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    PEShare.co.uk Shared Resource PEShare.co.uk Shared Resource Presentation Transcript

    • Anatomy and Movement Mechanics LR AS OCR 2005
    • Functions of Skeletal System
      • Protect organs and soft tissues
      • Support soft tissues/Gives Shape
      • Facilitate production of RBCs
      • Acts as a reservoir for minerals e.g. phosphorus and calcium
      • Provides attachment for skeletal muscles (produces a lever system for body movement)
    • Simple Skeletal Anatomy
      • Axial Skeleton consists of….
        • Skull
        • Spinal column
        • Ribs and sternum
      • Appendicular Skeleton consists of…
        • Appendages…arms, legs and pelvic girdle
    • Types of Bones
      • Long bones
        • Legs, arms, fingers and toes
        • Consist of a DIAPHYSIS or shaft
        • Ends of long bones are EPIPHYSES
        • Joint surfaces of bones covered with ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
        • Outer membrane of bone is PERIOSTEUM
      • Flat bones
        • Cranium
    • Types of Bones
      • Short bones
        • Bones of the ankles (tarsal bone) and wrist (carpals)
        • Mostly spongy bone with thin outer layer of compact bone
      • Irregular shaped bones
        • Vertebrae
        • Muscle attachments
      • Seasmoid bones
        • Patella – Found within a ligament
    • Joint Structure and Function
      • An articulation (joint) is a point of contact between two or more bones.
      • Trade off between strength and stability.
        • Immoveable (fibrous) ( Synarthrodial) ; sutures of skull
        • Cartilaginous (or Amphiarthrodial )
          • Bones separated with fibrocartilage disk
        • Synovial (or Diarthrodial )
          • Freely moveable; most common
          • Ligaments, muscles provide stability
    • Anatomy of a Synovial Joint
      • Joint enclosed in articular capsule (ligamentous)
      • Synovial membrane lines inner surface of articular capsule
      • Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid
      • Hyaline or articular cartilage lines bone ends (absorbs shock and decreases friction)
    • Anatomy of a Synovial Joint
      • Articular discs (menisci)
        • Pads of fibrocartilage
        • Maintain stability & fit, ↓ friction
        • Torn cartilage
      • Bursae
        • Saclike structures
        • Alleviate friction
        • Lined with synovial membrane
        • Between skin and bones ; tendons and bones; ligaments and bones
        • Bursitis
    • Factors affecting movement at Synovial Joints
      • Shape of articulating bones
      • Strength and tension of ligaments
      • Arrangement and tension of muscles
      • Apposition of soft parts
      • Hormones
    • Types of Synovial Joints
      • Uniaxial or HINGE joint
        • Movement in only one plane
        • Knee/elbow
      • Biaxial or CONDYLOID
        • Movement in two plane or
        • two axis of motion
        • Wrist
      • Triaxial or BALL AND SOCKET
        • 3 planes of motion involving a
        • concave surface
        • Hip joint/ Shoulder joint
    • Synovial Joints con’t….
      • Nonaxial or GLIDING
        • Motion is sliding rather than
        • motion around an axis
        • Bones of the wrist
      • SADDLE joint
        • Movement in two planes
        • Thumb joint
      • PIVOT Joint
        • Turning movement about
        • one long central axis
        • Radio-ulnar joint
    • Planes of Movement
      • Planes
      • Human movements are described in three dimensions based on a series of planes and axis. There are three planes of motion that pass through the human body.
      • The sagital plane
      • The frontal/coronal plane
      • The transverse (horizontal) plane
      • The sagital plane lies vertically and divides the body into right and left parts.
      • The frontal plane also lies vertically however divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
      • The transverse plane lies horizontally and divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
    • Anatomical Position N eed reference terms to describe the relationship of body structures to one another.
      • Superior.. a structure that is higher than another e.g. knee is superior to ankle joint
      • Inferior… a structure that lies below another e.g ankle joint is inferior to knee joint
    • Anatomical Position
      • Posterior: The back of the body or structure e.g. the back is posterior to the abdominals
      • Anterior: The front of the body or structure e.g. The bellybutton is anterior to the gluteal muscles
    • Anatomical Position
      • Medial: A structure that is closer to the midline of the body or movement towards the midline e.g. the sternum is medial to the shoulder
      • Lateral: A structure further away from the midline or movement away from the midline e.g the shoulders are lateral to the chin
    • Anatomical Position
      • Distal: The end of a structure on the extremities located further from the trunk e.g.the hand is distal to the elbow.
      • Proximal: The end of a structure on the extremities located closer to the trunk e.g the elbow is proximal to the hand.
    • Anatomical Position
      • Dorsal: The top of the foot
      • Plantar: The bottom of the foot
      Dorsal Plantar
    • Movement Mechanics
      • Nervous Sysytem and Muscular Sysytem coordination to produce movement involves the principle of LEVERS.
      • 4 elements:
        • Rigid levers are long bones of body
        • Joint act as the fulcrum or axis of movement
        • Muscles act as the force is applied to the lever
        • Body segments or external resistance act as the load.
    • Types of Contractions
      • Concentric contraction (shortening)
        • Forcible contraction leading to muscle shortening
        • Understand role of AGONIST & ANTAGONIST MUSCLES
      • Eccentric contraction (lengthening)
        • Muscle acts as a brake to control speed of movement caused by another force
      • Isometric contraction (static)
        • Muscle exerts a force that counteracts an opposing force
    • Types of Movements
      • Anatomical Position/Foetal position
      • Flexion/Extension
      • Horizontal Flexion/Extension
      • Abduction/Adduction
      • Rotation
      • Circumduction
      • Pronation/Supination
      • Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion
      • Lateral Flexion
              • Task 10 P14-15
    • Movements
    • Movements
    • Movements
    • Joint Movements
      • Shoulder
        • Flexion – anterior movement of the arm to a decreasing angle from neutral
        • Extension – posterior movement
        • Abduction – raising arm to side away from body
        • Adduction – bringing arm towards the side
        • Internal rotation – medial rotation so that anterior surface is turned to the body
        • External rotation – lateral rotation
        • Horizontal Flexion/Extension
        • Scapular elevation - raising to head/ears
        • Depression - lowering shoulder blades
        • Protraction - forward
        • Retraction – back or shoulder blades together
        • Rotation (Up or Down)- refers to lower angle of scapula
        • Circumduction – Extension, Abduction, Flexion, Adduction
    • Joint Movements
      • Elbow
        • Flexion
        • Extension
        • Slight Abduction, Adduction
      • Radio-Ulnar
        • Pronation
        • Supination
      • Knee
        • Flexion
        • Extension
        • Slight Abduction, Adduction
    • Joint Movement
      • Spine
        • Flexion (sit-up)
        • Extension
        • Rotation
        • Lateral Flexion (side bend)
    • Joint Movements
      • Hip
        • Flexion…thigh up to abdomen
        • Extension
        • Adduction
        • Abduction
        • Lateral or outward rotation
        • Medial or inward rotation
        • Circumduction
    • Joint Movements
      • Ankle
        • Dorsiflexion
        • Plantar flexion
        • Inversion
        • Eversion
      • Wrist
        • Flexion/Extension
        • Adduction or radial deviation
        • Abduction or ulnar deviation
        • Circumduction