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    1. 1. Fitness Studies Types of Training CONTINUOUS TRAINING • Exercise is continual, without substantial breaks, for the duration of the work out. • Eg. Running/ jogging; cycling, swimming • Exercise intensity is generally moderate to low (60-70% HRmax) • Improves local muscle endurance • Three main types: 1. Long Slow Distance: Exercise at low intensity for long periods. Produces a gradual but steady aerobic improvement. This is the primary training type of long distance runners, swimmers and cyclists. This is also the primary training type for aerobic fitness. Eg. 70% of hr max. Emphasis on distance not speed 2. Maximal Aerobic Training: Aim is to exercise close to the athlete’s anaerobic threshold. Lactic acid accumulates throughout this training. Important for improving upper end performance in aerobic activities. Eg. 5Km running at 85%HRmax 3. Speedplay (Fartlek): continuous exercise but with varying changes in pace. Changes in pace through natural obstacles (ie hills, sand) or because of short bursts of speed. This form of training assists the development of the anaerobic capacity as well as aerobic. 4. Aerobic Floor Classes: a type of continuous training but also includes callisthenic exercise normally found in a circuit. Well-conducted classes can develop aerobic capacity, strength, local endurance, flexibility and agility.
    2. 2. Fitness Studies Anaerobic threshold: This is the point at which exercise changes from being primarily Aerobic to primarily Anaerobic. At this intensity a person can maintain their rate for long periods aerobically, but any extra effort will cause the build-up of excess Lactic Acid. Types of Training INTERVAL TRAINING • Periods of work followed by periods of rest or recovery, alternating throughout the work out or training session. • Any of the three energy systems can be trained with this method, by altering the work/rest intervals. • Designed to improve speed and power, agility and anaerobic capacity WORK INTERVAL: This is the time spent doing exercise to achieve a training effect. The distance, duration and intensity of the exercise define the work interval. Eg. 400m in 70sec, or at 90% 30 Lunges in 30 secs REST INTERVAL: The time spent in recovery between work efforts, and the type of activity during recovery. The ratio of work to rest will determine which energy systems are being trained: Aerobic = 1:1 work: rest or less (eg. 2mins run 2mins rest) Anaerobic = 1:2 or more (eg. 30sec sprint, 1min rest) Recovery is allowing the body to return to its resting state and to dispose of some of the waste build-up (eg. Lactic acid). A work-rest ratio of 1-3 means that the rest is three times as long as the work interval. REPETITION: Each individual interval is called a repetition. Eg. 10 x 50m is 10 reps of 50m each. SETS: A set is a group of repetitions that are performed in the same exercise session. Eg. 10 reps bicep curl, three times in the session = 3 sets of 10 reps, or 3  10 reps, at 2 min intervals set reps Distance Time Recovery Work:rest
    3. 3. Fitness Studies (metres) (secs) (secs) ratio 1 10 100 15 45 1:3 2 5 200 32 96 1:3 Types of Interval Training Long Interval Training: develops both anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. ♦ Athletes involved in sports with efforts of 1 –6 mins ♦ Middle distance athletes ♦ Team game athletes Short Interval Training: Develops both phosphate and lactic acid energy system. ♦ Intervals shorter ♦ Work intensity increased ♦ Recovery periods lengthened ♦ Can include shuttle runs, obstacle sprints etc Resistance Training ♦ Key to developing the fitness components of muscular strength, power and endurance. ♦ Sports related training improves fitness and skill performance and protects players from injury ♦ Health related – improve body composition by increasing tone and mass. ♦ Develops better posture There are two types of resistance training: 1. Weight training- involves a series of resistance exercises using free weights or machine weights, which stress the various muscle groups. Isotonic (traditional) weight training- occurs when the load or weight remains constant throughout the range of movement. ♦ A repetition(rep) is one performance of an exercise ♦ A set is number of reps consecutively without rest ♦ A repetition maximum- is the max weight you can lift a certain amount of times. Ie 1 RM is the max weight you can lift once. Points to note:
    4. 4. Fitness Studies 1. Program must be arranged so that the same muscle groups are not stressed by several exercises in succession. This is called cycling of body parts. 2. Can develop strength, power, endurance or hypertrophy depending on reps and weight 3. Solid gains in strength are notice in 10-12 weeks of training 4. Strength training and intensities must be changed periodically to prevent staleness and stimulate improvement. Types of Training Isometric Resistance – involves contracting a muscle against an immovable resistance. ♦ No joint movement but muscle does exert force ♦ Valuable for sports like judo, wrestling or gymnastics ♦ Strength gains are specific to joint angle ♦ Must hold contraction for 6 seconds, recover briefly and repeat 10 times ♦ Use 2-3 joint angles Isokinectic Resistance training- work at a constant speed against resistance or weight that changes as the muscular force changes throughout the movement range. ♦ Expensive equipment required ♦ Muscles worked evenly at all stages of movement ♦ Develop strength power and endurance 2. Resistance Callisthenics- involves a series of specific exercises where gravity acting on the body provides the resistance. ♦ Exercises such as push ups, sit ups,dips ♦ Can be overloaded and manipulated to improve strength, power and endurance by increasing reps or by increasing resistance. Example of weight training Program (focused on strength) Exercise Muscle Group Maximum Weight(kg) Reps 1 Chin ups Back 3 x10 rm 20 10,7, 5 2 Bench Press Chest 3 x 10 rm 20 10,8,6 3 Squats (half) Legs 3 x 10 rm 30 10,8,6 4 Crunches Abdomen 3 x 20 rm - 20,16,12 5 Seated Press Shoulders 3 x 10 rm 10 10, 8, 6
    5. 5. Fitness Studies 6 Seated Row Back 3 x10 rm 15 10, 7, 5 7 Flat fly Chest 3 x10 Rm 5 each 10, 7, 5 8 Leg extensions Legs 3 x 10 rm 25 10, 7,5 9 Sit ups Abdomen 3 x 20 rm - 20,18,15 10 Bicep curls Arms 3 x10 rm 8 10,6,5 Types of Training Plyometric Training- new form of training designed to improve muscular power in sports where an explosive effort is demanded. ♦ Leaping, jumping, hoping, bounding, along with jumps to and off boxes, constitute a majority of training exercises. ♦ Involve rapid eccentric contractions followed immediately by a forceful concentric contraction. ♦ A muscle contacts more forcefully and quickly from a prestretched rather than a relaxed state. ♦ Very demanding training- Read more pg 160 “Pathways to Senior Personal Development, Heath & Physical Education HSC Course” Circuit Training- excellent methods because it can develop aerobic & anaerobic capacity, strength, power endurance and agility. ♦ Combines both continuous and resistance ♦ Consists of a series of exercises arranged in order ♦ Can be health or skill relate ♦ can be performed with limited space, time, equipment ♦ motivating 3 types of circuits 1. Fixed-load circuits- try to complete three laps of circuit in time limit 2. Individual Load Circuit- individual tested on each exercise for max RM in one Min. These reps are then halved and they must complete that number in each lap. Time each lap… try to improve time 3. Fixed time circuit- individuals start at diff points and on go must complete as many reps as possible before hooter goes to move to next station. Flexibility Training
    6. 6. Fitness Studies Improves joint and muscular flexibility. Two types of flexibility training 1. PNF (refer pg 164 of book mentioned) 2. Static (passive Stretching)