Get yourself a folder and keep organised.</li></ul> Read and refer to the scheme of learning and checklist. . . .<br />
Chapter 8<br />Individual aspects of performance that influence young peoples participation and aspirations.<br />
Learning Objectives<br />Personality and its importance in producing effective performance and in following a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle. (Understand the 3 different perspectives of personality, learning theories and their characteristics.)<br />Attitudes and their influence on performance and lifestyle<br />Achievement motivation and its effect on performance and in following a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle.<br />Attribution theory and the impact of attribution on performance and sustaining a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle.<br />Aggression and its impact upon performance and behaviour.<br />Be able to make relevant synoptic links.<br />
What is personality? Write down your own definition.<br />How do you think our personalities are formed?<br />What affects how our personality develops?<br />
Definitions<br /><ul><li>Personality is. . .</li></ul>“The sum total of an individual’s psychological characteristics which make him or her unique.” (Hollander)<br /><ul><li>‘Personality. . . </li></ul>represents those characteristics of the person that account for consistent patterns of behaviour’ (Pervin, 1993)<br /><ul><li>Personality is. . .</li></ul>”The more or less stable and enduring organisation of a persons character, temperament, intellect and physique which determines the unique adjustment (the individual makes) to the environment” (Eysenck)<br />
3 Persperctives on <br />Personality Development<br />Trait Perspective<br />Social Learning Perspective<br />Interactionist Approach<br />Exam Tip. . .<br />Exam questions often ask for explanations of the 3 personality perspectives. You need to be aware of the drawbacks found in trait and social learning perspectives and the advantages of the interactionist approach. CRITICALLY EVALUATE!<br />
Trait Perspective<br />The trait theory of personality suggests that personality is made up of secondary traits inherited from parental genes. <br />The trait view therefore maintains that all behaviour is innate and genetically programmed.<br />“Traits are innate characteristics and are thought to be relatively stable. They are highly consistent attributes that exert a widely generalised casual effect on behaviour.”<br />“People are born with established personality characteristics”<br /><ul><li>Inherited at birth.
Traits are thought to be stable, enduring and consistent in all situations.</li></ul> Trait theory attempts to predict behaviour.<br />+ve = Can be easily measured through questionnaires<br />-ve = Does not take into account environmental influences. <br />It is not a true indicator of behavior.<br />
The drawback with the trait approach is that in reality, behavior is not always predictable. People adapt their behavior in response to a particular environmental situation. <br />Trait theory does not account for this. <br />Also, the influence that the environment and other people have on shaping personality is not considered.<br />There are 2 specific theories that belong to the trait perspective of personality:<br /><ul><li>Personality Types (Eysenck and Cattell)
Narrow Band Theory Type A & Type B (Girdano)</li></li></ul><li>Personality Types. . .<br />Eysenck's Theory 1968<br /><ul><li>Supported Catell’s theory but stated that traits most likely to be displayed should be known as personality.
Personality types are arranged on 2 dimensions.
Introvert & Neurotic</li></ul>Later he added a third scale to his model which he termed Psychoticism- A measure of how Tough-Minded people are. Eysenck used this third scale in a test to determine an individual’s Personality Profile. <br />This test was called the Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)<br />
Cattell 1965 16PF<br />Cattell was also a believer of trait theory. However, he questioned whether personality could be understood using only 3 dimensions.... Instead, he considered a much larger number of traits. Cattell examined 16 Personality Factors in a questionnaire called ‘Cattell’s 16PF test’.<br />
Task. . .<br />With a partner, choose 1 sports person each and describe to them why you think their psychological make up makes them successful?<br />Make a note of each others responses to this question jotting down any key characteristics that are being identified!<br />Can you think of a sports person who has the opposite characteristics to those that you have mentioned but is equally as successful?<br />
Narrow Band Approach<br />Girdano was another trait theorist. He proposed that there are two distinct personality types – Type A & Type B<br />TYPE A CHARACTERISTICS:<br /><ul><li>HIGHLY COMPETITIVE
LESS PRONE TO STRESS</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Which of the characteristics are most common with the sports person you identified?
Which of the characteristics do you demonstrate predominantly?</li></ul>Task / Homework<br />Carry out both the Cattell’s 16PF test and Eysenck’s Personality questionnaire. Consider whether there are inks between the sports you most enjoy and your personality profile.<br />Discuss the value of personality profiling as a way of selecting a team or when advising a person as to which sport to take up.<br />Copy up KEY WORDS into your file.<br />
Social Learning Perspective<br />Social Learning Theory in direct contrast to trait theory proposes that all behavior is learned. Learning occurs by way of environmental experiences and through the influence of other people e.g. Parents, Coaches, Role Models, Friends and other significant others. Personality is NOT therefore genetically programmed.<br />“All behaviour is learned through interaction with the environment”<br />
BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENT (B = F(E))<br />-ve = Does not consider inherited behavior (traits) <br />NATURE V’s NURTURE debate<br />The Social Learning approach was presented by psychologist Bandura. He believed learning was stimulated by environmental experiences and this involved two processes:<br /><ul><li>The behavior of others being imitated through observation
New behavior being acquired after observation, but only when it is endorsed through social reinforcement</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Demonstration</li></ul>Important to observe performance.<br /><ul><li>Attention</li></ul>look carefully for detail of movement.<br /><ul><li>Retention</li></ul>remember the demo AND the teaching points / error correction.<br /><ul><li>Motor Reproduction</li></ul>demo is only of use if observers can attempt a successful performance.<br /><ul><li>Motivation</li></ul>the performer must be motivated to perform the action.<br /><ul><li>Matching Performance</li></ul>the performer attempts to match the demo and to improve it.<br />
Example<br />An inexperienced sports performer may be inspired by the positive attitude and commitment displayed in training by an experienced player. The novice copies the desirable approach of the role model and receives positive reinforcement from both coach and peers.The process of reinforcement has facilitated learning.<br />
CONDITIONS THAT SUPPORT SOCIAL LEARNING<br />A drawback of social learning perspective is that it doesn’t take into account genetically inherited factors. This perspective does provide explanation as to why there are individual differences in ‘attitude’ ‘aggression’, and ‘motivation’ of sports performers.<br />Can also explain why young people elect to take part in sport or follow a lifestyle that is healthy, active and balanced.<br />
Can you think of any environmental factors that have effected your behaviour?<br />a.)<br /> b.)<br /> c.)<br /> d.)<br /> e.)<br /> f.)<br /> g.)<br /> h.)<br />i.)<br /> j.)<br />
Interactionist Approach<br /><ul><li>Combines trait theory & social learning theory.
This recognises that the trait theory and social learning theory both have a role in determining behaviour and personality.
Different behaviours produced for different situations.
Suggests that we base behaviour on inherent traits that we then adapt to the situation we are in.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>EQUATION = B = f (PxE)
where behaviour is a function of personality & environment.</li></ul>Example:<br /><ul><li> A games player might be loud, extrovert & dominant manner in the game because that is the best way to succeed, but would be more quiet & focused when in a training session designed to improve individual technique. </li></li></ul><li>The Interactionist approach is based on the work of Hollander (1967). Hollander proposed that personality has three levels that interact to form personality.<br />PERSONALITY - Structure<br />Hollander’s Structure of Personality<br />Social Environment<br />1 – PSYCHOLGICAL CORE– THE REAL YOU. <br />2 – TYPICAL RESPONSE– THE WAY YOU RESPOND TO ENVIRONMENTAL DEMANDS.<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />3 - ROLE-RELATED BEHAVIOUR– VERY CHANGEABLE DEPENDING ON THE ROLE.<br />
Marten’s Structure of Personality<br />Dynamic<br />External<br />Internal<br />Consistent<br />
PERSONALITY - Measuring<br />Interviews - are they reliable and valid in each case?<br /> - are they of value in assessing a persons sporting ability?<br />Questionnaires - e.g. psychometric self questionnaires, personality tests, multiphasicpersonality inventory and Catells 16 primary factors questionnaire.<br />- are these appropriate for the results the researcher wants to gain?<br />3. Observations - difficult to remain unobtrusive which will affect behaviour.<br />- secret observation is unethical<br />
PERSONALITY – <br />Problems With Research<br />Trait Theory<br /><ul><li> NOT A TRUE PREDICTOR OF BEHAVIOUR, NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE EXISTS BETWEEN SPORTS PERFORMANCE & PEOPLE WITH DIFFERING TRAIT STRENGTHS.
DOES NOT TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE INFLUENCE OF THE ENVIRONMENT – TOO GENERAL.</li></ul>Social Learning Theory<br /><ul><li>TAKES LITTLE ACCOUNT OF EXTERNAL FACTORS THAT MAY EFFECT BEHAVIOUR.</li></li></ul><li>PERSONALITY <br />Synoptic Links<br />Definitions and Characteristics of Ability - TRAITS<br /> Memory – LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE – SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY<br />Feedback – LEARNING FROM OTHERS – SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY<br /> Motivation – TRAITS, INTERACTIONIST AND SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY<br />Reinforcement - LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE – SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY<br />
Class work / Homework<br /><ul><li>What are the 3 theories we have been looking at?