Characteristics and Objectives Play Leisure and Recreation Active leisure Outdoor and Adventurous activities Sport Physical Education
PLAY - characteristics
Play - objectives Children Adults Test boundaries Experience risk within safe limits Socialisation Promotes independence Develops respect Allows social interaction Escape reality To be childlike Creativity and fantasy
Leisure Used to be for privileged few – now essential for normal life Done during FREE TIME CHOICE RELAXATION ENJOYMENT
Recreation – “active positive and beneficial” – similar to leisure + Refresh mind and body Recuperate “re-create” – be creative – participate in activities for self-fulfilment Physical Recreation does all that through physical activity
Active Leisure Physical recreation normally linked to sport Sport – competitive – not everyone wants competition Everyone does need physical activity for health benefits Active Leisure – physically active in leisure time – jogging, swimming, aerobics walking “Lifetime sports”
Outdoor and Adventurous Activites Popularity increased in last 70 years Government support More availability
Characteristics Outdoor Recreation Activity done in natural environment – woods, lakes Not all outdoor recreation is adventure Adventure Activities Same environment Element of challenge and risk All adventure activities considered outdoor recreation
Outdoor and Adventure education Using natural environment as classroom Children experience danger and risk in controlled manner Benefits Appreciate natural environment Skills – map reading etc.. Team work leadership
Challenge and Risk Difference between outdoor and adventure lies in the concept of challenge and risk Adventure activities have an element of perceived or actual risk Perceived risk – dependent on skills and experience and actions they take Actual Risk – real danger – real risk – cannot be eliminated no matter how skilful
Risk Risk relates to predictability If risk is predictable it is avoidable – danger is subjective – linked to knowledge and expertise At other end of scale a situation can be so unpredictable that danger is real and objective Mortlock – experience – risk continuum page 131
objectives Outdoor rec/education Learn to appreciate natural environment Active leisure, lifetime sport Experience beyond normal routine Escape from mundane Adventure activities Excitement, thrill, fear Self-reliance Self awareness/discovery Leadership Team work Trust
Urban adventure Cost may prevent those from cities experiencing outdoor and adventurous activity Overcome by using parks, canals, climbing walls Free running has developed to use features in the city to experience the thrill of outdoor education
Sport Major part of modern life – “new religion” Sport England – 5 million people gave 1 billion hours to sport on a voluntary basis Billion pound industry
Defining Sport Coakley defines Sport as…. "Sports are institutionalized competitive activities that involve rigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex physical skills by participants motivated by internal and external rewards."
Sport Institutionalised Intrinsic/Extrinsic Fixed competitive structures – leagues, cups- overseen by governing body Standardised rules – set by governing body Rules enforced by officials Strategies for play, training, positions, equipment Codes of conduct Why people play Intrinsic – internal factors – enjoyment, satisfaction Extrinsic – external – medals, prizes, money, trophies, praise Most people motivated by a combination of the two
Categories of sport Based on National curriculum activities – and distinctive characteristic Games – sub divisions Invasion - Football Striking and Field - Cricket Combat - Judo Target - Golf Net sports - Tennis Dance - aesthetic Games - outwitting opponents Gymnastics - replication Swimming and Water Safety Athletic Activities – maximising speed or distance Outdoor and Adventurous – challenge and risk
A sport is…. Competitive Selective by ability and excellence Serious – commitment needed Requires physical endeavour Organised Involves “sportsmanship” – codes of conduct – fair play – morals Is Darts a Sport?
Physical Education - characteristics “learning through the physical” Formal body of knowledge with an educational philosophy Learnt through experience of physical activity Learning fundamental physical/motor skills Learning rules, tactics and etiquette of a range of activities. A means of developing positive social and personal values such as teamwork and cooperation. To develop the ability to appreciate the quality of movement To understand Health-Related Fitness To develop a lifelong love and engagement with exercise, physical activity and sport.
How PE, Sport and Recreation overlap
Physical activity continuum Level of organisation Play Leisure Physical Rec/Active Leisure Outdoor PE Sport Least organised most organised Competition Play Leisure Outdoor Physical Rec/Active Leisure PE Sport Least competitive most competitive
Benefits of Physical activity
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Leisure Provision Physical Activity has major benefits to society in terms of health and the reduction of anti-social behaviour. Provided by three sectors Public Private Voluntary What are the characteristics and goals of each?
Public Sector Provided from taxation – local or national Or through other forms of government or public support – e.g lottery. Local authorities have responsibility for building and maintaining recreation facilities Provided for the public good Some user groups are subsidised
Private Sector Commercial companies Run for profit Growing sector – many employment opportunities Rapid expansion in last 20 years High quality Higher cost for membership Exclusive
Inequality of opportunity – advantages and disadvantages of each sector Government keen to see more people physically active for 3 reasons Improved health – less burden on the NHS Reduce crime and anti-social behaviour by engaging people in purposeful physical activity Enhance community esteem and cohesion 3 sectors because – one sector alone cannot achieve all this Inequality because.. Some local areas poorly provided Individuals lack resources Not everyone aware of the benefits Social exclusion or discrimination
How good is each sector at providing “sport for all”Private Sector Advantages Disadvantages React quickly to demand Meet individual needs Restrict membership – so facility is rarely over-crowded Costs high Restrictions – long waiting lists – exclusive Discrimination – rules to prevent some people joining Sport may suffer – thought only for certain types of people – tennis – middle class
Voluntary Sector Advantages Just needs enthusiasm Huge range of activities Exist for the benefit of the people Voluntary efforts keep costs low Lots of financial support from government Sponsors often keen to help Disadvantages Unplanned and relatively uncontrolled – relies on goodwill No equal opps remit Continuity not guaranteed – relies on voluntary enthusiasm No guarantee of financial support Can still be socially exclusive
Public Sector Advantages Required to act in the public good Resources allocated for this purpose Not driven by profit motive Disadvantages Funds often limited – may not be enough Local authorities in economically disadvantaged areas may have less to spend Less financial freedom to borrow money to invest in facilities for the future
“Best Value” – improving the public sector 1980’s introduced Compulsory Competitive Tendering (CCT) – Local authorities had to invite private companies to tender for the provision of local services. The best bid won the right to provide the leisure services for that area. Replaced in 2000 with “Best Value” Government policy aimed to improve local government services – including leisure and recreation – system operates around best value performance indicators – leisure services departments are inspected regularly and judged against criteria known as the 4C’s
4 C’s Challenge – are councils doing as well as they can, compared to the best councils Consult – do they ask local communities what they think Compare – do they compare performance with other councils and the private and voluntary sector Compete – have they demonstrated that they are managing the services in the best way possible.
The role of National Government Department for Culture, Media and Sport “playground to podium” Sport England – one of the National sports Councils – primarily concerned with Increased participation UK Sport – development of elite performers
SPORT ENGLAND Developing community sport and increasing participation nationwide Major Policy – National Framework for Sport Key Partners – NGB’s, Sport Equity Alliance, National Sport foundation to address inequality for some groups Liase with – Youth Sport Trust and UK Sport to create structure from first experience to elite performance Achieves objectives through local initiatives putting into practice national framework Locally works with councils, schools and clubs Allocates funding from taxation and the lottery to achieve objectives Provides advice to local and national providers Conducts research in levels of participation to find out why individuals participate or not Works with other government agencies to promote wider social policies for community health and well-being
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National Curriculum PE and School Sport PE is defined as .. “a formalised body of knowledge and experience taught within educational establishments” Relatively new subject – 100 years Developed from two different strands Public Schools (upper and middle class) – emphasised team games State Elementary – health and fitness bias
Public School Sports (1800 -1870) Upper Class Bullying common Large amounts of leisure time Hunting, Gambling and drinking Younger boys used as servants – “fagging” Played games – “mob sports” Considered violent by head-teachers Some saw potential for games if controlled to channel boys energy Thomas Arnold (Rugby School) used games as a form of “social control” The importance of Leadership was emphasised – senior boys organised the matches Schools began to play each other and became more important Masters recognised the potential for more than just improving discipline Promoted games, brought back old boys to coach – standards of play improved as did facilities and equipment. Success on playing field a good way of promoting school
Fair Play Games played with a strict code of conduct Seen as a way of instilling moral qualities Leadership, Discipline, Integrity, Loyalty, Bravery and Decision making. Games played for the team not the individual Ultimately the idea that games developed both the physical and moral side of an individual was given the term “Athleticism” – “physical endeavour with moral integrity” This vision was used by De Coubertin when he created the modern olympic games in 1896
Codification Games grew in popularity More schools played each other Schoolboys took games to university Need to agree a common set of rules Groups set up to settle disputes fore-runners of Governing bodies
Popular Rec Rational Rec Regular Participation Complex rules Highly structured Spectator based and participation Refined skills rather than force Middle/upper class development Regional/national Sophisticated equipment Occasional – Feast Days Few rules Violent Force rather than skill Participation Lower Class Local Limited structure
Rational Recreation 1850 - 1890 As games developed in public schools society was changing Industrial revolution brought people to towns from the countryside – urbanisation This led to.. Changed work patterns Less space – cramped terraced housing Move from seasonal time to machine time 12 hour days six days a week – little leisure time These all contributed to the decline of popular recreation but why did rational recreation take it’s place?
Rational Recreation – the middle class Industrial revolution also created the new “middle class” People who had profited from industrialisation. Factory owners, Doctors, clergymen. Wanted their children to experience the same sort of education as the upper classes. Created own version of public schools With team games and it’s values central to these schools They wanted to pass these on to wider society because of the physical and moral benefits associated with team sports. Factory owners created teams and facilities as did churches to encourage working people to participate. They improved working conditions and gradually the standard of living of the working class improved. They had more money and with the advent of half-day Wednesday and Saturday more leisure time. They hoped this would lead to a fitter and more moral society. Most of today’s sports were created between 1860 and 1890 Rational Recreation was the name given to this new form of organised and regulated sport.
Social changes – that helped the development of rational recreation Pre-industrial Seasonal Time Limited Transport Illiteracy Harsh Rural Lifestyle Feudal System Agricultural Uncivilized Lack of technology Post-industrial Machine Time Improved transport Business/Admin Skills More civilized Middle Class Industrial Increased law and order Technological advancement
State School Education 1870 - 1940 Public Schools State Schools Aims Develop leaders of society Characteristics Upper/Middle class Hierarchichal Prefects Single Sex Physical Activities Team Games Aims Education for the masses Disciplined and obedient workforce Morals Characteristics Small, cramped spaces Local and Free of charge Mixed Sex
Developments in State School Physical Education Drill – boys only NCO’s Girls later 1890 – Swedish Gym Focus on therapeutic benefits Teachers begin to takeover WHY? Health/Fitness Instil develop discipline/accept role Easy to implement Military service Cheap Little space required
The Model Course 1902 Military Drill Command-Obey NCO’s Sticks as dummy weapons WHY? Health/Fitness Instil develop discipline/accept role Easy to implement Military service Cheap Little space required
1904-1919 Why? Improve health/physical development Medical basis – preventative measure Rehabilitation after WW1 Increase enjoyment Teacher uses more initiative Control to Education board Female PE teachers How? 1904 Swedish system reinstated – therapeutic Age/sex differences noted 1909 – games introduced 1919 – post WW1 importance of recreation
1933 -1952 What? 1933 Introduce group work Moves towards decentralisation 1944/post WW2 Child centred approach emphasis on skill Apparatus/gyms 1952/1954 moving and growing/planning the programme - individualised Why? Encourage interaction between teachers and pupils Develop creativity Discovery style Teacher initiative PE teaching developed further Influence of Dance movement - Laban
POST WW2 – Key words Moving and Growing Planning the Programme Child Centred Exploratory Discovery Obstacle Movement Recreative
National Curriculum Education Reform Act 1988 introduced a National Curriculum with the aim of raising standards by centralising the decisions regarding what is taught in schools and making schools more accountable for their performance. Since 1988 the National Curriculum has been revised several times most recently in 2008 when schools again were given more say over what they include in their curriculum.
New Secondary Curriculum The latest version of the National Curriculum gives greater freedom to schools to decide what to include depending on the needs and interests of it’s pupils. All schools have a common goal to develop Successful learners Confident Individuals Responsible Citizens Every subject including Physical Education should be aspiring to achieve these goals. How this is achieved is down to individual schools.
Developing school-club links “Social inclusion” is the driving force behind the government’s policy for Sport and physical activity. Numerous documents have been published to outline how the government plans to use sport and physical activity in the fight against social exclusion. A sporting future for all – 2001 Game Plan 2002 - 2 main objectives – increased participation Improved success at international level
High Quality Physical Education and School Sport The better students experience of Sport and Physical activity at school the more likely they are to continue into adult life. To achieve high quality the government has implemented a number of strategies Sports Colleges – now over 400 – receive additional funding to promote good practice in their own and partner schools. Youth Sport Trust is the lead body for Sports Colleges and is charged with helping them to deliver the PE and Sport Strategy for Young People (PESSYP) in partnership with Sport England
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Equal opportunities Sport and physical activity are of benefit to individuals and society. Equality of opportunity means that all individuals have the same chance to participate Inequality of opportunity exists for some groups of people because of a number of barriers Lack of opportunity Lack of personal resources Discrimination - stereotyping Self-discrimination Group or peer pressure
Who suffers from the barriers to participation? Women Ethnic Minorities Disabled Lower socio-economic groups
Gender - Reasons for lower participation of Women - Domestic Role - Social Stereotyping - Sport traditionally established and controlled by men - Less media coverage - Less money / power - Sexism – the belief that one sex is inferior to the other - Inequalities in sporting opportunities - Role models
Research Teenage girls – Sport England 2006 Muslim women – Womens Sport Foundation 2006 Perceived lack of interest of friends Family uninterested Concerns over weight and appearance Lack of self-confidence Lack of information about staying invovled Negative experiences in schools Mixed groups – lack of single sex groups Problems with dress code Lack of positive role models
Solutions to Low Participation
Equal Opportunities - Suffragettes –Right to Vote – 1917 Sex Discrimination Act (1975)
Organisations - Women’s Sport Foundation
More Facilities for women
Better Links between Schools and Clubs
Increased Media Coverage
Health Related Activities in schools – broader curriculum
Ethnic Groups Group of people who share common origins Cultural, religious, racial or linguistic. Sport England research revealed differing levels of participation by different ethnic groups. Certain minority ethnic groups are under represented.
Reasons for Low Participation - Home and family responsibilities - Lack of money - Work / study demands - Religious beliefs - NEGATIVE EXPERIENCES Racism – a set of ideas or beliefs based on the assumption that some races have distinct characteristics that make them more superior to others.
Solutions to the lower participation rates from ethnic minority groups
Sport Policies – Sporting Equals/CRE
Sports leaders / development officers
Media Coverage – role models
Campaigns to eliminate racism
Understand the effect of disability on opportunities for participation and the role of Disability for Sport England
Disability – a term used when an impairment adversely affects performance Physical Sensory Mental
Categories of Disabled Athletes Amputee Includes athletes who have at least one major joint in a limb missing, Cerebral palsy A disorder of movement and posture due to damage to an area, or areas, of the brain that control and coordinate muscle tone, reflexes, posture and movement.. Intellectual disability Substantial limitation in intellectual functioning (an IQ of 70 or below), and two or more of the following: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure and work and have acquired their condition before age 18.
Categories of Disabled Athletes Les autres 'the others'. A term used to describe athletes with a range of conditions which result in locomotive disorders - such as dwarfism - that don't fit into other classifications. Vision impaired Any condition which interferes with 'normal' vision. Wheelchair At least a 10% loss of function of their lower limbs, e.g. traumatic paraplegia and quadriplegia, spina bifida, poliomyelitis, amputees, cerebral palsy and all non ambulant les autres athletes.
Disabled people are more likely to participate in some sports than others.
Which sports are these?
Why are disabled people more likely to participate in them?
Sports that tend to organize events specifically for people with disabilities
Key Words Key questions Inclusiveness –all people should have their needs abilities and aspirations recognized, understood and met within a supportive environment Integration – able bodied and disabled taking part together in the same activity Segregated Activity – People with disabilities participating separately from able bodied. Which Sports can disabled athletes be integrated with able bodied athletes? How can sports be adapted to enable disabled athletes to participate?
Adapted Sports Tennis – wheelchair users are allowed to let the ball bounce twice before playing it. Wheelchair basketball – two pushes and one bounce replaces bouncing whilst travelling / dribbling Swimming – some technique rules can be more flexible for some classifications and visually impaired people may need a tap on the head to let them know they’re nearing the end of the lane.
How can opportunities for people with disabilities be improved? - Raise awareness amongst the disabled about opportunities already available - Raising awareness amongst the general public about disability issues - Specialist training programmes for staff who’ll be involved - Make access to and within facilities more manageable
Disability Sport England Role - Promote participation in sport for people with all forms of disability Aims:
promote the benefits
support organizations providing opportunities
enhance image, awareness and understanding
Socio-economic Groups Generally individuals from the lower socio-economic groups have poorer health and mortality rates therefore the benefits of physical activity are particularly important to this group. They are very likely to suffer from social exclusion as they have less power, less disposable income etc. To help increase their levels of participation the following factors play an important role. Attitudes – they can afford sports. Need to change attitudes of other classes to the lower class – see them as equals Awareness – lower classes need to be taught how to be physically active – be provided with facilities and knowledge of what they can do Adaptation and modification – adapt rules /prices of clubs etc to enable less fortunate to play sports School PE – integration of different classes within PE at schools – schools target disadvantaged Access – facilities – clubs – can different classes play together? Funding – government investment programmes to help lower classes afford sports – provide more ‘free’ provision.
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