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    PEShare.co.uk Shared Resource PEShare.co.uk Shared Resource Presentation Transcript

    • HEART EXAM QUESTIONS
      • 1. THE HEART ACTS AS TWO SEPARATE PUMPS RESPONSIBLE FOR 2 CIRCULATORY NETWORKS OF BLOOD VESSELS.
      • DRAW & LABEL A DIAGRAM TO SHOW THE 2 CIRCULATORY NETWORKS
      • (5)
      • RA RV
      PULMONARY ARTERY LUNGS LV LA BODY (VENULES) (CAPILLARIES) (ARTERIOLES) AORTA PULMONARY VEINS (VENULES) (CAPILLARIES) (ARTERIOLES)
    • 2. The amount of blood that the heart manages to pump out a crucial factor during exercise. Define the terms STROKE VOLUME , HEART RATE & CARDIAC OUTPUT
      • HEART RATE – THE NUMBER OF TIMES THE HEART BEATS IN ONE MINUTE
      • STROKE VOLUME – THE VOLUME OF BLOOD PUMPED BY EACH VENTRICLE IN ONE CONTRACTION
      • CARDIAC OUTPUT – THE VOLUME OF BLOOD PUMPED BY EACH VENTRICLE IN ONE MINUTE / = STROKE VOLUME X HEART RATE (Q = SV X HR)
      • HOW IS CARDIAC OUTPUT INCREASED?
      • VENOUS RETURN IS INCREASED
      • RELEASE OF ADRENALINE STIMULATES SA NODE
      • VOLUME INCREASES WHICH STRETCHES VENTRICULAR WALLS WHICH WILL INCREASE SROKE VOLUME
      • SYMPATHETIC NERVE (ACCELERATOR) SPEEDS UP SA NODE
      • 4. THE BLOOD IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SUPPLYING THE VITAL INGREDIENTS NEEDED FOR THE MUSCLES TO WORK , AS WELL AS FOR CARRYING AWAY WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE WORKING MUSCLES.
      • HOW ARE OXYGEN & CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORTED IN THE BLOOD?
      • OXYGEN
      • Red blood cells contain haemoglobin
      • Haemoglobin has an affinity for 02
      • 97% of O2 combines with Hb (to form oxyhaemoglobin)
      • 3% of O2 dissolves in the plasma
      • CARBON DIOXIDE
      • 8% of carbon dioxide dissolves in plasma
      • 20% of C02 combines with haemoglobin
      • 72% of C02 dissolves in water to form carbonic acid
    • 6. DEFINE BLOOD PRESSURE & USING THE CORRECT UNITS GIVE AN AVERAGE VALUE FOR A YOUNG ADULT AT REST
      • BLOOD PRESSURE = BLOOD FLOW X RESISTANCE TO FLOW
      • PRESSURE EXERTED BY BLOOD ON WALLS OF BLOOD VESSELS
      • 120/80
      • 7. WHY IS GOOD VENOUS RETURN BENEFICIAL TO PERFORMANCE?
      • GREATER VOLUME OF BLOOD RETURNED TO THE HEART
      • SV & Q IS DEPENDENT UPON VENOUS RETURN
      • GREATER VR WILL INCREASE SV & A LARGER SV WILL INCREASE Q
      • GOOD VENOUS RETURN MAINTAINS BLOOD PRESSURE
      • MORE BLOOD/OXYGEN WILL BE SUPPLIED TO MUSCLE
      • 8. SKETCH A GRAPH TO SHOW THE HEART RATE OF AN ATHLETE WHO COMPLETES A 30 MIN AEROBIC TRAINING RUN.
      • SHOW HEART RATE PRIOR TO THE TRAINING RUN, DURING THE RUN AND FOR 10 MIN AFTER THE RUN.
      • Resting heart rate around 40/90 beats per minute
      • Rise in HR prior to exercise/ anticipatory rise
      • Steep rise at beginning of exercise and Plateau during exercise (115-180b/min range)
      • Initial fast fall during recovery
      • Followed by gradual decline towards rest value
    • REST EXERCISE RECOVERY 50 100 150 200 HEART RATE BEATS PER MIN
      • 9. DESCRIBE HOW HORMONAL CONTROL IS USED TO ALTER HEART RATE DURING THE TRAINING RUN
      • ADRENALINE/NORADRENALINE IS RELEASED
      • STIMULATES THE SA NODE
      • INCREASES THE HEART RATE
      • ALSO INCREASES STRENGTH OF CONTRACTION/STROKE /CARDIAC OUTPUT.
      • DESCRIBE THE MECHANISMS OF VENOUS RETURN THAT ENSURE ENOUGH BLOOD IS RETURNED TO THE HEART DURING THE TRAINING RUN.
      • SKELETAL MUSCLE PUMP (MUSCLES CONTRACT TO SQUEEZE BLOOD BACK TO THE HEART)
      • VALVES/DIRECT BLOOD FLOW BACK TO THE HEART/PREVENT BACKFLOW.
      • RESPIRATORY PUMP
      • BLOOD ABOVE THE HEART WILL RETURN DUE TO THE EFFECT OF GRAVITY
      • VENOCONSTRICTION OF VEINS RETURNING BLOOD TO THE HEART.
      • 11. WHY SHOULD THE PERFORMER WARM UP BEFORE THE TRAINING RUN?
      • An increase in muscle temperature
      • This allows greater stretch in the muscles/02 dissociates from haemoglobin quicker
      • Decreases risk of injury
      • Nerve conduction quicker
      • Improves muscle contraction speed/faster reaction time/ improved co-ordination of antagonistic pairs
      • Increase in heart rate/respiratory rate/stroke volume/cardiac output
      • Increase enzyme activity
      • Blood vessels dilate
      • Reduces blood viscosity so blood flow quicker
      • 12. During exercise more oxygenated blood is required by the muscles.
      • Define cardiac output and give a maximum value for a 17 year old endurance performer.
      • Definition:
      • The total amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle per minute/ Q= SV X HR.
      • Value:
      • Range 20 – 40 Litres (per min)
      • 13. Following a training session a coach will require the performer to complete a cool down.
      • How would a cool down aid the vascular system?
      • Flushes out lactic acid/repays oxygen debt.
      • Keeps capillaries dilated/maintains blood flow.
      • Maintains skeletal muscle pump/respiratory pump
      • Prevents blood pooling
      • Maintains venous return
      • Maintains Stroke Volume/Q
      • Maintains blood pressure
      • 14. Describe how blood travels through the heart during the following stages of the cardiac cycle:
      • DIASTOLE/ATRIAL SYSTOLE & VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE
      • DIASTOLE
      • The atria/ventricles/heart are relaxed
      • Semi lunar valves closed
      • Blood flows into right & left atrium via
      • pulmonary vein & vena cava
      • Pressure rises and forces blood into ventricles
      • ATRIAL SYSTOLE
      • The atria contract forcing the blood into ventricles
      • Through AV valves
      • VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE
      • The ventricles contract
      • AV valves shut to prevent backflow
      • Blood forced through pulmonary artery and aorta
      • Semi lunar valves forced open
      • 15. Whilst exercising a greater amount of blood is ejected during ventricular systole.
      • Why is this beneficial to performance?
      • More oxygen/blood supplied to muscles
      • Greater amounts of C02 waste products removed/delay OBLA.
      • Delays fatigue/maintains/prolongs aerobic performance