AS Revision Introduction to Physical Education G451
Why do you participate in Physical Activity (or not)?
Key• ET = Exam TIP• KT = Key Term
Physical ActivityPhysical Benefits Mental BenefitsEg improved CV fitness Eg stress relief, moodor maintenance of a Enhancement, or feel goodhealthy body weight factorPersonal Benefits SocialEg knowing own strengths Eg feeling of belonging orand weaknesses or Having healthyIncreasing self esteem. relationships ET = you need to be able to give examples of physical, mental, personal and social benefits of regular participation in physical activity.
9 Components of Healthy Balanced LifestyleNutritious Rest/Sleep ‘Free Time’ Diet Injury and Control of Personal Illness stress and Hygiene Prevention pressure Physical Hobbies/Social Relationships Exercise
Sedentary LifestylesRecommendations Barriers to Regular Participation•Adults Lack of:30mins moderate intensity •EnergyPhysical activity x 5 per week •Perceived ability/skill •Friends who participate•Children and young people •Suitable facilities nearby •Money eg to join a gym60mins of moderately intense •Suitable/correct kitPhysical activity each day. AtLeast two sessions should Also:include higher impact activity •Anxiety about being out afterTo improve bone health, muscle darkStrength and flexibility. •Preference to stay at home KT when it’s cold or wet •Dislike exercise or sweating Lack of opportunity •Embarrassed to show body Lack of provision Lack of esteem In brief
Key Terms Physical Benefits – to do with the Social Benefits – to do with others body Eg potential to reduce the risk Eg having positive relationships of heart disease. Personal Benefits – to do with self Mental Benefits – to do with the mind Eg improved self-esteem Eg stress relief ET - always use these key terms especially for ten mark questions Esteem – Confidence to participateOpportunity – The chance to take part Provision – the availability of facilitiesbased on factors such as time, money etc which allow for participation.
Using the following key terms:-Physical Benefits, Mental Benefits, PersonalBenefits, Social benefits, Opportunity, Provisionand Esteem in describing the benefits of regularparticipation in Physical Activity and the possiblebarriers to regular physical activity amongstyoung people which leads to SedentaryLifestyle.
Physical RecreationPhysical RecreationEnjoyment is a key Who? Available to all whocharacteristic choose amateurs When? Where? Decided by Decided by participants in their free time participants Physical Recreation Benefits? How? Emphasis on:- Physical, mental and personal. Learn skills Relatively unsophisticated Participation not performance level. Limited , health and well- being, stress competition. Limited Taking part, not winning Funding. Limited skill or relief, relaxation be sociable and enjoyment fitness Enjoyment and satisfaction, not record-breaking ET - when asked to identify the characteristics of Phys Rec it is important to be specific and clear in your answers. If simple bland terms are used such as ‘anyone, anywhere at anytime’ to describe characteristics you will not gain marks. Be specific not vague!
Benefits of Outdoor Recreation Appreciation of the • A chance to be at one with nature natural • Escape from modern hectic lifestyle • Chance to tune in to one’s inner- self, thoughts and feelings environment Respect for the • Being in the natural environment can natural intensify the appreciation of the need to preserve, conserve, value and protect the natural environment. environment • Due to unpredictable, risky and sometimes potentially dangerous nature of the natural Gaining a sense of environment. • Once all real risk has been eliminated and adventure safety measures followed a sense of exhilaration and excitement can be experienced.Remember that outdoor recreation is physical recreation in the natural environment eg a walking holiday
Exam Tips You need to be able to compare characteristics of Physical Remember that Outdoor RecreationRecreation with characteristics of means using the natural Sport environment, (eg hills, lakes or rivers) to gain physical, mental, personal and social benefits. Outdoor Recreation is not simply playing a game of Hockey or golf which happens to be outside.
Characteristics of Physical Education Characteristics Of PE Schoolchildren Opportunity for and Specialist Staff GCSE,AS/A level Young People Variety of Practical activities National Benefits and theoretical Curriculum elementsPE can be defined as :-1. Learning about and through physical activity2. The learning of physical, personal, preparatory and qualitative values through formal physical activity in school
Benefits of Physical Education Personal (and social) Enjoyment, confidence, leadership, tea Preparatory mwork, loyalty, responsibility, commit ment, overcoming Preparation for leisure (eg joining a challenges, emotional control, decision club) or sport, a career or work making, problem solving, sportsmanship,positive behaviour, respect Benefits of Physical Education Physical Improved quality of life Influence on lifestyle(eg balanced Skill, health, fitness, physique, agility, k healthy lifestyle), experiencing nowledge of excellence, mental well- activities/sports/coaching/leading/offi being, opportunity for ciating creativity, aesthetic awareness
Outdoor Education Constraints of widespread participation In Outdoor Who? Young people Education by young qualified, specialist people:- leaders /staff •Lack of adequate funding, specialist staff and transport costs Where? •Distance from natural facilities When? In the natural •Insufficient voluntary contributions As part of a environment, (eg hills, lakes from pupils or structured school rivers, coastlines, mountains, •Outdoor activities can take up too programme caves ) much curriculum time. Special trips or visits Sometimes using semi-natural •Parents anxieties over H & s concerns or artificial facilities and staff reluctant to take responsibilityBeginners Experts Benefits? How? Physical Health and Skill Learning eg climbing According to strict H & S regsPerceived Risk Real Risk Sometimes by overcomingCompletely safe dangerous even fatal Personal and social potential constraints eg development eg leadership Distance for locationImagined challenging Preparation for Active leisure eg Expense of activities love the outdoors Lack of expert staff Enhance quality of life eg Time constraints appreciation of environment
Characteristics and Benefits of Sport Who? Those with Physical prowess (skill) Those with physical endeavour (effort and Commitment) The Elite Some Professionals Where? When? At a designated space with At a designated time specialist or purpose built and pre-determined facilities length of time With fixed boundariesWhat makes a sport?1. Tradition2. Vigorous exertion Benefits? How?3. Competition Intrinsic Rewards- High level organisation, that is: With officials formal rules NGBs4. Administration Personal satisfaction High level of competition5. Behaviour and achievement Commitment to training and coaching Aesthetic quality Extrinsic rewards- Sportsmanship Sponsorship and media interest money and/or fame Element of chance
Key Terms Physical Prowess – Skill Sportsmanship– Fair Play Physical Endeavour– Effort and Gamesmanship– Stretching the rules Commitment To gain an unfair advantage. Aesthetic– movement that is beautiful to watch and pleasing to the eye Sledging– Attempting to undermine anDeviance – seriously breaking the rules Opponent by verbally abusing , taunting
Characteristics of Surviving Ethnic Sports Occasional/Annual Ritualistic Local Natural Tourism Rowdy Traditional Social Relatively Isolated
Exam Tips You need to rememberspecific surviving ethnic sports and games eg not Mob You need to describe the Football…. Royal Shrovetide characteristics of surviving ethnic Football sports and give reasons for their continued existence and popularity. Eg Occasional/Annual often participated during bank-holidays.
19th Century Public Schools Community Members Oxbridge Blues Teachers Community LeadersVicars/Priests Parents Industrialists Assistant Masters Army Officers
Move From Popular Recreation (B4 IR) to Rational Recreation (PIR)• Popular Recreation Rational Recreation• Localised Local – regional – national• Uncoded Formal codification• Cruel/Violent Channelled aggression• Irregular/occasional Regular• Courtly/popular Gentry – middle – working• Rural Rural – urban• Ritual Moral• Wagering Gambling curtailed
Have a go! what do these key words mean• An amateur• A professional• An amateur approach to sport• A professional approach to sport• Gentlemen amateur
USA Win at all costs Ivy League Conference- Similar to a leagueAmerican dream Highly Commercialised State Capitalist State 300 million people In 50 states American football Rags to riches Franchise- The business that Owns, runs and has voting rights for a team
Australia Population 21,007,310 (2008 est.) Young Nation (1770) James Cook of England charted eastern coast, claimed it for British Crown Retained Colonial Influences Rugby 2 codes Cricket Association football (Socceroos) Immigration Complete time-line on map!
Australia Outdoor Lifestyle/Health Conscious Reasons Give reasons for physical activity (physical• Favourable education, physical recreation and sport) Climate being of such high status in Australia.  Sporting Success Sport for All Media support and interest Colonialism White Australia Policy Bush Culture
Give reasons for physical activity(physical education, physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia. 
Reasons• Favourable Climate
Outdoor Lifestyle/Health Conscious
Government Support• The Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) leads the development of elite sport and is widely acknowledged in Australia and internationally as a world best practice model for elite athlete development. The AIS is a pre- eminent elite sports training institution in Australia with world class facilities and support services. The AIS has 35 sport programs in 26 sports.• AIS scholarship holders to become tomorrows world-beaters and all the information on how to join the AIS family is available through the scholarships section.• The AIS has been the nations sports training powerhouse mainly due to the AIS facilities and the cutting edge Sports Science Sports Medicine support.• The AIS campus is located in the suburb of Bruce in the Australian Capital Territory.
Sport for All
Media support and interest
A forum for advertisment
Tradition of Success
Unites a ‘Small Nation’
High status in Schools
Impact on young Peoples aspirations Funding of Physical ActivityIn: business profit, ticket In: taxes, gaming dutiessales, TV rights and National Lottery sales.Out:- sponsor Out:- Localindividuals, teams, running authorities, awards Private Public and grants eg UK sport.and maintaining privatesports Funding from Funding from Sportsmatch businesses, compani government andclubs and facilities, buying local authorities Sponsorship, Armed forces es and investorsTV rights, Sport Aid often by way of including National sport sponsorship. Lottery FundingGrants, National SportsFoundation Voluntary Funding from donations or charities or private clubsIn: national lottery grants, awards for all, sportsmatch grants, local authoritygrants, NGBs, fundraising, Foundation for sports and arts, National sports Foundation, Commercial Sponsorshipand members subscriptionOut:- facility building maintenance and development, developing performers (coaching), running a club
World Class Pathway ProgrammeYears from podium 0 World Class Podium This programme supports likely medal -2 contenders. Funding is based on performance success at previous olympics. -4 World Class Development For performers who are about 6 years from a medal -6 World Class Talent Highly gifted performers with world class talent are selected by NGBs. For performers who are a maximum of 8 years from a likely -8 medal Home country talent development systems
UK Sport’s Organisations Policy ProvisionWhat is their political ideology? How can we provide to meet our potential? • More grassroots = more elite.• Winning Medals • Who are they targeting?• Participation• Equal Opportunities• Increasing our status• Pursuit Of Excellence Administration • How is sport structured, organised and funded? • What role does each of the organisations play in the pursuit of participation and excellence?
Other Bodies Influencing and PromotingPhysical Activity and Sporting Excellence Name Overall Aims To develop elite sport in the UK inc. Ethics, major events, administrative efficiency, works with home countries, helps elite sports development, supports world class performers/coaches etc To provide the best performers with the practical support needed to win and compete at the highest level with: sports science and medicine, physiology and eg biomechanics, performance analysis, massage, physiotherapy, strength and conditioning, career and education advice etc To get people more active and involved. Invests advises and promotes community sport. Promotes voluntary work such as coaching leadership and officiating. Focus on priority groups (minority groups). Supports school sport. Works closely with local, national and regional bodies in line with NGBs. To increase participation, improve performance and improve the image and management of sport in NI. Develop disadvantaged groups etc To increase participation and improve performance in Scottish sports. Developing sporting people, organisations and facilities, create pathways and promote equality of opportunity tackling discrimination. To get more people more active more often. Active young people, active communities, high level performance and excellence focusing on talented performers.
Exam Tip 1Key sporting bodies and orgssuch as UK sport are not told Gifted and Kite Markingwhat to do, however they are talented Activemarkanswerable to the DCMS JAE Sportsmark programmedue to the funding Partnershipsthey receive. The PE, School Sport and Club National Links Strategy Curriculum PESSCL strategy School SportsExam Tip 2 PartnershipsYou can only be asked questions SSPs Exam Tip 3on material that is in the There will be five parts to your ASspecification, so you will not get a Socio-cultural studies q’s. Thequestion specifically about PESSCL Final part will be an extended 10strategy, you may have to identify mark question. You have tocurrent government initiatives. ‘critically evaluate’, and therefore prove how you can think and make judgements. Government Initiatives
Excellence and Participation in UK Exam Tip•Highly skilled/elite You could be asked to•Fully committed with high level support name and explain each layer of the•Emphasis on winning and competing sports development•District, county or regional commitment pyramid in the examination. Ensure•School or club participation, recreational•Non-competitive extra curricular - enjoy you can recall the ones beginning with•Introduction to sport-basic skills ‘p’, candidates often•Positive attitudes to physical activity get these confused. The Sports Development Pyramid Mass Participation Sporting Excellence The continuum from mass participation to sporting excellence
Opportunity Provision EsteemEthnic Minorities ‘White Flight’Groups who are different in their ethnic origin Are we ‘guided’ into sports due to our race?from the majority of the population. Do we avoid sports where our race has notRace traditionally or currently been represented?The physical characteristics of an individual. Stacking This is where players are put into‘Self-fulfilling prophecies’ positions and sports on the basis of their ethnic background.Countries may concentrate on a particularsport e.g. Kenyan and middle/long distancerunning.
How do we get Equal Opportunities? Awareness Changing AttitudesAllocate Funding Adaption/Modification Access
Key TermsAttitudes: Outlooks, feelings or Myths– Untruths eg black malesthought about something. can’t swim and women can’t park cars. Positive Discrimination– FavouritismStereotyping– Typecasting, labelling Or special treatment for the focusor pigeonholing people. Group in order to give them a chanceSocial Exclusion– the negative resultof factors such as low income, Socialisation– the process by which peoplediscrimination, poor housing etc that Learn acceptable cultural beliefs andcan put some communities at a behaviour including how to interact withdisadvantage. people who are different to themselves.
Drugs Media Sponsorship and Violence"In the name of allcompetitors I promise that in Sportwe shall take part in theseOlympic Games, respectingand abiding by the rules Reasons for Use Consequenceswhich governthem, committingourselves to a sportwithout doping andwithout drugs, in the truespirit of sportsmanship, forthe glory of sport and thehonour of our teams."
Possible solutions to Drug Use• Stricter more rigorous out-of season testing• Stricter punishments and life bans• Co-ordinated education programmes for athlete and coach• More funding for testing programmes and scientific research• Unified policies across NGBs• Role models promoting drug free sport ET -If a question is asked for solution to the problem of drugs, make sure that you don’t list drug types, respond using the bullet points above.
Technology in Sport Technology Safety Retractable MaterialsExam Tip: Eg , Cricket Stadia roofs Carbon fibre Sprung floorsBe aware of modern helmets, Ball feeding gumshields machinestechnological products areup-to-date, technicalscientific or high-tech itemsthat impact on sport. FootwearThe impact is usually Officiating Comfort BladesConsidered to be good, but Electronic Goretex Breathable timers Insulated footwearIn some cases may increase clothing, boot 3rd Umpire sThe chance of injuryEg Football Boots Science Clothing Motion Medicine Lycra body Analysis Golf Ice baths suits swing physiotherapy Swimming Video replay Surgery caps and suits
The roles of the media To Inform • Eg informing about a match result, team analysis or player preparation and behaviour. To educate • Eg on global sporting issues, sports, skills, coaching techniques, sporting issues or local sporting provision. To entertain • Eg with live coverage of an event or information about star’s private lives or a documentary on a particular team’s pre-competition preparations. To advertise • Either directly or indirectly through sponsorshipET - If you are asked to critically evaluate the impact of the media on sport – it simplymeans that you should way up ( in good written form) the advantages and disadvantagesof the media in sport eg additional funding for sport v rule changes and off-peak viewingtimes.
Media Golden Triangle -The Inter-relationship between sport, sponsorship and the mediaSport and Media Sport and SponsorshipHigh level sport is a media Sponsorship increases popularitycommodity. and stability of sport.Sport available 24/7 Sport is a relatively inexpensiveMedia control over some sports form of advertising.Celebrities are created and role Money from sponsorship can helpmodels can have +ive or –ive Sport improve spectator provision.image Powerful sports such as premierLow profile sports get little league football have someattention so minimal sponsorship control over their sponsorsopportunities.Relationship can increase match The Goldenfixing and other examples of Triangledeviance. Media Sponsorship Sponsorship and Media; When sports are covered by the media sponsorship ultimately Increases.
Violence by PlayersCauses Of Violence by Players ‘Cauldron Effect’ Aggression Provocation De-humanised Sledging Cheating Crowd Behaviour
Solutions to Violence by Players Harsher Penalties Education Rule changes Greater authority Technology
Violence by Spectators Reasons and Solutions• AddPre-match Hype here Police Liaison Primitive All-Seater Intimidate Segregation Incite Deterrents
Ethics and High Level Sport Deviance SportsmanshipGamesmanship Fair play Etiquette Letter and Spirit of ‘The Law’
The Olympic Games KT Olympic Charter- The ‘rule book’ that governs how the Olympic Games and IOC are run. The Olympic Charter Principles Aims Philosophy Designed to link sport with To enable and strengthen Balance between body and culture and education. The sports, to ensure their mind and will; effort-forfounders wanted to promote the the joy is can bring; role practice in sport and the joy independence and found in effort. The Olympics duration. modelling to educate and would help build a better world inspire others; tolerance, by bringing people together BPDC generosity, unity,from all over the globe the spirit friendship, non- of fair play and friendship discrimination and respect for others
The bringing together of people from 5 different continents Promotes Olympic games Fund raises Organises visits to Host City prior to Appoints official games sponsors of 2012 Helps athletes andManages Team GB NGBs prepare forInc. transport and kit Olympic Games Helps select Team GB Works on Olympic Bids
Key TermsCentralised System • A system where political and administrative power is held centrally with no regional or local government controlShop Window Effect • When sporting success equates with political success and positive role models promotethe country’s statusCommunism • A centralised political system that opposes capitalism and democracyElitism • To be exclusive or to select the best and to forget the restAppeasement • To pacify or provide a feel good factor