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- 1. Acquiring Movement SkillsAcquiring Movement Skills Applying classification toApplying classification to determine practicedetermine practice
- 2. Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives Describe the methods ofDescribe the methods of manipulating skills to facilitatemanipulating skills to facilitate learning and improving performancelearning and improving performance – Part practicePart practice – Whole practiceWhole practice – Progressive part practiceProgressive part practice – Whole-part-whole practiceWhole-part-whole practice Evaluate critically these methodsEvaluate critically these methods
- 3. IntroductionIntroduction The skill you want to learn must first beThe skill you want to learn must first be classified (on continua).classified (on continua). To determine the best method of practice,To determine the best method of practice, the coach/teacher will place it on thethe coach/teacher will place it on the organisational and difficulty continua (taskorganisational and difficulty continua (task analysis)analysis) What is Task Analysis?What is Task Analysis? – Analysing a skill using the classification systemAnalysing a skill using the classification system to decide on how to teach the skillto decide on how to teach the skill They will consider the following:They will consider the following:
- 4. Task AnalysisTask Analysis Be broken down Into separate parts? Low in organisation Not be broken down Into separate parts? Involve many decisions/sub routines, Have to be carried out quickly/accurately? Involve Few deci- sions etc. High in organisation Complex skill Simple skill
- 5. Practice TypesPractice Types Movement classification is often usedMovement classification is often used to determine the most effective waysto determine the most effective ways to learn and practise skills. Theto learn and practise skills. The conditions in which a skill is learnedconditions in which a skill is learned or practised should also replicate theor practised should also replicate the circumstances of actual performancecircumstances of actual performance as closely as possible.as closely as possible.
- 6. Part PracticePart Practice Low organisation skills can be broken down intoLow organisation skills can be broken down into sub-routines.sub-routines. What type of skill might you use part practiceWhat type of skill might you use part practice with?with? Serial skill (Why?)Serial skill (Why?) It has a number of discrete elements, putIt has a number of discrete elements, put together in a definite order.together in a definite order. Part practice allows the performer to work onPart practice allows the performer to work on an isolated sub-routine in order to perfect it.an isolated sub-routine in order to perfect it.
- 7. Part PracticePart Practice Part practice reduces the possibility ofPart practice reduces the possibility of overload, so is useful with beginners.overload, so is useful with beginners. It allows a performer to focus on a specificIt allows a performer to focus on a specific sub-routine and can, therefore, be usefulsub-routine and can, therefore, be useful in correcting faulty technique.in correcting faulty technique. It can also be useful with complex skills orIt can also be useful with complex skills or with those involving an element of danger.with those involving an element of danger.
- 8. Part PracticePart Practice Gymnasts and trampolinists useGymnasts and trampolinists use chainingchaining toto learn and link the movements or sub-routines oflearn and link the movements or sub-routines of their sequences. It is important for them to learntheir sequences. It is important for them to learn the movements in the correct order.the movements in the correct order. Backward chaining is sometimes used whenBackward chaining is sometimes used when teaching skills such as throwing events inteaching skills such as throwing events in athletics, e.g.. Javelinathletics, e.g.. Javelin E.G.??E.G.?? Swimmer learning, leg, then arm actionsSwimmer learning, leg, then arm actions
- 9. Part PracticePart Practice What types of skills will be good to practice likeWhat types of skills will be good to practice like this?this? Serial skills (sub routines)Serial skills (sub routines) It is important for the learner to see the wholeIt is important for the learner to see the whole skill demonstrated, to give them an overallskill demonstrated, to give them an overall picture.picture. What disadvantages are there?What disadvantages are there?
- 10. Part PracticePart Practice It takes longer than others, transferringIt takes longer than others, transferring parts into the whole can be difficult, youparts into the whole can be difficult, you loose the kinaesthetic sense and flow ofloose the kinaesthetic sense and flow of the whole skill.the whole skill. Give an example and describe a partGive an example and describe a part practice...practice... A gymnast learning a hand stand, forwardA gymnast learning a hand stand, forward roll and somersault, then putting all ofroll and somersault, then putting all of them together.them together.
- 11. TaskTask Think of an activity and apply ‘PartThink of an activity and apply ‘Part practice’ to it.practice’ to it.
- 12. Whole PracticeWhole Practice High organisation skills need to be taughtHigh organisation skills need to be taught as a whole as the sub-routines cannot beas a whole as the sub-routines cannot be separated without disrupting the flow ofseparated without disrupting the flow of the movement e.g. Sprinting, dribbling,the movement e.g. Sprinting, dribbling, golf swing.golf swing. Ideally all skills should be taught as aIdeally all skills should be taught as a whole as this allows the learner to developwhole as this allows the learner to develop a feel of the skill. This is termeda feel of the skill. This is termed kinaesthesis.kinaesthesis. What is this??What is this??
- 13. Whole PracticeWhole Practice – Kinaesthesis: The awareness of theKinaesthesis: The awareness of the relative position of the limbs and jointsrelative position of the limbs and joints in space and the state of the contractionin space and the state of the contraction of the muscles.of the muscles. The performer experiences the whole skillThe performer experiences the whole skill and so is good for learningand so is good for learning ballisticballistic skills.skills. – Ballistic: Short and fast skills, e.g. GolfBallistic: Short and fast skills, e.g. Golf swingswing
- 14. Whole PracticeWhole Practice What disadvantages are there?What disadvantages are there? Not suitable for complex or dangerousNot suitable for complex or dangerous skills, but it is quicker than using partskills, but it is quicker than using part practicepractice http://www.teachnet-uk.org.uk/2007%20Phttp://www.teachnet-uk.org.uk/2007%20P
- 15. TaskTask Apply ‘Whole practice’ to a skill andApply ‘Whole practice’ to a skill and explain it.explain it.
- 16. Progressive – Part PracticeProgressive – Part Practice Parts of complex skills are practiced in isolation,Parts of complex skills are practiced in isolation, then linked together in larger parts beforethen linked together in larger parts before combining into the whole skill. E.G.??combining into the whole skill. E.G.?? Floor routines in gymnasticsFloor routines in gymnastics This is good for complex serial skills because: itThis is good for complex serial skills because: it reduces the info load, helps the flow of the skill,reduces the info load, helps the flow of the skill, helps the transfer of skills into the whole.helps the transfer of skills into the whole. This is sometimes referred to as ‘chaining.’This is sometimes referred to as ‘chaining.’
- 17. Progressive – Part PracticeProgressive – Part Practice 1. Teach Part A 2. Teach Part B 3. Teach part A + B 4. Teach Part C 5. Teach Part ABC Can you think of a progressive part practice? Explain how you would structure the part practices.
- 18. Whole – Part – Whole PracticeWhole – Part – Whole Practice This involves presenting the whole skill to theThis involves presenting the whole skill to the performer.performer. The sub-routines are then practised separately.The sub-routines are then practised separately. You can focus on parts that are more difficult, orYou can focus on parts that are more difficult, or parts the learner is struggling with.parts the learner is struggling with. Finally the whole skill is reintroduced.Finally the whole skill is reintroduced.
- 19. Whole – Part – Whole PracticeWhole – Part – Whole Practice Advantages of this practice are, theAdvantages of this practice are, the learner can get a better feel of the skill,learner can get a better feel of the skill, than part practice.than part practice. Disadvantages are that this practiceDisadvantages are that this practice cannot be used for highly organised skills,cannot be used for highly organised skills, which are dangerous.which are dangerous.
- 20. Skill SimplificationSkill Simplification If a skill is complex, high in organisation and/orIf a skill is complex, high in organisation and/or dangerous the task should be made easier. This isdangerous the task should be made easier. This is called task simplification.called task simplification. Eg.Eg. A bicycle could be fitted with stabilisers.A bicycle could be fitted with stabilisers. A harness could be used to assist a trampolinist inA harness could be used to assist a trampolinist in learning somersaultslearning somersaults Children may play short tennis before progressing toChildren may play short tennis before progressing to tennistennis Small sided games of hockey/ football may beSmall sided games of hockey/ football may be introduced before progressing to the full gameintroduced before progressing to the full game
- 21. FLASHCARDSFLASHCARDS A revision toolA revision tool
- 22. TaskTask Choose a skill from one of yourChoose a skill from one of your practical activities.practical activities. Create a plan to teach it. ExplainCreate a plan to teach it. Explain how and why you decided on usinghow and why you decided on using each method.each method.

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