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  • Socio – Cultural and Historical Effects on Participation in Physical Activity Mr Bradburne
  • Pre Public Schools Sport
    • Prior to the formation of Public (Independent) schools in society the games played were very different to what we recognise as sport today
    • BRAINSTORM – With a partner quickly jot down some ideas as to characteristics of these games
  • Mob Games
    • Loose organisation
    • Available to all
    • Simple/Local rules
    • Unruly
    • No limit on numbers
    • Few specific skills needed
    • Violent/High chance of injury
    • Example – Mob Football
  • Characteristics of Public Schools
    • Were very elitist – for the upper class only
    • For boys aged 13 – 18 years old
    • Charged fees for attendance
    • They were boarding schools
    • The original eight public schools are – Eton, Harrow, Winchester, Rugby, Chaterhouse, St Pauls, Westminster, Merchant Taylor and Shrewsbury
  • Development of games in Public Schools
    • Rules evolved – allowed boys from different areas of the country to play together at public schools
    • Participation in mob games frowned upon and banned at public schools
    • Exercise used as a means of channelling boys energy/catharsis/to fill time
    • Members of sixth form given responsibility for organisation of games to develop leadership
    • Intra-school matches developed into inter-house and then inter-school matches
  • Games influenced by public schools
    • 1. Association Football, 2. Fencing, 3. Rowing, 4. Rugby, 5. Athletics, 6. Cricket
    • The reasons for this were:
    • All are team games
    • All were seen by the schools masters to provide “manly” competition
    • All were played within a civilised code
  • The role of games in terms of social control
    • Games acted as a form of social control in the following ways:
    • The introduction of rules acted as a behavioural code
    • Teams were selected on ability
    • The older boys were helped in practicing by younger boys
    • Younger teachers acted as players and coaches
    • Professionals were employed to coach and act as ground staff
    • Respect was developed for the captain of the team and those in a leadership role
    • Headmasters gained respect of pupils by supporting and participating in some games e.g. cricket
  • Thomas Arnold (1795 – 1842) Headmaster of Rugby School 1828 - 1842 Encouraging sporting conduct Development of leadership skills Reduction of Capital punishment Giving 6 th form Responsibility Introduction of spectatorism to sport Good Organisation Wearing of a specialised Games kit Influences of Thomas Arnold on sport at Rugby School
  • Athleticism
    • Definition – A fanatical devotion to sport which produces team spirit and group loyalty . It is also character building and promotes self discipline
    • Influence of athleticism in the development of middle-class sport
    • Athleticism met middle class values of respectability e.g. fair play, rule keeping and discipline in training/competition
    • Schools developed leadership and organisational qualities in pupils – MIDDLE CLASS VALUES
    • Pupils’ became interested to carry on with sport in adulthood
    • Middle class pupils mixed with gentry at university and played some of the same games
    • Toughen society Improve Health Break from study
    • Physical Values of Athleticism
    • Competition Mental & Physical release Encourage
    • vigorous activity
  • Social Benefits of Athleticism
    • Increased status of games over study
    • Development of discipline
    • Development of response to leadership
    • Taking par more important than winning
    • Emphasis on team work and co-operation
    • Development of leadership qualities
  • The spread of Athleticism
    • Pupils left public schools and took their ideas with them to Universities
    • This created a ‘ melting pot’ of ideas for development
    • Many of these university ‘blues’ returned to the public schools as masters
    • Middle class propriety schools developed
    • Masters at the public schools became the Head’s at these new propriety schools
    • These new heads promoted athleticism
    • Schools increased in number/size/importance
  • Influence of athleticism on society
    • BRAINSTORM – What benefits would sport have?
    • Organisational experience through organising sport
    • Useful contacts made through socialising in sport
    • Experience of competition necessary to succeed in business
    • Benefits of a healthy lifestyle
    • Transfer of decision making skills
    • Fair play ethic and teamwork/co-operation
  • How has athleticism in public schools influenced the development of sport in Britain?
    • Sport played more regularly
    • Sport played by sons of the gentry
    • Sport developed codified rule structures
    • Number of sports played increased
    • Sport said to build character as well as physical benefits
    • Boys responsible for the organisation of sport
    • Headmasters actively encourage sport
    • Masters began to teach and join in the games
    • Professional coaches were employed to improve sporting standards
    • Some pupils went on to Oxford/Cambridge and gain ‘blues’
    • These ‘blues’ often returned to their public schools passing on their knowledge
    • Some ‘blues’ joined the army and spread sport at home and overseas
    • Some became priests and passed knowledge onto parishioners
    • Some became industrialists and encouraged sport among their workforce
    • Old boys teams were formed
    • Private sports clubs formed
    • Some became politicians and improved sporting provision for all
    • This system of infiltration has become known as ‘THE OLD BOYS NETWORK’
  • The development of sport governing bodies
    • Ex-public school boys instrumental in the development of governing bodies
    • Had the task of agreeing national rules so that everyone can compete on an equal basis
    • Led to the development of regional and national associations which help to further disseminate the rules
    • Inter-competitions began to increase and flourish
    • Sport portrayed to the masses as morally worthwhile
    • Sport seen as having benefits for the nation (i.e. health for work, release of tension)
  • Codification
    • Is the systematic definition of rules for conduct within sport. It encompasses both the scoring system and the rules which cover the behaviour/conduct of participants
    • The codified rules operate at all levels i.e. local, regional, national, international. The codified rules allow competition on an agreed and equal basis
  • Influence of public sports on the codification of sport rules
    • The Public schools promoted sport as a means of disipline
    • This encouraged the development of rules for the conduct of the sport
    • The rules were spread to universities and armed forces via ex-public school boys – what is this called?
    • Ex-public school boys influential in the development of clubs who adopted the same rule structures
    • The national governing bodies led to the development of regional and national associations – increased spread
    • Fair play/amateur ideal in the public schools endorsed the adoption of codes of conduct – “unwritten” part of codification
    • Public schools contributed to the rules in two senses – 1. Formal establishment of rules 2. Ideological sense of fair play
  • Pre – Industrial and Contemporary Sports
    • Lack of rule structure resulted in low skill level
    • Rules did little more than identify how a team would win
    • No governing agency
    • No referee
    • Events often unruly affairs
    • Pursued at festivals and holidays
    • Infrequent and irregular
    • Divided on a class basis
    • Almost exclusively male
    • No separate rules or competitions for men and women
    • Team games had no fixed time span
    • Team games were unruly and violent affairs
    • Rules agreed nationally/internationally
    • Rigid structure has resulted in development of high skill level
    • Rules seek to ensure fair play
    • Referees
    • Fair play and sporting etiquette
    • Take place in individual free time
    • Fixtures on frequent basis – leagues
    • Divided by amateur/professional
    • Becoming more equal in participation
    • Modern rules allow for participation in own competitions
    • Team games played to a fixed time span
    • Team games seek to control the extent of physical contact to minimise possibility of injury