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  • 1. OCR AS PE Exam and Revision Tips
  • 2. Anatomy and Physiology
    • Movement analysis is a very popular topic which examiners like to test your knowledge!!!
    • In your exam you will not be asked to label the skeleton, however you will be required to label the articulating bones which make up a specific joint.
    • In preparation for your exam, be familiar with all classes of joint but focus your study on synovial joints.
  • 3. Movement Analysis.
    • For your exam you should focus on flexion and extension at the following joints: Wrist, Elbow, Shoulder, Spine, Hip and Knee.
    • For your exam you should focus on horizontal flexion and horizontal extension at the following joint: The Shoulder.
    • For your exam you should focus on abduction and adduction at the following joints: the shoulder and the hip.
    • For your exam you should focus on rotation at the following joints: the shoulder and hip.
  • 4. Muscle fibre types.
    • You will need to know the differences in structural and functional characteristics and explain why certain types of muscle fibre are suited to certain types of physical activity.
  • 5. Exam Question.
    • Your examiner might ask you to critically evaluate the impact of different types of physical activity on the skeletal or muscular system.
    • You must include:
    • Positive and negative factors using correct terminology.
    • Relate the factors to different to different types of physical activity and sporting examples.
    • Mention the disorders (see page 41)
  • 6. Exam Question.
    • Discuss both the positive and negative impact of participating in different types of physical activity on the joints and muscles of the body. [10]
    • See pages 44-46 for exam question tips.
  • 7. Biomechanics.
    • When giving examples of pure linear or pure angular motion you must be very careful that the movement you have identified does not involve both these types of motion, because this is termed ‘general motion’.
  • 8. Newton’s Laws.
    • Your examiners will not require you to recount Newton’s Laws perfectly, but they will want you to be able to apply each of them to various types of physical activity and sporting techniques.
  • 9. Exam Question.
    • What do you understand by the term centre of mass? Using appropriate examples from sporting techniques, explain how changes in the position of a body’s centre of mass can affect its stability. [5]
    • See page 57 for a student example.
  • 10. Cardiovascular and Respiratory systems.
    • Conduction system:
    • You will be required to sketch a diagram to summarise the structures and route of the cardiac impulse.
    • You will be required to link the conduction system to the events of the cardiac cycle.
  • 11. Exam Question.
    • Explain how neural control of the heart helps to maintain the supply of oxygenated blood during exercise. [5]
    • (CCC!!)
    • See page 78-79.
  • 12. Response of the cardiovascular system to physical activity.
    • Exam questions often use the location of either the pulmonary artery of vein as a starting point to test your knowledge of heart/circulatory structure.
    • Always link the redistribution of Q with the vascular shunt mechanism. (VCC)
  • 13.
    • In explaining the vascular shunt mechanism during exercise, there are up to four marks available:
    • Two marks are for Vasodilation (one for arterioles of muscle; one for pre-capillary sphincters of muscles)
    • Two marks are for vasoconstriction (one for arterioles of organs; one for pre-capillary sphincters of organs).
  • 14. O2 and CO2
    • Easy marks can be picked up by remembering that Hb and plasma transport both O2 and Co2.
  • 15. Exam Question.
    • The skeletal pump mechanism is one way of helping to maintain venous return. Describe three other mechanisms involved in venous return.
    • Explain the importance of the skeletal pump mechanism during an active cool-down. [5]
    • See page 99.
  • 16. Exam Questions.
    • Explain the difficulties that an endurance performer might experience when performing at altitude, without a period of acclimatisation. [5]
    • See page 123, look at the improved answer!
  • 17. Acquiring movement Skills.
    • Make sure that you can apply all the theories that you learn to a practical example. Questions in the exam will usually ask you to do this.
  • 18. Classification of skill.
    • Always explain/justify why you have placed a particular skill at that point on the continuum.
  • 19. Organisation of Practice.
    • You should ensure that you are able to critically evaluate each practice method by knowing the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the classes of skill they are best suited for. You should be able to give practical examples of the application of each type of practice.
    • This could be a 10 mark question!!! (pg130)
  • 20. Abilities.
    • Be able to define both gross motor ability and psychomotor ability and give a practical example of each.
    • Exam Question:
    • The continuity continuum contains three elements: discrete, serial and continuous. Use practical examples to explain each of these elements.
    • (page 141)
  • 21. Phases/Stages of learning.
    • Make sure that you are able to identify the characteristics of each of the phases and give a practical example of each one.
    • Guidance:
    • You need to know the advantages and disadvantages of each method of guidance and which phase of learning they are most appropriate for. Make sure you can give practical examples of the use of each method of guidance.
  • 22. Exam Question
    • Identify the characteristics of the cognitive phase of learning and using practical examples describe two different types of guidance used in the cognitive phase of learning. [5]
  • 23. Information processing.
    • Make sure that you are able to draw and explain Welford’s and Whiting’s information processing models as well as being able to explain them using a practical activity.
    • Ensure that you know the appropriate uses of feedback particularly in relation to different stages of learning that the performer goes through.
  • 24.
    • Make sure that you can describe strategies to improve storage and retrieval of information in both short and long term memory.
    • You need to know the definitions of:
    • Reaction time.
    • Movement time.
    • Response time.
    • Make sure you can sketch a graph showing Hick’s Law.
    • You need to be able to explain the factors affecting response time.
  • 25. Exam Question.
    • Explain what is meant by simple reaction time and give a practical example of simple reaction time in sport.
    • Choice reaction time (Hick’s Law) can be explained through the use of a graph. Sketch a graph to illustrate the effect of choice reaction time on physical performance. [5]
    • See page 170.
  • 26. Schema.
    • This is a topic that frequently appears on exam papers. Learn the memory items thoroughly. Be able to explain recall and recognition schema by using practical examples to support your answer.
  • 27. Exam Question.
    • Describe how a teacher or coach would encourage schema to be formed in training. [6]
    • See page 181.
  • 28. Arousal Theories.
    • It is important to understand arousal as a drive affecting levels of motivation.
    • Theories of arousal are popular exam questions!!!!! It is advisable to revise them thoroughly.
    • Motivational strategies are central to effective learning and performance.
  • 29. Exam Question.
    • Drive reduction is one method that can be used to motivate a performer in physical education and sport. Use a practical example to explain drive reduction theory. [4]
    • See page 193.
  • 30. Theories of learning.
    • Do not confuse cognitive learning theory with the cognitive stages of learning.
    • Exam Question:
    • Operant conditioning is one way of learning movement skills. Use a practical example to explain operant conditioning. [4]
    • See page 204.
  • 31. Exam Question.
    • Drive reduction is one method that can be used to motivate a performer in physical education and sport. Use a practical example to explain drive reduction theory. [4]
    • See page 192.
  • 32. Exam Question.
    • How can a teacher ensure that positive transfer takes place? [5]
    • See page 208-209.
  • 33. Socio-cultural Studies.
    • Be able to compare characteristics of physical recreation with characteristics of sport.
    • When asked to identify the characteristics of physical recreation in an exam it is important to be specific and clear in your answer. If simple terms such as ‘Anyone, anywhere, any time’ are offered as characteristics they will not gain marks. Be specific!!
  • 34.
    • Be sure that you understand and can give examples of the four sets of values or benefits of PE.
    • Exam Question:
    • Discuss possible benefits to young people of a school high quality PE programme. [6]
    • See page 230.
  • 35. Exam question.
    • Explain how public schools helped to promote and organise sports and games in the nineteenth century (1800-1900) [5]
    • See page 252.
    • Any organisation or initiatives that are named in the specification could be directly examined!!!
  • 36. Organisations.
    • See the diagram on page 263.
    • The ‘Bodies’ in the yellow boxes are directly mentioned in the specification and so can be directly examined.
    • Examiners are interested in NGB initiatives.
  • 37. Excellence and Participation.
    • You could be asked to name and explain each layer of the performance pyramid in the examination.
    • If you really know and understand the impact of your three key terms: opportunity, Provision and Esteem, and can apply them to young people, the elderly, people with disabilities, women and ethnic minority groups, you will be able to have a good go at most exam questions that are asked on this section.
  • 38. Olympic Games
    • You will not be asked direct questions on the ancient Olympic games, Robert Dover’s Cotswold games or the Much Wenlock Olympian games.
    • You could however, be asked a question that tests your knowledge and understanding of the background to the modern Olympics and the vision of De Coubertin in which you could include some of this information.
    • You will only get direct exam questions on the Olympic games as a vehicle for nation building in China.
  • 39. Exam Question.
    • Explain how the Olympic Games ca be a vehicle for nation building. [10]
    • See page 329.