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Edexcel Examinations                 AS Level Sport and Physical Education                          AS Module Unit 1      ...
Requirements for              participation1/26/2012
LEISURE AND RECREATION            • definitions            • relationships            • and current trends.1/26/2012
Recreation – WHAT IS IT?• The use of free time – positive aspect of  leisure.• Widely described as active leisure.1/26/2012
Examples of recreational                   activities1/26/2012
Leisure – WHAT IS IT?• An activity, apart from the obligations of  work, family and society, to which the  individual turn...
Examples of Leisure activities1/26/2012
WHY DO WE NEED ACTIVE LEISURE?                        Psychological-                       Physiological-                 ...
Current trends of leisure and                     recreation• Changes in work / life balance• Changes in work - use of mac...
Requirements for participation• Fitness                  FART• Ability• Recourses• Time1/26/2012
Fitness• Can be explained as the condition of the body  and mind at any one time.• Health, age, and free time must always ...
Definition• Health related fitness• A basic level of physical fitness components  which facilitate a good level of health1...
Ability• Will vary according to health, age and fitness• Skills an individual has to take part in the  activity.• How woul...
Resources• Essential for most sports and activities• The activity and the level at which you are  taking part will effect ...
Time• Most crucial feature of modern life!• Concerns about obesity and related diseases  because of lack of time to partic...
Exam questions1. Briefly outline three basic requirements an   individual needs in order to participate in sport   and rec...
Homework• What is mass participation??• What does ‘sport for all’ mean??• Can you find any other initiatives in other  cou...
EXCELLENCE & (MASS)               PARTICIPATION1/26/2012
PARTICIPATION            • government philosophy of mass participation has a two-fold              aim:            • healt...
SPORTS DEVELOPMENT PYRAMID        National Training              National       Training at National                      ...
Mass participation•   Government initiative – ‘Sport for all’•   1972•   Promote healthy lifestyles•   Base for elite pyra...
Children and                                                    Elderly                Youth                              ...
PARTICIPATION IN TERMS OF OPPORTUNITY, PROVISION &                            ESTEEM                • Various groups of pe...
CONTEMPORARY              CONCERNS1/26/2012
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY                      FOR THE INDIVIDUAL?               •   Builds healt...
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR                         SOCIETY?            • Improved health of th...
WHY ARE WE MORE SEDENTARY NOW, THAN EVER BEFORE?              • We have more office-based jobs                than manual ...
HOW TO DEVELOP & SUSTAIN A BALANCED, ACTIVE &                         HEALTHY LIFESTYLE.                  • How often (fre...
CONTEMPORARY CONCERNS                                       high blood                      diabetes          pressure    ...
OBESITY            • OVERWEIGHT is a body weight that exceeds the norm              or standard weight for a particular   ...
OBESITY AND HEALTH DISORDERS            •   THE FACTS            •   over 30,000 deaths a year are caused by obesity - in ...
CORONARY HEART DISEASE (CHD) CHD • is one of Britain’s greatest killers and encompasses diseases such as angina and    hea...
CHD            CORONARY THROMBOSIS            • heart attack is a sudden severe blockage in one of the              corona...
DIABETES  METABOLIC SYNDROME  • this term links coronary artery disease, hypertension, abnormal blood lipids (fats),     t...
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE  HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE OR HYPERTENSION  • occurs when a person’s blood pressure is    continually high, ...
HIGH CHOLESTEROL    CHOLESTEROL    • cholesterol is a substance produced from fatty foods    • particularly from a diet hi...
METABOLIC SYNDROMEMETABOLIC SYNDROME• this term links coronary artery disease, hypertension, abnormal blood lipids (fats),...
• What is a sedentary lifestyle?• Lack of physical activity1/26/2012
SEDENTARY LIFESTYLES  •    HYPOKINETIC DISORDERS  •    diseases that develop partly due to insufficient exercise  •    OST...
ACTIVITY PATTERNS            LIFESTYLE TRENDS            • issues affecting health are:                    • diet and nutr...
AGEING AND HEALTH ARTERIOSCLEROSIS • hardening of the arteries usually occurring in older people, and which is a    proces...
ACCESS IN TERMS OF OPPORTUNITY & PROVISION   OPPORTUNITY   • various groups of people may not want to participate in sport...
STRESS AND STRESSORS•    STRESS•    a response of the body to any demands made on it•    symptoms of stress      – physiol...
• What makes you stressed?1/26/2012
STRESSORS            •   STRESSORS            •   social            •   disapproval of parents / peers            •   reje...
SYMPTOMS OF STRESS•   PHYSIOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS                        •   BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS•   increased heart rate      ...
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  1. 1. Edexcel Examinations AS Level Sport and Physical Education AS Module Unit 1 Participation in Sport and Recreation Section 1.1 Healthy and Active Lifestyles Part 1: Development of active leisure and recreation1/26/2012
  2. 2. Requirements for participation1/26/2012
  3. 3. LEISURE AND RECREATION • definitions • relationships • and current trends.1/26/2012
  4. 4. Recreation – WHAT IS IT?• The use of free time – positive aspect of leisure.• Widely described as active leisure.1/26/2012
  5. 5. Examples of recreational activities1/26/2012
  6. 6. Leisure – WHAT IS IT?• An activity, apart from the obligations of work, family and society, to which the individual turns to his/her free will• Social Function.• Requires free time• It is more than an activity, it is the experience.• It is undertaken as free choice.• It can improve health and fitness.1/26/2012
  7. 7. Examples of Leisure activities1/26/2012
  8. 8. WHY DO WE NEED ACTIVE LEISURE? Psychological- Physiological- Relieve stress/ Health & boredom Fitness Emotional – Satisfaction/ enjoyment ? Social – Friendship & communication Personal – Development Of self-control & ability1/26/2012
  9. 9. Current trends of leisure and recreation• Changes in work / life balance• Changes in work - use of machinery to do labour jobs (less active jobs)• Fewer people are walking/ cycling to and from work• = more sedentary lifestyles and low fitness levels in society1/26/2012
  10. 10. Requirements for participation• Fitness FART• Ability• Recourses• Time1/26/2012
  11. 11. Fitness• Can be explained as the condition of the body and mind at any one time.• Health, age, and free time must always be taken into account when assessing fitness levels.• Compare the fitness of a 50 year old to 20 year old!??• How could fitness affect you (or anyone else) from participating in sport???1/26/2012
  12. 12. Definition• Health related fitness• A basic level of physical fitness components which facilitate a good level of health1/26/2012
  13. 13. Ability• Will vary according to health, age and fitness• Skills an individual has to take part in the activity.• How would ability affect your participation in sport??1/26/2012
  14. 14. Resources• Essential for most sports and activities• The activity and the level at which you are taking part will effect how much you depend on resources.• ‘SPORT FOR ALL’• What is it???1/26/2012
  15. 15. Time• Most crucial feature of modern life!• Concerns about obesity and related diseases because of lack of time to participate in sport.How could sports clubs / centres help the modern person overcome the ‘lack of time’ problem??1/26/2012
  16. 16. Exam questions1. Briefly outline three basic requirements an individual needs in order to participate in sport and recreation (3 marks)2. Define and link the concepts of leisure and recreation (3 marks)3. In relation to sport and recreation, what do the terms opportunity and provision mean? Illustrate your answer with an example. (4 marks)1/26/2012
  17. 17. Homework• What is mass participation??• What does ‘sport for all’ mean??• Can you find any other initiatives in other countries? France, Australia, New Zealand?• Research in your text book and on the internet.• Must be in your own words!!!1/26/2012
  18. 18. EXCELLENCE & (MASS) PARTICIPATION1/26/2012
  19. 19. PARTICIPATION • government philosophy of mass participation has a two-fold aim: • health and fitness of the Nation • providing a broad base to the participation pyramid • thereby ensuring that those with the talent can achieve excellence1/26/2012
  20. 20. SPORTS DEVELOPMENT PYRAMID National Training National Training at National Squad Sports Centres squads Financial Progression Development Assistance To Area levels squads Access to District District/ Training Competitions County levels Talent scouts, club Links to Affiliation coaching local clubs to NGB’s Early Activity In Schools1/26/2012
  21. 21. Mass participation• Government initiative – ‘Sport for all’• 1972• Promote healthy lifestyles• Base for elite pyramid (previous slide)• 3 strands – Children and Youth, Adult and Elderly.1/26/2012
  22. 22. Children and Elderly Youth Sport for All Off peak Extra facilities curricular opportunities Adults Life time Structured outdoor sports experiences Leisure centre access Competition and club access1/26/2012
  23. 23. PARTICIPATION IN TERMS OF OPPORTUNITY, PROVISION & ESTEEM • Various groups of people may not want to participate in sport – and this could be for a variety of reasons. • We tend to discuss these reasons in terms of – opportunity – provision – esteem • More of this later in section 1.21/26/2012
  24. 24. CONTEMPORARY CONCERNS1/26/2012
  25. 25. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR THE INDIVIDUAL? • Builds healthy bones, joints & muscles. • Improves psychological well-being. • Allows for personal challenge. • Encourages social mixing with others. • Prevents obesity. • Prevents diabetes. • Prevents high blood pressure. • Prevents coronary heart disease.1/26/2012
  26. 26. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR SOCIETY? • Improved health of the nation. • Decreased burden on national resources such as the NHS. • Decreased crime. • Increased opportunities for excellence on a world stage. • Increased socialisation between different cultures and groups.1/26/2012
  27. 27. WHY ARE WE MORE SEDENTARY NOW, THAN EVER BEFORE? • We have more office-based jobs than manual jobs. • We use cars/buses/trains to get to places - rather than walk or cycle. • The rise of the computer game! • Improvements in technology mean we can socialize in different ways other than sport - e.g. the internet.1/26/2012
  28. 28. HOW TO DEVELOP & SUSTAIN A BALANCED, ACTIVE & HEALTHY LIFESTYLE. • How often (frequency)? • 3-4 times a week - more if you are trying to lose weight or get fitter. • How much (intensity)? • A comfortable (moderate pace). • What kind of activity (type)? • Something enjoyable & which raises the pulse - for example: walking, climbing, playing tennis etc (the list is endless) • How long (time)? • At least 20-30 minutes.1/26/2012
  29. 29. CONTEMPORARY CONCERNS high blood diabetes pressure high cholesterol metabolic CHD syndrome CONTEMPORARY CONCERNS sedentary obesity lifestyle activity patterns stress access ageing population1/26/2012
  30. 30. OBESITY • OVERWEIGHT is a body weight that exceeds the norm or standard weight for a particular • height • frame size • gender’ • OBESITY – Definition • ‘a surplus of adipose tissue resulting from excessive energy intake relative to energy expenditure’ • males - body fat greater than 25% • females - body fat greater than 35% • CAUSE OF OBESITY • the main cause of obesity is a positive energy balance • ENERGY INTAKE > ENERGY OUTPUT • or more food than exercise1/26/2012
  31. 31. OBESITY AND HEALTH DISORDERS • THE FACTS • over 30,000 deaths a year are caused by obesity - in England • 22% of the British adult population are obese • 75% of the British adult population are overweight • child obesity has increased 3-fold in the last 20 years • obesity can lead to many health problems: – arthritis – heart disease – diabetes • DIABETES • a condition which occurs when a person’s body cannot regulate glucose levels • obesity and overweight conditions are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes1/26/2012
  32. 32. CORONARY HEART DISEASE (CHD) CHD • is one of Britain’s greatest killers and encompasses diseases such as angina and heart attacks or coronary thrombosis • angina begins as a chest pain which is due to ischemia or lack of blood and hence oxygen to the heart muscle itself • the first symptoms of CHD are usually noticed during physical exertion or excitement and the subsequent increase in heart rate • heavy, cramp-like pains are experienced across the chest • angina is normally treated and controlled with drugs and relaxation, but a person suffering from this condition has a higher risk of suffering from a coronary thrombosis CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (CVD) • include diseases of the heart and blood vessels OBESITY AND CHD • cardiac workload (hence risk of CHD) is less with lower body mass • capability to move around (walk / run / climb) therefore better with lower body mass1/26/2012
  33. 33. CHD CORONARY THROMBOSIS • heart attack is a sudden severe blockage in one of the coronary arteries, completely cutting off the blood supply to part of the myocardial (heart) tissue • this blockage is often caused by a blood clot formed within slowly moving blood in an already damaged, partially obstructed coronary artery • heart attacks can be severe or mild, depending on the positioning of the blockage • in a severe blockage the heart may stop beating - called a cardiac arrest, about half of all cardiac arrest cases die • in 2008, Coronary heart disease accounted for 30% of all UK deaths in people aged less than 75 years1/26/2012
  34. 34. DIABETES METABOLIC SYNDROME • this term links coronary artery disease, hypertension, abnormal blood lipids (fats), type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity to insulin resistance INSULIN • insulin is a hormone which enables the transfer of glucose from the blood into cells where it is needed for metabolism DIABETES • this happens because the Islets of Langerhans situated within the pancreas stop functioning properly and therefore do not produce enough insulin or the insulin does not facilitate blood glucose to be transferred into cells where metabolism occurs - the cells have insulin resistance • hence cells (particularly muscle cells) will not have enough glucose to function properly - and the person feels exhausted • other symptoms are: – lack of circulation to the hands and feet – extremes of thirst or hunger – unexplained weight loss1/26/2012
  35. 35. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE OR HYPERTENSION • occurs when a person’s blood pressure is continually high, equal to or greater than 140/90 mmHg • high blood pressure is often associated with excess weight and hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis) • hypertension is a major contributing factor in atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease (CHD), and strokes1/26/2012
  36. 36. HIGH CHOLESTEROL CHOLESTEROL • cholesterol is a substance produced from fatty foods • particularly from a diet high in saturated fat • if this is not removed by the digestive process, it can be deposited in arteries causing them to be narrower • this is a form of atherosclerosis EXERCISE AND HIGH CHOLESTEROL • exercise increases High Density Lipoproteins HDL and decreases Low Density Lipoproteins LDL (LDL are responsible for depositing cholesterol and narrowing lumen of artery), hence blood pressure (BP) becomes stable • thus preventing hypertension RISK FACTORS FOR HIGH CHOLESTEROL • lack of exercise • diet • heredity • bodyweight • age • gender1/26/2012
  37. 37. METABOLIC SYNDROMEMETABOLIC SYNDROME• this term links coronary artery disease, hypertension, abnormal blood lipids (fats), type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity to insulin resistance• the risk factors for this syndrome are: • arterial plaque build-up • excessive fat deposits in the abdominal region • high blood triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol • raised blood pressure • raised cellular resistance to insulin • the inability to absorb glucose• roughly 20% of the population in the USA have this condition which makes type II diabetes worse and hence the risk of eyesight and circulation problems in older people 1/26/2012
  38. 38. • What is a sedentary lifestyle?• Lack of physical activity1/26/2012
  39. 39. SEDENTARY LIFESTYLES • HYPOKINETIC DISORDERS • diseases that develop partly due to insufficient exercise • OSTEOPOROSIS • this is an age-related condition in which reduction of bone mass takes place • this is due to reabsorption of minerals that form part of bone structure • making bones porous, brittle and liable to break • linked with hormonal changes in postmenopausal females • or with the sedentary lifestyle led by many elderly people • INACTIVITY • this leads to poor flexibility as muscles, tendons and ligaments become shorter and tighter • often resulting in back pain and other joint pain particularly in the knees and wrists • OSTEOARTHRITIS • this is a condition where joints thicken with fluid-filled pockets, restricting joint flexibility1/26/2012
  40. 40. ACTIVITY PATTERNS LIFESTYLE TRENDS • issues affecting health are: • diet and nutrition • lack of physical activity • smoking • alcohol • recreational drugs EFFECT ON LIFESPAN • all these factors affect the quality of life and age of death of an individual1/26/2012
  41. 41. AGEING AND HEALTH ARTERIOSCLEROSIS • hardening of the arteries usually occurring in older people, and which is a process enhanced by lack of exercise • this happens mostly in the lower limbs, and involves a gradual calcification of the tunica media (the muscular middle wall of an artery) • hence reducing the mobility of older people OSTEOPOROSIS • as mentioned above, this condition is linked with hormonal changes in postmenopausal females • or with the sedentary lifestyle led by many elderly people OSTEOARTHRITIS • this joint condition can be very restrictive for older people LONGEVITY • people are living longer as improved nutrition, health care, and exercise regimes are having an effect on life chances1/26/2012
  42. 42. ACCESS IN TERMS OF OPPORTUNITY & PROVISION OPPORTUNITY • various groups of people may not want to participate in sport for cultural reasons: • gender • ethnicity / religion • age • disability • social / economic class PROVISION • this is concerned with the facilities available to a potential performer • depends on the following factors: • inner city or countryside? • poor or rich neighbourhood? • regional hub nearby - and can the performer use it? • travel distance? • expensive equipment / kit required?1/26/2012
  43. 43. STRESS AND STRESSORS• STRESS• a response of the body to any demands made on it• symptoms of stress – physiological – psychological social chemical – behavioural psychological STRESSORS biochemical climatic bacterial physical 1/26/2012
  44. 44. • What makes you stressed?1/26/2012
  45. 45. STRESSORS • STRESSORS • social • disapproval of parents / peers • rejection by peers / parents • isolation from normal social interactions • chemical / biochemical • harm by ingestion of substances • bacterial • illness caused by micro-organisms • physical • injury / pain / exhaustion • climatic • extremes of weather • hot weather for endurance activities • rain and cold on bare skin • psychological • mismatch between perception of demands of task • and ability to cope1/26/2012
  46. 46. SYMPTOMS OF STRESS• PHYSIOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS • BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS• increased heart rate • rapid talking• increased blood pressure • nail biting• increased sweating • pacing• increased breathing rate • scowling• decreased flow of blood to the skin • yawning• increased oxygen uptake • trembling• dry mouth • raised voice pitch • frequent urination• PSYCHLOGICAL SYMPTOMS• worry• feeling overwhelmed• inability to make decisions• inability to concentrate• inability to direct attention appropriately• narrowing of attention• feeling out of control1/26/2012
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