Types of Training
• Exercise is continual, without substantial breaks, for the duration of the
• Eg. Running/ jogging; cycling, swimming
• Exercise intensity is generally moderate to low (60-70% HRmax)
• Improves local muscle endurance
• Three main types:
1. Long Slow Distance: Exercise at low intensity
for long periods. Produces a gradual but steady
aerobic improvement. This is the primary training
type of long distance runners, swimmers and cyclists.
This is also the primary training type for aerobic
Eg. 70% of hr max. Emphasis on distance not speed
2. Maximal Aerobic Training: Aim is to exercise
close to the athlete’s anaerobic threshold.
Lactic acid accumulates throughout this training.
Important for improving upper end performance in
Eg. 5Km running at 85%HRmax
3. Speedplay (Fartlek): continuous exercise but
with varying changes in pace.
Changes in pace through natural obstacles (ie hills, sand)
or because of short bursts of speed.
This form of training assists the development of the
anaerobic capacity as well as aerobic.
4. Aerobic Floor Classes: a type of continuous training
but also includes callisthenic exercise normally found in a
circuit. Well-conducted classes can develop aerobic
capacity, strength, local endurance, flexibility and agility.
Anaerobic threshold: This is the point at which exercise changes from
being primarily Aerobic to primarily Anaerobic. At this intensity a person can
maintain their rate for long periods aerobically, but any extra effort will cause
the build-up of excess Lactic Acid.
Types of Training
• Periods of work followed by periods of rest or recovery, alternating
throughout the work out or training session.
• Any of the three energy systems can be trained with this method, by
altering the work/rest intervals.
• Designed to improve speed and power, agility and anaerobic capacity
WORK INTERVAL: This is the time spent doing exercise to achieve a
training effect. The distance, duration and intensity of the exercise
define the work interval.
Eg. 400m in 70sec, or at 90%
30 Lunges in 30 secs
REST INTERVAL: The time spent in recovery between work efforts,
and the type of activity during recovery. The ratio of work to rest will
determine which energy systems are being trained:
Aerobic = 1:1 work: rest or less (eg. 2mins run 2mins rest)
Anaerobic = 1:2 or more (eg. 30sec sprint, 1min rest)
Recovery is allowing the body to return to its resting state and to dispose
of some of the waste build-up (eg. Lactic acid). A work-rest ratio of 1-3
means that the rest is three times as long as the work interval.
REPETITION: Each individual interval is called a repetition.
Eg. 10 x 50m is 10 reps of 50m each.
SETS: A set is a group of repetitions that are performed in the same
Eg. 10 reps bicep curl, three times in the session
= 3 sets of 10 reps, or 3 10 reps, at 2 min intervals
set reps Distance Time Recovery Work:rest
(metres) (secs) (secs) ratio
1 10 100 15 45 1:3
2 5 200 32 96 1:3
Types of Interval Training
Long Interval Training: develops both anaerobic and
aerobic energy systems.
♦ Athletes involved in sports with efforts of 1 –6 mins
♦ Middle distance athletes
♦ Team game athletes
Short Interval Training: Develops both phosphate and
lactic acid energy system.
♦ Intervals shorter
♦ Work intensity increased
♦ Recovery periods lengthened
♦ Can include shuttle runs, obstacle sprints etc
♦ Key to developing the fitness components of muscular strength,
power and endurance.
♦ Sports related training improves fitness and skill performance and
protects players from injury
♦ Health related – improve body composition by increasing tone
♦ Develops better posture
There are two types of resistance training:
1. Weight training- involves a series of resistance
exercises using free weights or machine weights, which stress
the various muscle groups.
Isotonic (traditional) weight training- occurs when
the load or weight remains constant throughout the
range of movement.
♦ A repetition(rep) is one performance of an exercise
♦ A set is number of reps consecutively without rest
♦ A repetition maximum- is the max weight you can lift a certain
amount of times. Ie 1 RM is the max weight you can lift once.
Points to note:
1. Program must be arranged so that the same muscle groups are
not stressed by several exercises in succession. This is called
cycling of body parts.
2. Can develop strength, power, endurance or hypertrophy
depending on reps and weight
3. Solid gains in strength are notice in 10-12 weeks of training
4. Strength training and intensities must be changed periodically to
prevent staleness and stimulate improvement.
Types of Training
Isometric Resistance – involves contracting a muscle
against an immovable resistance.
♦ No joint movement but muscle does exert force
♦ Valuable for sports like judo, wrestling or gymnastics
♦ Strength gains are specific to joint angle
♦ Must hold contraction for 6 seconds, recover briefly and repeat
♦ Use 2-3 joint angles
Isokinectic Resistance training- work at a constant
speed against resistance or weight that changes as
the muscular force changes throughout the
♦ Expensive equipment required
♦ Muscles worked evenly at all stages of movement
♦ Develop strength power and endurance
2. Resistance Callisthenics- involves a series
of specific exercises where gravity acting on the body provides
♦ Exercises such as push ups, sit ups,dips
♦ Can be overloaded and manipulated to improve strength, power
and endurance by increasing reps or by increasing resistance.
Example of weight training Program (focused on strength)
Exercise Muscle Group Maximum Weight(kg) Reps
1 Chin ups Back 3 x10 rm 20 10,7, 5
2 Bench Press Chest 3 x 10 rm 20 10,8,6
3 Squats (half) Legs 3 x 10 rm 30 10,8,6
4 Crunches Abdomen 3 x 20 rm - 20,16,12
5 Seated Press Shoulders 3 x 10 rm 10 10, 8, 6
6 Seated Row Back 3 x10 rm 15 10, 7, 5
7 Flat fly Chest 3 x10 Rm 5 each 10, 7, 5
8 Leg extensions Legs 3 x 10 rm 25 10, 7,5
9 Sit ups Abdomen 3 x 20 rm - 20,18,15
10 Bicep curls Arms 3 x10 rm 8 10,6,5
Types of Training
Plyometric Training- new form of training designed to improve
muscular power in sports where an explosive effort is demanded.
♦ Leaping, jumping, hoping, bounding, along with jumps to
and off boxes, constitute a majority of training exercises.
♦ Involve rapid eccentric contractions followed immediately
by a forceful concentric contraction.
♦ A muscle contacts more forcefully and quickly from a
prestretched rather than a relaxed state.
♦ Very demanding training- Read more pg 160 “Pathways to
Senior Personal Development, Heath & Physical Education
Circuit Training- excellent methods because it can develop aerobic
& anaerobic capacity, strength, power endurance and agility.
♦ Combines both continuous and resistance
♦ Consists of a series of exercises arranged in order
♦ Can be health or skill relate
♦ can be performed with limited space, time, equipment
3 types of circuits
1. Fixed-load circuits- try to complete three laps of
circuit in time limit
2. Individual Load Circuit- individual tested on each
exercise for max RM in one Min. These reps are then
halved and they must complete that number in each
lap. Time each lap… try to improve time
3. Fixed time circuit- individuals start at diff points and
on go must complete as many reps as possible before
hooter goes to move to next station.
Improves joint and muscular flexibility.
Two types of flexibility training
1. PNF (refer pg 164 of book mentioned)
2. Static (passive Stretching)