work for long periods Aerobic Respiration Ideal for Marathon Runners <ul><li>Contraction Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle Fibre Type </li></ul><ul><li>Endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Production </li></ul><ul><li>For Who? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Prevention of injury <ul><li>In all sports were competition is part of the game, rules will be in place to protect players, officials and spectators from injury. </li></ul><ul><li>How can we make activities safe? </li></ul><ul><li>Protective clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate footwear </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced competition </li></ul><ul><li>Weight categories </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed or single sexed competition </li></ul><ul><li>Age Groups </li></ul>
  47. 47. Balanced Competition <ul><li>Another way to make sport safe is to try to level the competition by grading competitors in various ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Weight categories – Boxing and Karate. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed or single sex competitions – contact sports. </li></ul><ul><li>Age groups – football etc. (but not all children of the same age are the same height or weight) </li></ul>
  48. 48. Sports Injuries <ul><li>Joint injuries </li></ul>
  49. 49. Sports injuries
  50. 50. Sports Injuries
  51. 51. Sports injuries <ul><li>Soft tissue injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Pulled muscle, strained muscle etc are all terms used to describe the same type of injury. </li></ul><ul><li>The muscle tendons become torn from the bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include pain, unable to move the limb, tearing /pulling sound </li></ul>
  52. 52. Sports Injuries
  53. 53. Sports Injuries <ul><li>The treatment for: JOINT INJURIES, </li></ul><ul><li>TENNIS and GOLF ELBOW, </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCLE/SOFT TISSUE INJURIES, </li></ul><ul><li>DISLOCATIONS and </li></ul><ul><li>TORN CARTILAGE </li></ul><ul><li>is the R.I.C.E . principle. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Sports Injury <ul><li>R – REST </li></ul><ul><li>I – ICE </li></ul><ul><li>C – COMPRESSION </li></ul><ul><li>E – ELEVATION </li></ul>
  55. 55. Sports injury
  56. 56. Sports Injury <ul><li>This is often caused by a severe impact to the head or when the body is starved of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>The treatment for an unconsciousness is the DR ABC principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Danger </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Airways </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul>
  57. 57. Sports Injury
  58. 58. Sports Injury <ul><li>Posture </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to keep our bodies balanced but we often stoop or sag. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time this can lead to problems with posture resulting in back / neck pain and discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>It can be caused by slouching in chairs, ill fitting shoes, poor muscle tone, flexibility and being overweight. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Sports Injuries <ul><li>How can we improve our posture ? </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Increase flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Loose weight </li></ul><ul><li>Sit upright </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid slouching </li></ul><ul><li>Wear well fitting shoes. </li></ul>