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PEShare.co.uk Shared Resource PEShare.co.uk Shared Resource Presentation Transcript

  • Movement Analysis AS Level Sports Studies Mr Jennings
  • What you need to know……
    • Analysis of movement in specified sporting actions (including planes and axes)
    • Shoulder and elbow action in – Push-ups Over-arm throwing Forehand racket strokes
    • Hip, knee and ankle action in – Running Kicking Jumping Squats
    • Types of joint, articulating bones, joint actions, main agonists and antagonists,
    • Types of muscle contraction: isotonic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric related to the above sporting actions.
    • Levers
    • Three classes of levers and examples of their use in the body related to the above specified sporting actions
    • Relationship of levers to effective performance mechanical advantages and disadvantages and range and speed of movement.
    • This can be a daunting topic
    • It is actually quite straight forward
    • Exam questions focus on specific movements which you must learn
    • Take your time to consider the movements being analysed
    • Make sure you know the scientific names for the bones, muscles and movements involved
  • How do we move?
    • With the person next to you…..
      • You have 1 minute to discuss how we move
    • How did you do?
    • Muscles work in pairs
    • The AGONIST is the contracting muscle which causes the movement
    • The ANTAGONIST is the muscle which relaxes to allow the movement to occur
    • Muscles are attached to bones by TENDONS which pull the bones into place
    • SYNERGISTS are muscles which help stabilise a joint
    • Task:
    • Choose one person from your group to be the body
    • Write and stick the correct bone labels to your ‘body’
    • Cranium
    • Fibia
    • Radius
    • Femur
    • Ulna
    • Clavicle
    • Scapula
    • Patella
    • Humerus
    • Sternum
    • Tarsals/carpals
    • Metatarsals/metacarpals
    • Phalanges x 2
  • Cranium Clavicle Scapula Ribs Pelvis Radius U lna ( U =Underneath) Femur Patella Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Fibula T ibia T=Thick Phalanges Metacarpals Carpals Vertebra Humerus Sternum
  • Your 2nd task
    • Nominate one person in your group
    • Write and stick the names of the muscles onto the body where you think they are
  • Muscles
    • Biceps
    • Abdominals
    • Hamstrings
    • Gluteus Maximus
    • Triceps
    • Quadriceps
    • Pectorals
    • Gastrocnemius
    • Trapezius
    • Latissimus Dorsi
    • Deltoids
    • Tibialis Anterior
  • Pectorals Deltoids Biceps Abdominals Quadriceps Hamstrings Latissimus Dorsi Trapezius Triceps Gastrocnemius Gluteals The Muscular System These are the major muscles of the body…
  • Functions of the Body Muscles Gluteals In the middle of the body at the back, forming the bottom. At the top of each leg at the back. At the bottom of each leg at the back. Also known as the calf muscles.
    • Pull the legs back at the hips
    • Extend at the hip
    • Bend the legs at the knees
    • Flexion at the knee
    Plantar Flexion – standing on and pointing toes Hamstrings Gastrocnemius Main Action Position in the body Muscle
  • Latissimus Dorsi Triceps At the back of the body, either side of the chest. At the top of each arm at the back. Adduct at the shoulders, arm and back Extend the arms at the elbow. Trapezius In the centre of the chest at the back of the body, spreading up.
    • Hold and rotate the shoulders and move the head back and sideways
    • Abduct at the shoulder
    Main Action Position in the Body Muscle
  • Deltoids Biceps Quadriceps In the upper part of the body, covering the shoulders. At the top of each arm at the front. At the top of each leg at the front. Rotate and raise the arms in all directions at the shoulders. Flexion of the arms at the elbows. Extension of the legs at the knee joints Dorsi Flexion – pulling toes up Muscle at front of lower leg Tibialis Anterior
    • Movement could not occur without JOINTS
    • A joint is:
      • “ A place where 2 or more bones meet”
    • The main joints you need to know about are:
    • Ball and Socket Joint
      • Hip and Shoulder
    • Hinge Joint
      • Elbows, Knees and Ankles
  • Types of muscle contraction
    • All muscle contractions are either:
      • Isometric – muscle develops tension with no movement
        • Hold body/limb in a fixed position
      • Isotonic – muscle generates tension whilst shortening or lengthening
        • Also called dynamic as movement occurs
  • Isotonic Contractions
    • 2 types:
      • Concentric – the muscle shortens
        • Upwards phase of a bicep curl
      • Eccentric – the muscle lengthens
        • Downwards phase of bicep curl
        • Usually control body against gravity
  • Planes of Movement
    • All movements occur in one of 3 planes of motion:
    • SAGITAL PLANE – splits the body into left and right halves
    • FRONTAL PLANE – splits the body into front and back halves
    • TRANSVERSE PLANE – splits the body into top and bottom halves
  • Sagital Plane Frontal Plane Transverse Plane
  • Axis of Movement
    • All movements also occur around one of 3 axis:
    • TRANSVERSE AXIS – passes through the body from side to side
    • LONGITUDINAL AXIS – passes top to bottom
    • FRONTAL AXIS – passes from front to back
  •  
  • What plane? What Axis?
  • In your Exam!!!!!
    • Most movements you must know about occur in the SAGITAL PLANE around the TRANSVERSE AXIS
  • Running – two phases Drive phase Recovery phase
  • Drive phase
    • HIP JOINT
    • Type of joint –
    • Articulating bones –
    • Joint action –
    • Main agonist –
    ball and socket pelvis and femur extension gluteals (hamstrings) Drive phase
  • Drive phase
    • Knee
    • Type of joint –
    • Articulating bones –
    • Joint action –
    • Main agonist -
    hinge tibia and femur extension quadriceps Drive phase
  • Drive phase
    • Ankle
    • Type of joint –
    • Articulating bones –
    • Joint action –
    • Main agonist -
    hinge tibia, fibula and talus plantar flexion gastrocnemius Drive phase
  • Recovery phase
    • Action Agonist
    • Hip
    • Knee
    • Ankle
    flexion flexion dorsi-flexion hip flexors hamstrings tibialis anterior Recovery phase
  • Jumping Joint – Hip Action - Agonist - Extension Gluteals
  • Jumping Joint – Knee Action – Agonist - Extension Quadriceps
  • Jumping Joint – Ankle Action – Agonist - Plantar flexion Gastrocnemius
  • Kicking Joint – Hip Action - Agonist – Flexion Hip flexors Joint – Hip Action - Agonist – Hyper extension Gluteals
  • Kicking Joint – Knee Action - Agonist - Extension Quadriceps Joint – Knee Action - Agonist – Flexion Hamstrings
  • Kicking Joint – Ankle Action – Agonist - Plantar flexion Gastrocnemius Joint – Ankle Action – Agonist - Plantar flexion Gastrocnemius
  • Typical question
    • The diagram shows a place kicker in rugby at the moment of impact when his foot connects to the ball during the skill of place kicking.
    With reference to the knee joint of the kicking leg of the rugby player; (a) What are the names of the articulating bones? (2 marks) (b) What joint action is taking place at the knee at the moment leading up to impact, and what is the name of the agonist causing this action? (2 marks)
  • Answer
    • (i) tibia;
    • femur;
    • (ii) extension;
    • quadriceps;
  • Up and Down Movements - Squat Upward movement
  • Up and Down Movements Downward movement
  • Upward movements
    • Type of contraction -
    • Muscle shortens
    • Agonist Muscles:
    • Hip – extension –
    • Knee – extension –
    • Ankle – plantar flexion -
    Concentric Gluteals Quadriceps Gastrocnemius
  • Downward movements
    • Type of contraction -
    • Muscle lengthens
    • Agonist controlling descent
    • Hip – flexion –
    • Knee – flexion –
    • Ankle – dorsi flexion -
    Eccentric Gluteals Quadriceps Gastrocnemius
  • Typical question
    • Identify the joint action , main agonist and the type of muscle contraction that occurs at the hip and ankle joints in the upward phase of a squat. (6 marks)
  • Answer
    • Hip –
    • joint action – extension;
    • main agonist - gluteals;
    • type of muscle contraction – concentric;
    • Ankle –
    • joint action – plantar flexion;
    • main agonist - gastrocnemius;
    • type of muscle contraction – concentric;
  • Racket actions Taking racket back Joint – shoulder Action = Agonist = Hyper extension Deltoids and Latissimus Dorsi Joint – Elbow Action = Agonist = Extension Triceps
  • Racket actions – a-b Joint – shoulder Type - Bones - Ball and socket Humerus and scapula Joint – shoulder Action = Agonist = Horizontal flexion Pectorals
  • Racket actions – c-d Joint – elbow Type - Bones - Hinge Humerus, radius and ulna Joint – elbow Action = Agonist = Flexion Biceps
  • Throwing
    • 2 phases:
      • Withdrawal Phase
      • Throwing Phase
    • Involves shoulder and elbow joints
  • Withdrawal Phase
    • Shoulder
      • Ball and Socket
      • Humerus and Scapula
      • Joint action – Horizontal Hyper extension
      • Agonists – Deltoids and Latissimus Dorsi
    • Elbow
      • Hinge
      • Radius and Ulna
      • Joint Action – Extension
      • Agonist - Triceps
  • Throwing Phase
    • Shoulder
      • Ball and Socket
      • Humerus and Scapula
      • Joint action – Horizontal Flexion
      • Agonists – Anterior Deltoids and Pectorals
    • Elbow
      • Hinge
      • Radius and Ulna
      • Joint Action – Flexion then Extension
      • Agonist – Biceps then Triceps
  • Typical question
    • The diagram show a cricketer throwing a ball
    With reference to the movement of the throwing arm from position A to position B, copy and complete the following table. Type of joint Joint action Main agonist Elbow Shoulder
  • Answer Type of joint Joint action Main agonist Elbow hinge extension triceps Shoulder Ball and socket Horizontal flexion
  • Press Ups
    • Elbow and Shoulder Joints
    • Sagital Plane/Transverse Axis
  • Press ups Pressing up - elbow Joint action = Muscle action - Agonist = Extension Concentric Triceps Shoulder Joint action = Muscle action - Agonist = Concentric Horizontal Flexion Pectorals
  • Press ups Lowering Down Lowering down - shoulder Joint action = Muscle action – Agonist = Horizontal Extension Eccentric Pectorals Lowering down - elbow Joint action = Muscle action – Agonist = Flexion Eccentric Pectorals Eccentric because muscle works against gravity
  • Levers
  • Levers – 3 classes
    • Mnemonic -1,2,3 F R E
    • First class lever –
    • in middle
    • Second class lever -
    • in middle
    • Third class lever –
    • in middle
    Fulcrum Resistance Effort
    • 1 st Class: Head on neck
    • 2nd Class: Only example is foot/ankle
    • 3rd Class: Most joints in body
  • Mechanical advantage and disadvantage of 3 rd Class Levers
    • Depends on length of effort arm and resistance arm
    • Eg third class lever:
    Force arm resistance arm
  • Mechanical advantage and disadvantage of 3 rd Class Levers
    • Long resistance arm and short effort arm – found in 3 rd Class Levers means:
    • Good range and speed of movement
    • Weak force applied
    • Think of a bicep curl
      • 180 degree range but little force/strength
  • Mechanical advantage and disadvantage of 2 nd class levers
    • Long effort arm and short resistance arm
    effort arm resistance arm
  • Mechanical advantage and disadvantage of 2 nd class levers
    • Long resistance arm and short effort arm – found in 2 nd class levers means:
    • Good force applied and are strong
    • Weak range speed of movement
    • Think of standing up on toes
      • Large force weight lifted (body weight)
      • But very small range of movement
  • Typical question
    • Name, sketch and label the lever system operating at the ball of the take off foot of a high jumper. (3 marks)
    • (ii) On your diagram, draw and label the effort arm and the resistance arm . (2 marks)
  • Answer
    • (i) 2nd class lever
    • Labels identified- fulcrum / pivot, effort/force, resistance/ weight/load
    • In correct order (resistance in middle); 3 marks
    • (ii) Effort arm shown as fulcrum to effort
    • Resistance arm shown as fulcrum to resistance