Olympics and International Events History of the Olympic Games Political uses of the Olympics Political Nature of Olympic Bidding Commercialisation and the Olympics Women and the Olympics Deviance In Sport Paralympics
History of the Olympic Games The Ancient Games The Stadium and the Games Involved Games Before the Modern Olympics The First Modern Olympic Games
The Ancient Games There were four major games:- The Olympia games, at Olympia in honour of the god Zeus The Pythian games, at Delphi to celebrate the festival of Apollo The Isthmian games, at Corinth in honour of the god Poseidon The Nemean games, at Nemea in honour of Zeus The prizes given to the winners of these competitions were usually crowns or garlands of leaves:- Olympia, wild olive leaves Delphi, Laurel leaves Isthmai, pine leaves Nemea, Wild celery leaves As the games evolved the ‘sporting element became more dominant rather than the ‘sacred’. By the 5th C they were almost separated. This developed the spread of athletics and Greek culture.
The Stadium and the Games involved The stadium had a curve at one end, and the gymnasium and the training area was at the open end. The competitors ran up and down the centre of the ‘infield’ (not around the edge). Events of a long distance had to be negotiated around a turning post at either end of the stadium. Events Included:- The Stade-a foot race of 200 meters The Diaulos-A foot race of approximately 400 meters The Dolichos-A long distance race of approximately 1,500-5,000 metres The Hippolite/Hoplite (race in armour)-this may have originally be an equestrian event (‘hippo’ implies horse). The Pankration-a form of no-holds barred fighting, often to the death The Pentathlon-which consisted of a 200 meter run, the long jump, the javelin, the discus and the wrestling events.
Games Before the Modern Olympics The most notable games were:- The Cotswold Olympick Games, first mentioned in 1636 and was founded by Robert Dover ( a lawyer) The Wenlock Olympian games, founded in the 1850s by Dr William Penny Brookes. The ‘folk’ or popular, tradition was highly valued in both games. This was also very distinct of the ancient Greece and the early modern Olympics where class was essential to entry. The National Olympian Association (NOA) was later formed in London. The held several Olympic festivals in London, Liverpool, Birmingham, Wellington, Much Wenlock and Shrewsbury. Brooks tried to convince the king of Greece to hold a modern version of the Olympics but did not succeed (1859). However Baron De Coubertin had better success possibly due to his aristocratic connections. De Coubertin also went on the form the International Olympic Committee (IOC)
The First Modern Olympic Games On Easter Sunday 1896, 311 athletes from 13 nations entered the first modern Olympic games the nations were:-Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Chile, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungry, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. Some of the events that had survived form the ancient games were:-Javelin, Discus, Running Races and Wrestling. The other games that were added were acceptable nineteenth century middle-class elite sports. All of the sports played were:-Athletics, Fencing, Lawn Tennis, Swimming, Weightlifting, Cycling, Gymnastics, Shooting, Wrestling.
Political uses of the Olympics The Ping Pong Diplomacy Shop-Window Policy Apartheid Olympics as a Political Tool
The Ping Pong Diplomacy This was so named after the visit of US table tennis players and swimmers to china as part of the USA’s attempts to re-open diplomatic relations with the country and its re-admittance to the IOC. China had refused to recognise the right of Taiwan to compete as an independent nation. Taiwan is the last remaining independent territory that formerly belonged to mainland China. (Revise for advanced PE for Edexcel. The table tennis team had 16 players.
Shop-window policy This involves the use of sporting success to show off a political system. It is used by former bloc countries for propaganda purposes but now also by many Western governments for political and economic reasons. Most nations now recognise that impressive performances at an Olympic games produce a ‘spin-off’ effect for business as well as a boost for national pride. The Olympic games has become the world’s most effective shop window. Revise for advances PE for Edexcel. People such as Kelly Holmes my be a large Factor hat effectively brings the 2012 Olympic games to London.
Apartheid This is the system of exclusion of blacks and coloureds from mainstream life in South Africa –Including in sport The IOC was strongly criticised for the delay in responding to calls for the exclusion of South Africa over its policy of Apartheid. New Zealand’s insistence on mainstream sporting links with South Africa led directly to the African boycotts of the games in 1976 and added to the absence from Moscow four years later. The Gleneagles agreement on sporting contacts with South Africa (1977) had called on all commonwealth nations to refrain from any sporting contact with that country. Zola Bud ( a white South African) aroused much controversy by adopting British citizenship to allow her to run in Olympic competition in Britain in 1984. SANOC was a non –racial organisation, but had no influence on its government.
The Olympics as a political tool Many Olympics have become associated with political incidents. They can be categorised as tools of: Reconciliation, recognised, global non-systematic protest, global systematic protest, propaganda, devolution and corruption. Many governments now fund the Olympic preparation of their national teams and national sports institutes, and their associated infrastructure are becoming the norm rather than the exception. Previous assertions that politics and sport have no connection have now been discarded.
The Political nature of Olympic bidding How the Olympics are awarded Criticisms for the bidding Why cities bid for the Olympics Atlanta not Athens
How the Olympics are awarded The bidding procedure identifies future Olympic venues six years before the games take place. Any number of cities may bid, but only one will be accepted from each country. National Olympic committees oversee multiple bids and decide which one will go forward. In the final bidding process, a city with a clear majority wins the games. If there is no clear majority, the least successful city drops out and the IOC identifies four leading contenders from the remaining cities. Bids have been far more plentiful since the advent of commercial backing to finance huge outlay. Some 21 cities made initial bids for the games in Barcelona and over 40 cities expressed interest in the 2000 games in Sydney. Even winter Olympiads now attract far more bids than previously.
Criticisms for the bidding The bidding process has attracted growing attention and criticism in recent years: Accusations have been made that the IOC delegations have sought inducements in the form of gifts, cash and other ‘favours’ in return for their vote. The involvement of businessmen and politicians has also been alleged, with the result that the IOC was forced to undertake a critical review of its procedures. Some commissioners have been removed from office, whilst others have reigned. President Samaranch was required
Why cities bid for the Olympics The honour of hosting an Olympic games became a very expensive one! Montreal suffered serious financial difficulties following its financing of the games in 1976. By 1984 a way was found to generate corporate funding that wouldpay for facilities. This was so successful that potential host cities are now plentiful; they no longer fear bankruptcy but expect to make profits. T.V networks now pay huge sums to secure broadcasting rights, and the resultant ‘global’ exposure is sought by both politicians and businessmen. There are high stakes to be played for in terms of infrastructure development and business and commercial benefits There are clear political benefits to be gained from being associated with a successful bid. Potential host cities market themselves fiercely; clearly aware of the benefits of a successful bid
Atlanta not Athens It was perhaps the biggest shock of all. It had long been considered that Athens would be the ideal venue for the (centenary) Olympics of 1996. The then IOC president had declared publicly that Athens was the clear favourite. Atlanta was way down the list of nominations but was finally awarded the games. It just happened to be the headquarters of the coca-cola company! There were (as with the Manchester bids) suggestions that Greeks politics were not to the liking of the then IOC president. It is perhaps not surprising that the second millennium closed with the IOC under the scrutiny of the media, the supporting world generally and with some governments questioning whether it was a fit organisation to do business in their country.
Commercialisation and the Olympics The armature ideal Effects of the Montreal Games Peter Ueberroth and the LA Games Influences of Sponsorships Golden Triangle Globalisation of Sport The Olympic Program (TOP) Corruption of the system
The Amateur Ideal Armature status relied a lot on social standing as it did on competing ‘just for the love of the sport’. In the 19th century and early 20th century national sports governing century, bodies were extremely stick on the laws of amateurism. This excluded participants who would have taken part in the Olympics but couldn’t because of how they earned there living. The lower classes found it hard to find time and money to train to the highest level, although the rich found it much easier. Brundage and other IOC presidents thought it no longer realistic to to cling to amateur principles. US athletes had an unfair advantage for they had a scholarship system, also did athletes from communist countries who had state funding.
Effects of the Montreal Games Montreal incurred a huge financial loss this also made it clear that ‘amateur’ games which were being funded by a single host city was no longer viable. The Moscow games were funded by the Soviet government but a solution was needed to be found before the 1984 games.
Peter Ueberroth and the LA Games Peter Ueberroth was given the task of making the 1984 games viable by the Los Angeles organising committee. He was so successful this set the pattern for future games. Ueberroth got private enterprises to build the games facilities, and charged everybody for about everything else he could to make money. Because of Peter Ueberroth it was the first time the Olympic games and the IOC made any profit. The IOC could then not object to the athletes making money them self's.
Influences of Sponsorships Major sponsors and major franchise-holders have considerable influence over the IOC, because of their vast investment into the advertising of their goods through the Olympics. It is not unusual these days for events to be moved or altered to fit in with prime-time broadcasting, or an event to be delayed until a program has finished. Sponsorship now has a hold over sport, it is seen as the back door to or the controlling. For example: T.V companies can buy exclusive contracts for the live viewing off football fixtures.
Golden Triangle TV-Has a major impact on sport because people are able to watch live sports events and highlights. TV also has specialized channels such as sky sports news where you are able to find out sporting information all day. Sponsorship /Sponsor- Sponsorship is where a company gives money for the rights to associate there company with the event. Companies sponsor sports to get public recognition of there companies name. Sponsorship has a major impact on both sport and sports people. Event-The initial sporting event is important because without it sponsorship and coverage on TV wouldn’t happen.
Globalisation of Sport Olympic sport had become financially secure over night from the success of the L.A games. Because of satellite technology there were new communication networks available, the satellites were funded by subscriptions. They broadcasted the Olympics and other sporting events. This globalises the audience. At each games there are sponsors willing to part with their money in return for a piece of the global market. This is sometimes refer red to the as the ‘sale of the rings’. Because of the satellite technology the sponsors and other commercial interests means a global market in which they can advertise their goods and services. Also sports themselves can now cross cultural boundaries.
The Olympic Program (TOP) This system ensures that all TOP sponsors are unchallenged in their category of merchandise, and that they also have world marketing rights They are also able to use the Olympic symbols and have exclusive hospitality rights at the games. TOP sponsors for the games in Sydney included: Coca -Cola, IBM, John Hancock, Kodak, McDonald's, Panasonic (uk), Samsung Electronics, Swatch, Time International, UPS and VISA. A T.V network in America paid $705 million for rights to the 2000 Sydney games and the 1998 winter games in Nagano. The market that the Olympics reach per day is on average 1.5 billion.(people watching on T.V)
Corruption of the system Some alleged incidents against the IOC have included: Commissioners accepting cash or material rewards in return for t here vote Influences on the future games depending business or political interests Awarding of contracts without a proper tendering process The “buying” of a medal A‘lost’ or ‘misplaced’ drug test results President Samaranch thought nothing wrong by accepting personal gifts, when he was faced with accusations regarding his own conduct.
Women and the Olympics Rise of Women in sport Discrimination Against Women Women's Involvement in the IOC The Modern Sporting Female
Rise of Women in Sport The first Olympic games in 1896 woman have been involved, In this instance a German woman Melomene won the marathon unofficially. The first official participation from women was in 1900 with golf and tennis and in 1904 with archery. Britain's Charlotte Cooper was the first female gold medallist, in the tennis singles, however gold medallist is a bit misleading in t his instance because medals were not awarded to winners until the 1908 games in London. Alice Milliat from France had threatened to stage a women’s event in opposition to the Olympics after this women were allowed to enter the athletics event in 1928. USA’s Mildred “Babe” Didrikson was the Olympics first female star of the games, she won two gold medals in the 1932 Olympiad. In 1932 the first purpose built athletes village housed 1,300 male athletes and only 120 female athletes. The first media catching female was Fanny Blankers--Koen, she won 4 gold medals, at 100 meters, 200 meters, 100 meters hurdles and the 4x 100 meter relay at the London games in 1948.
Discrimination Against Women The culture in which women live is a reflection on whether or no t they have access to sport. Because some fundamentalist Muslim countries do not allow their women to be seen in public, they are not able to take part in an y sporting activities. In the 1936 games there was only 4 sports which enabled women to take part, in 1996 this had risen dramatically to 24. Equality has been denied women for years it is to complex to resolve in the sporting arena alone. For years women have been denied equal access to sport on 4 main levels these are: Global: an example for a constraint at global level is that wome n are not allowed to enter the steeplechase in athletics. Institutional: many institution and organisations for example do not allow women to box. Cultural: women do not have the same freedom as men concerning sport in some religions. Domestic: women are prevented from competing as they wish because of there countries social traditions.
Women's Involvement in the IOC At administrative/commissioner level it is a relatively new development for the involvement of women. 1981 was the year the first women’s IOC delegate was appointed -this is 85 years after the first modern Olympic games! The first two British delegates were Dame Mary Glen –Haig (1982) and HRH the Princess Royal (1984). In a recent IOC review (2000) it has been established that there will be more women delegates appointed. In 1996 the IOC decreed that by (2000) there shall be at least 20% more senior post in National Olympic Organisation held by women.
The Modern Sporting Female Constraints were held against women for them to be modest, appropriate and have restraint. A “flirtatious” Olga Korbut was called in because of an injury to a team mate then did a daring and flirtatious floor routine which changed all of that . The power of the sporting female: Suddenly it was acceptable for young women athletes to be attractive athletes. Women changed out of the ordinary gym--slip and in to the modern world of fashion . The media were very interested in this new look for women in sport and started to promote this new feminine look.
The Modern Sporting Female Continued... Some women do not accept that fact that it was their image rather than their ability which landed them in the lime light of the gymnasium. Some women who do not wish to exploit the market does not mean t hat others are not free to do so. Even though the institutionalised constraints have been slightly overcome there are other aspects of difficulty for example local and cultural barriers before they can have the freedom to enjoy sport which is already enjoyed by thousands of other women. Because this is a big debate some progress has been made. The image and power of the female athlete keeps growing and growing. The failure of some top women sport stars to attract sponsorship deals of the same value as top men sports stars is an important issue, an d is evidence that woman’s sport is finally on the global market.
Deviance In Sport Lombardian Ethic Concept of Sportsmanship Sportsmanship into Gamesmanship Deviant Behaviour Types of Deviant Behaviour Examples of Deviance WADA
The Lombardian Ethic Vince Lombardian was a successful American football coach. He has a very famous saying ‘Win at all costs’. This has been known as the Lombardian Ethic. This is very controversial however sports players all over the world have taken notice. Therefore ‘Sportsmanship’ has been replaced by ‘Gamesmanship’ For example ‘diving’ in football is something we see most top flight matches.
Concept of Sportsmanship The British conception of sportsmanship was based upon the philosophy of honourable performance without seeking to gain unfair advantage. Concepts of sportsmanship must be viewed a global terms rather than purely ‘British’ ones. Public school masters-late 19thC to early 20thC agreed to view that it was better to lose honourably than to win by cheating This found its way into society at large, in Britain and all parts of the Empire and later Commonwealth. Today's young people though, prefer the view that, ‘you get away with whatever you can’ Sport does not exist in a vacuum and change in social values will inevitably be reflected in sporting ones. Potential rewards for success may often-rightly or wrongly-cause performers/coaches to override any moral considerations.
Sportsmanship into Gamesmanship Defined as:- Sportsmanship- The intentions to compete within the rules Gamesmanship- The intention to compete to the limit allowed by the rules-and beyond, if possible. Reasons for different sporting Philosophies Adaptations of sporting values was driven by 19thC middle class morality Value of sport was that it contained a code of conduct, good behaviour, responsibility and of loyalty and Christian virtue. Any deviance form the moral code implicit in such values makes an activity ‘non-sporting’-viewed in this perspective, much of today's sport might be considered as entertainment rather than sport . The contemporary view of sportsmanship has changed since the days of Barron De Coubertin and Avery Brundage
Deviant Behaviour Anything form wiring a fences epee so that it registers hits that do not exist, blood doping-so you can carry more oxygen, or taking a band substance in order to enhance performance is cheating. Deviance definition refers to the behaviour of those who will find there own way however the rules are framed. In this context deviance can be defined therefore as any behaviour designed to gain unfair advantage by the means of : Gamesmanship Deliberate infringement of rules Interfering with equipment Knowingly taking band substances with the intention of gaining an unfair advantage Being involved in an act, their intention of which is to gain an unfair advantage.
Types of Deviance Deviant behaviour is not only the province of individuals or small groups. Governments of former Easter bloc countries supported hugely deviant programs designed to win gold medals whatever the cost. Republic of china has also recently been associated with such practices. For Example: East German female swimmers, athletes and gymnasts were forced to become pregnant and then told to have abortions which additional vitamin supplies produced by the body in such circumstances which results in greatest competitive circumstances. Deviant behaviour in sport falls into one or more of the following categories:- Institutional Group specific Individual And: Co-operative Voluntary Enforced
Examples of Deviance Ben Johnson 100m Olympic champion is a example of co-operative/individual deviance, decided to gain advantage from the use of steroids and banned from athletics for life. Also David Jenkins (British 400m record holder) supplied banned substances to those athletes who bought them. The IOC is blamed despite evidence of deviant practice, Refuses to demand the return of medals. The IOC anti-doping campaign is based upon three principles The protection of the health of athletes The respect for medical and sports ethnics Ensuring an equal chance for everyone in competition
WADA This is the World Anti-Doping Agency. It was established in 1999 as a independent agency and is known worldwide. It was funded by the sport movement and governments of the world. Their aim is to have the world as a doping-free culture in sport. They are trying to do this by doing scientific research, educating, developing anti- doping capacities and monitoring of the World Anti Doping Code. They use the phrase ‘Play True’ as there slogan. Genetic Engineering This is something WADA has tried to clamp down on. This is when people try to genetically enhance the performance of an athlete. This includes gene doping, this is ‘the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to enhance athletic performance’
Paralympics History of the Paralympics Impairment Classification IOC Support of the Disabled Movement
History of the Paralympics Dr Ludwig Guttmann organised a sport competition for disabled veterans of the Second World War(1948)•He also ran the spinal injuries centre at Stoke Mandeville hospital. The first Olympic-type Games for wheelchair athletes was organised in 1960, but competitions was not expanded to include other groups until 1976in Toronto. Disabled athletes have shared the main Olympics venue since the Summer Games (1988) and Winter Games (1992) The IOC made no commitment to assist the International Paralympics Committee (IPC, formed 1989) until 1988
Impairment Classification The first Games to be known as the Olympic Games for the Disabled took place in Geilo, Sweden in 1988 The first use of the term ‘Paralympics’ was in Seoul (1988) The current impairment classification includes athletes with: Cerebral Palsy (CP-ISRA) Spinal cord lesion, Spinal Bifida and Polio (ISMWSF) Blindness (IBSA) Amputations
IOC Support of the Disabled Movement Samaranch felt that too close an association with the Paralympics movement might harm the market potential of the Games. He make three things clear:- He did not want the title ‘The Olympic Games for the Disabled’ used. He would not allow the Olympic flag to be used for disabled events. There would be no inclusion of disability events in the main Olympic programme. The flag of the Paralympics movement has three teardrops, but Paralympics events do now take place in the main stadium.
Links With Olympic Movement Since 1988, the relationship between the IOC and the IPC has improved considerably. As a result of an agreement in October 2000: The IPC President will be co-opted as a member of the IOC. Representatives of the IPC will be included in relevant IOC Commissions The IOC will contribute US$300,000 towards IPC administration costs from 2001-2004. A further US$100,000 annual subsidy will be made available for development projects. There will be a financial contribution to assist athletes from developing countries in the Paralympic Games. The IOC and the IPC will establish a link between their websites. A programme of training and exchange of staff will be formulated. Agreement will be reached on the organisation of future Paralympic Games.