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The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
The creative society make a job report
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The creative society make a job report

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  • 1. MAKE A JOBDON’T TAKE A JOB A REPORT BYBARBARA GUNNELL AND MARTIN BRIGHT
  • 2. M AKE A JOB DON’T TAKE A JOBBUILDINGBarbara Gunnell and Martin BrightBrief: To investigate the practicalframeworks which support andencourage creative talent and enterprise.This report follows NDotM’s two earlierreports Do It Yourself: Cultural andCreative Self–employment in Hard Times(June 2009) and Creative Survival in HardTimes (March 2010).A New Deal of the Mind Reportwith the cooperation of:Enterprise UKIxion HoldingsBrighton Hove City CouncilDesign: Earth Creative StrategiesAdditional Research: Natalie White
  • 3. BUILDING THE CREATIVE SOCIETYFrom the Founder and Chief ExecutiveWhen I set up New Deal of the Mind in response to the presenteconomic crisis, I was driven, in part, by my own experience ofbeing on the dole at the end of the 1980s. After three years atuniversity, I had found the experience humiliating and, at times,I wondered if I would ever get a proper job. At the beginning of2008 I saw a whole new generation faced with the similar grimprospect of joblessness. In all the thousands of words written about the downturn, the role Britain’s creativeindustries might play in the recovery has often been underplayed. At the sametime, though lip service has been paid to the importance of self–employment andentrepreneurship, no one has yet explained how best to encourage people to come offbenefits and set up their own businesses. This report is an attempt to provide some practical solutions. Two previousNDotM reports for the Arts Council argued for the reintroduction of an enterpriseallowance based on the Thatcher–era scheme, which provided many young people(myself included) with a weekly payment and the opportunity to make something forthemselves. We are delighted that this Coalition Government, with the introduction ofNew Enterprise Allowance, has taken up our recommendation, in name at least. Now, the challenge is to turn the rhetoric into reality. If we accept that creativeentrepreneurship will drive the recovery, how do we best find it, nurture it andencourage it to grow? The research in this report demonstrates that young people arenot asking for much: small start–up grants or loans, mentoring and business supportand the space in which to develop their ideas. If we are to build a genuinely creative economy built on enterprise then we will needa change in the culture. We hope that “Make a job, don’t take a job” becomes theslogan of this new way of thinking.Martin BrightNew Deal of the Mindwww.newdealofthemind.com
  • 4. CONTENTS 6. HELP 32 6.1 First ports of call1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 6.2 Mentors and protégés 6.3 Incubation 6.4 A creative nation 1.1 “Make a Job, Don’t Take a Job” 6.5 Realising dreams 1.2 The social context 6.6 Learning success 1.3 Making space for creative entrepreneurs 6.7 Online advice 1.4 Help, formal and informal 1.5 The political backdrop 7. SUCCESS 422. RECOMMENDATIONS 7 7.1 Artist gentrification 7.2 allace and Gromit go to Spike Island W3. WHERE WE ARE 8 7.3 Scotland keeps its artists 7.4 Cradle to grave 7.5 Creative regeneration 3.1 Background 3.2 Political context 3.3 Innovation and enterprise 3.4 Art and artists in crisis 8. CONCLUSION 47 8.1 Enterprising solutions4. THE AGE OF ENTERPRISE 16 8.2 Mentors and myths 8.3 Imagine 4.1 Do it Yourself 4.2 What Thatcher did for Heavy Metal 4.3 The instant entrepreneur APPENDIX ONE 54 4.4 The new business class Submission to DCMS on funding of the arts5. CREATING SPACE 22 BIBLIOGRAPHY 60 5.1 Clustering 5.2 Creative cities 5.3 Getting together ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 61 5.4 Space in a recession 5.5 Directory END NOTES 62
  • 5. 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.1 Make a Job, Don’t Take a Job reported, only at a rate equivalent to non–EAS start–ups). However, when the “Make a job, don’t take a job” should scheme wound up in 1991 it had created become the rallying cry for the creative more jobs than there had been EAS sector. The sector has traditionally had a recipients – about 40 additional jobs for far higher percentage of freelance workers every 100 on the scheme. If the NEA is – around 40 per cent of the total, compared to encourage enterprise, it should start with 12 per cent in the economy as a by trusting its new entrepreneurs and whole. In times of recession, this can be reducing red tape to the minimum. turned to advantage. 1.2 The social context In earlier reports, NDotM has urged government to establish an Enterprise It has never been harder for school– Allowance Scheme for the 21st century leavers and graduates wishing to pursue that would help young people make a creative future to find work. And yet, in their own jobs. The launching of the the continuing economic downturn, the New Enterprise Allowance is therefore UK needs their enthusiasm and ingenuity a welcome start. Getting young people more than ever. The creative industries into productive self–employment rather are key to the UK’s economic recovery, than chasing work in a shrinking job representing 6.2 per cent of all GVA (the market benefits both the unwilling measure of what the economy produces) claimant and the taxpayer. However, and contributing almost £60 billion to the1. the requirement for applicants to have UK economy. E XECUTIVE been unemployed for six months may be counter–productive. Forcing young The link between creativity and people to languish on the dole does not innovation throughout business and SUMMARY foster enterprise. industry has been well established. In 2005 the government–commissioned Cox There are lessons to be learned from Review of Creativity in Business argued Margaret Thatcher’s 1980s enterprise that creativity needed to be at the core of scheme. It was set up to reduce the every aspect of modern life, in particular“Make a job, don’t take a job” should become the rallying cry number of registered unemployed. The business and industry. More recently,for the creative sector. The sector has traditionally had a far government of the day was keen to the work of the National Endowment forhigher percentage of freelance workers – around 40 per cent of encourage applicants so it made the Science Technology and the Arts (NESTA)the total, compared with 12 per cent in the economy as a whole. scheme simple and non–prescriptive. It has demonstrated that technological did not dictate what kind of businesses advance in the wider economy depends should be set up. It did not interfere with on the vitality of the creative industries. the small details. This led to many young These industries include rapidly applicants and many creative industry expanding sectors, such as digital start–ups. EAS–ers were transformed media, interactive leisure software and instantly from claimants into potential animation, in all of which Britain is among entrepreneurs. Some businesses failed the international leaders. Furthermore, (but, the National Audit Office later the UK’s creative sector is the largest in 1
  • 6. 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This is a generation far more familiar with the idea of enterprise and making their own futures Cuts in subsidies to theatres, museums the road to making a living out of their designers can all launch internationally and art galleries may not be immediately talents. Furthermore, these low–cost competitive businesses from bedrooms the European Union. It could easily lose obvious to the consumers but they will interventions can produce rapid results. and garages. The stories of such this lead. have a rapid impact on jobs. There is a achievements are inspiring but are not danger, in such a climate, that today’s In earlier reports NDotM called for the basis of a development strategy for The Coalition has decided on extensive graduates and school leavers could an enterprise allowance scheme for the sector. spending cuts in this parliament. become a lost generation of talent, the 21st century. The Government has Unfortunately, the notion that art and depriving Britain of the kind of energy and taken an important step towards this We know from our earlier reports that culture are trimmable luxuries in times ingenuity that led to the rapid growth of by announcing in October that it will young people place high importance of recession has a powerful attraction the sector in the 1990s and early 2000s. introduce a New Enterprise Allowance on finding suitable spaces not only to for politicians and for commentators. aimed at getting 10,000 new businesses work but also to meet and learn from An occasional argument is made for If the creative sector is to play its key off the ground. This is a very modest others. Answering this need should the importance of culture to tourism role in the recovery of the UK economy as target given the extent of unemployment. become a high policy priority. Working income and the vital contribution that a whole, it is essential that ways are found At its peak, the Enterprise Allowance space is expensive for low earners but is being made by the digital sectors to to harness the enterprise, inventiveness Scheme of the 1980s helped 90,000 the recession has left many cities with export earnings. But the idea that it is and vitality of young people. This is a people in a single year into starting their an abundance of empty spaces. There in the economic interests of all of us to generation far more familiar with the own business. The success of a new are many models of how to use this. encourage creative people, from painters idea of enterprise and making their own scheme will depend heavily on the kinds Government has encouraged the use and musicians to animators and garage futures. They know that employers can of support advocated in this report. of empty shops and local authorities bands, has few public champions. Even fill any job vacancy ten times over. This have responded; the Arts Council has the computer games sector, or interactive changes their attitude to being self– They fall into three categories. The first supported some initiatives, allocating leisure sector, which is struggling to employed and even starting their own is ensuring that young people receive £500,000 towards converting vacant remain in competition with northern businesses. Their attitude to enterprise sufficient financial support to see them spaces into studios. America and Japan, has failed to convince is quite different from that of their through the early stage of becoming self– government that it needs the tax breaks counterparts even ten years ago. But they employed or starting small companies. Gateshead City Council was able enjoyed by the film industry in order to still need support and advice if they are to The second is provision of the right kind to set up its Starter for Ten project maintain its position. succeed on their own. of physical space for young creatives to (for helping small businesses set up develop their talents into viable means in empty shops) in 2009 because of a There are other things that only Helping people into work and of self–support. The third is making stalled town–centre redevelopment government can provide. One is to ensure encouraging enterprise will cost money. available appropriate business support plan. The much–praised Shed studio the UK stays ahead educationally in But as is demonstrated by a wealth of and skills training. development in Gateshead high street, areas of economic importance. Jason creative activity around the country, the whose opening was supported by Kingsley, chairman of the games industry right kinds of practical interventions 1.3 Space for entrepreneurs fashion designer Wayne Hemingway, trade association, TIGA, fears that the can achieve a lot at low cost. Such was once a bed shop. It opened in 2009 UK is slipping behind. “We cannot have a interventions include ensuring that those Britain’s chances of maintaining a lead with 11 businesses in an open–plan highly skilled workforce and a knowledge who want to start a business get the as an innovative economy depend on showroom space. This year it developed economy on the cheap,” he has said. “Our right kind of advice including peer help providing the physical environments in an upper floor into studios and now key competitors spend substantially more and mentoring; supporting provision which creative entrepreneurs flourish. houses around 30 creative businesses on higher education. Canada, South Korea of reasonably–priced working space as A high proportion of workers in the from architects to clothes designers. and the US spend between them 2.5 per well as places to exchange ideas and sector are self–employed. Many thrive cent and 2.9 per cent [of GDP] on tertiary providing continuing skills training and on working flexibly and independently. National private studio suppliers such institutions, compared to approximately 1 access to sales outlets. All these can However, we have to let go of the fantasy as Acme have also increased their studio per cent in the UK. put young unemployed creatives on that top software developers and fashion spaces. The result has been a creative2 3
  • 7. 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Small creative enterprises are often set up in an unstructured way by independent, space bonanza: a mushrooming of (including government) decided to non–conformist people Some industry sectors recognise different kinds of hubs, pop–up centres make additional provision for small that the next generation of creative and incubators and of experimental businesses, a strategy that has helped entrepreneurs need business support and ways of working and creating, some Scotland to become an important player career help that is only available within established with little or no public or in digital media (contributing £3 billion Programme which offers mentoring and the industry. Brighton–based Lighthouse, third–sector funding. For the moment, to its economy). At the other end of the professional support. Mushroom Studios, which supports and commissions rents are cheap and enthusiasm high. scale, at Faircharm studios in Deptford, a private not–for–profit enterprise in new work in the digital arts and film Though many of the social enterprise South–east London, an experimenter in Newcastle, has a formalised “tea break” industries, runs a 12–month mentoring workplaces may ultimately revert music technology rents a small studio in which all tenants meet to exchange programme for tomorrow’s film–makers. to profitable commercial use as the from London Youth Support Trust (LYST) ideas. Cockpit Arts (in addition to a highly Lighthouse has secured an impressive economy repairs, the experience of earlier at a rate that will be heavily discounted for sophisticated formal business–mentoring cast of mentors including Sam Mendes recessions shows that the best initiatives two years. Both models are successes. programme) encourages tenants to and Kenneth Branagh with its Guiding do survive. Acme Studios, Cockpit Arts’ A music–maker from Deptford could one make use of the experience of their fellow Lights programme, supported by Skillset incubation model for designer–makers day be a tenant at Pacific Quay. Until then, studio–holders. (the sector skills council for creative and the Bristol–based art collective at the charity–backed LYST measures its media) and the now restructured UK Spike Island – all of whose ventures are success in the number of tenants able The future of publicly funded business Film Council. It is a strong model of how discussed in this report – are exemplary to pay the rent, keep their heads above advice schemes is under consideration specialist mentoring could work in other survivors from earlier recessions. water and remain off the dole and off the but classroom–delivered teaching creative sub–sectors. streets by developing their businesses. may not be the best option for some Educational bodies, successful disciplines. Many creative businesses The expertise established by such companies and publicly funded 1.4 Help, formal and informal have benefited from such programmes organisations, private and public, should institutions could all make better use but there is more anecdotal enthusiasm not be wasted and can usefully inform of their office, exhibition or performance Successful entrepreneurs invariably cite for advice and information that comes any new publicly funded business advice space to provide areas in which to help finding the right help at the right time as from people who have attempted to set initiatives. Our evidence suggests that young entrepreneurs. Enterprise UK the most important accelerator of their up similar enterprises. There is growing low–cost schemes can produce good has called for a National Strategy on business. By their nature, small creative evidence that business mentoring and results and have a useful role to play in Enterprising Places that represents enterprises are often set up in advice is better delivered one–to–one. job generation by helping one–person “a commitment to the use of public an unstructured way by independent, The independent (not publicly funded) businesses expand into two– or three– space for entrepreneurs”. non–conformist people. They have few Huddersfield–based Creative Industries person enterprises. models of how to grow beyond self– Development Agency, for example, has There is no blueprint. Pacific Quay employment. Mentors and friendly advice solid experience of the value of this kind Many of the sector’s largest employers in Glasgow is a multimillion high–tech can make a huge difference and are often of mentoring, having helped set up more are or have links with publicly funded high–investment space whose backers an unplanned consequence of sharing than 400 small businesses in the UK. organisations, for example in broadcasting space. Tenants and managers of shared Cockpit Arts is currently analysing the and theatre. There is a strong case for studios invariably report mentoring, social and economic benefits of its own the public sector leading by example and Cockpit Arts informal and formal, to be the greatest intensive programmes of mentoring to establishing mentoring programmes within benefit of working in close proximity with its designer–maker tenants. Scotland’s all publicly funded arts organisations and encourages tenants other creative people. Some organisations Cultural Enterprise Office believes its larger cultural organisations. to make use of the have begun to make better use of the structured programme of business help experience of their variety of skills and experience they have and advice that can be accessed by any A nation–wide call for mentoring in the fellow studio–holders on hand. Acme Studios, for example, creative worker in Scotland has been a creative sector would be a valuable a charity focused initially only on providing major factor in the growth of Scotland’s addition to the Government’s Big Society. affordable space, now runs a Residency creative economy.4 5
  • 8. 2. 2. RECOMMENDATIONS Our research suggests RECOMMENDATIONS FOR that young people are GOVERNMENT ACTION keen to start up on their own However, ministers have made it clear 1. Enterprise 3. Business advice and mentoring that they will look favourably on bids for Single Work Programme contracts that –– uild on the New Enterprise B –– Promote entrepreneurship among 1.5 The political backdrop contain options for self–employment. Allowance to target those hoping to young people by encouraging them to start creative businesses. Incorporate “make a job, not take a job”. In a political climate where cuts are being DWP is consulting on two specific the NAO’s recommendations for the discussed across Whitehall departments, proposals in the Conservative manifesto 1983–91 EAS, namely to increase –– nsure job centre staff and careers E the arts budget has had a relatively low to promote self–employment. The first the availability of business advice services are trained to advise on priority. The anti–cuts campaign led by is to set up “work pairings” to link young and reduce the “waiting period” of self–employment and, where possible, prominent figures in the arts world has unemployed people to sole traders, such unemployment to eight weeks or the second such staff to arts centres and emphasised the contribution made by the as plumbers, builders and carpenters. minimum practicable. creative incubators. creative industries to the UK economy. This idea could be applied to artists and Although this contribution has been craftspeople, who often work on the same –– ncourage freelancers, sole traders E –– ncourage wider provision of E recognised and celebrated by Culture self–employed basis. In essence, the and micro–businesses in the creative business skills training within Secretary Jeremy Hunt and arts minister sole trader gets an extra pair of hands sector to take on additional staff by the creative sector. Ed Vaizey, the sector has found it difficult and the new employee gets training and making available loans, grants and tax to argue its corner against schools experience of a trade. This is potentially relief for that purpose. –– aunch a national mentoring L and hospitals. exciting for the sector. campaign encouraging artists, –– stablish a venture capital fund to E entrepreneurs and executives But we also need to examine the role of The second idea has the generic encourage creative start–ups. in publicly funded cultural the Department of Work and Pensions. title “Work for Yourself” and is also organisations to become business The Coalition government has announced at consultation stage. One result of 2. Spaces and creative mentors. wholesale reform of the benefits system. this process was Iain Duncan Smith’s This has serious implications for state– announcement at Conservative Party –– ublicise private sector and local P driven job creation, which has become Conference of the creation of a New authority initiatives that have used known, in a phrase borrowed from the Enterprise Allowance Scheme. This will empty commercial space for small United States, as “welfare to work”. provide benefit claimants with a package start–up enterprises. A myriad of programmes initiated by of £2,000 of support to set up in business. the Labour government to get people –– acilitate the low–cost conversion F back to work will be scrapped by next The universities minister, David Willetts of empty commercial space into spring and replaced by a new Single has told graduates not to despair at short–term accommodation for small Work Programme. Under this scheme, the lack of jobs, but instead to consider creative businesses. the functions of job creation will be setting up their own businesses. outsourced on a regional basis to large This “make a job, don’t take a job” –– stablish a dialogue with successful E service companies such as Serco, G4S message is particularly appropriate to studio providers to develop sustainable and A4E, who will work in partnership the creative sector. Our research suggests models to replicate around the country. with smaller specialist suppliers, social that young people are keen to start up on enterprises and charities to get people their own. However, they will require help –– ncourage arts centres, educational E back to work. It is impossible to tell at this in terms of mentoring, advice and start– institutions, libraries and colleges to stage, what role self–employment will up funding. Ministers need to be aware provide space for use as creative hubs play in these plans as the government that creative people are asking for very and business incubators. will leave it to each consortium to decide little, but that is not the same as nothing on work creation strategies. at all.6 7
  • 9. 3. WHERE WE ARE The energy that drives 3. 1. Background the growth of this sector comes not from large A government lamenting the decline of or even medium– manufacturing and wondering where to sized corporations find the traditional British entrepreneurial but from small–scale spirit need look no further than the creative sector.1 Over the past decade entrepreneurs it has become the largest in Europe, and freelancers accounting for 6.2 per cent of GVA (gross value added, i.e. the measure of what the economy produces) and contributing almost £60 billion to the economy.2 world (behind the US in first place but vying with Germany depending on which According to the independent National industries are included).3 Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA), this group of In a recent report from the think tank industries has in the past few years Reform, Jeremy Hunt, the Secretary been growing at around twice the rate of State for Culture Media and Sport of other sectors. If this has not won its acknowledged the importance of business leaders a place at the top table creativity.4 He rightly stressed the in debates on “the future of the British country’s need for the entrepreneurialism, economy”, that is largely because, innovation and creativity. However, there 3. unlike banking or manufacturing, it has was one remarkable feature of the WHERE no big industry champions, few multi– creative sector that he did not mention: millionaire presidents or CEOs and only that a large proportion of this innovation a handful of well–known spokespeople and enterprise comes from the tiniest of WE ARE (who tend to speak for arts and culture businesses. The energy that drives the in general rather than for the wider growth of this sector comes not from creative industries). large or even medium–sized corporations but from small–scale entrepreneurs But there are important reasons for and freelancers, many operating as A government lamenting the decline of manufacturing and government to pay heed to the creative one–person companies: 85 per cent of wondering where to find the traditional British entrepreneurial spirit sector. Manufacturing faces increasing businesses in this sector have fewer than need look no further than the creative sector. Over the past decade competition from emerging economies. five employees. In addition, the sector’s it has become the largest in Europe, accounting for 6.2 per cent of The future of the finance sector, at least entrepreneurs are overwhelmingly young economic output. within the UK, is uncertain. The creative (an additional reason, perhaps, for the industries have strengths that can be built sector’s lack of influence). They leave on in a recession: start–ups are low–cost; school and college with individualistic global demand for creative products creative ambitions, often at the cutting grows unabated; the UK has an enviable edge of innovation. Such people do not reputation in music, literature, and new always make good employees (even if digital sectors. It is already the second they could find work) but they can become or third largest creative economy in the excellent entrepreneurs.8 9
  • 10. 3. WHERE WE ARE Figures point to the innovation of creative workers and In October 2010, the Conservative Work scheme involving so many tiny businesses creative industries, entrepreneurs. Helping tomorrow’s and Pensions Secretary, Iain Duncan may prove difficult to manage. But and specifically designers, filmmakers, performers, Smith, announced the creation of the New the principle is a good one and would the talent we have artists, musicians and digital media Enterprise Allowance, clearly inspired by suit artists and small–scale creative nurtured within it, workers is not just a way of strengthening its 1980s predecessor. The new scheme entrepreneurs in need of an extra pair becoming a key driver the creative economy. It is the path to will give people a weekly allowance of hands. for the UK’s recovery economic recovery on the way to the equivalent to the dole for the first three “creative society”.6 months and half that for the subsequent Much has been made by the incoming from recession three months. In addition, they will be government of the need to develop a 3.2 Political context given access to loan finance of up to new spirit of philanthropy in the arts £1,000. This is clearly considerably less on the American model. But ministers Consecutive British governments have generous than the original scheme and have not yet fully outlined how this will Over the past 10–12 years, a series grappled with the problem of how it remains to be seen whether it will be work for smaller creative organisations. of reports have established the best to encourage entrepreneurship. sufficient to persuade people to come The most likely immediate outcome is importance of creativity to the UK However, too often over the past 13 off benefits. that smaller companies will be forced economy. NESTA’s work, in particular, years, self–employment and enterprise to consider mergers and partnerships has stressed that Britain’s international have been a low priority for Labour The coalition government has made in order to survive. The Department of lead in digital–based industries and governments. In the latter years of the all the right noises about the need to Culture Media and Sport has ordered new creative technologies depends Brown administration, Work and Pensions encourage entrepreneurship in the Arts Council England to restrict cuts to heavily on continuing to nurture creative Secretary, James Purnell developed a creative sector. In his foreword to a its 850 regularly funded organizations to talent. Moreover, NESTA has argued, “self–employment credit” in an attempt pamphlet from the Reform think tank in 15 per cent, although its total budget has manufacturing, finance and other sectors to persuade people on benefits to set up September 2010, the Culture Secretary been slashed by nearly a third.7 At the depend heavily on the health of the their own businesses. This was not well Jeremy Hunt said: “The success of the same time, it is likely that the functions creative sector since there is a direct publicised and payments lasted only for creative industries is down to the hard of ACE itself will grow. Discussions link between creativity and innovation in 16 weeks – not enough time for someone work, entrepreneurialism, innovation with ministers were underway at the the wider economy. The more creative to establish a sustainable enterprise. and creativity of those employed in time of writing this report to bring the products a company purchases, the more the sector… Our ambition is clear: a responsibilities of the UK Film Council innovative it is likely to be. For better or New Deal of the Mind has lobbied for strong and competitive creative sector and the Museums, Libraries and Archives worse, the banking sector has been a the introduction of a 21st century version playing its fullest possible role in the Council within ACE’s remit. ACE could major consumer of creative products.5 of the Thatcher–era Enterprise Allowance wider UK economy. I look forward to also take on responsibility for economic Scheme, which paid people slightly more working together with businesses and sustainability and possibly even work NESTA has predicted that by 2013 the than the dole for a year if they agreed entrepreneurs from across the creative sector will be employing more people to establish their own business and put industries to make this happen.” than the financial sector. In the words up £1,000 of their own money into the of Jonathan Kestenbaum, NESTA’s enterprise as seed funding. The scheme However, beyond the New Enterprise The Thatcher-era chief executive: “[The] figures point to produced several high–profile success Allowance, it is still difficult to discern enterprise scheme the creative industries, and specifically stories, such as Julian Dunkerton of the what this will mean in practice. produced several the talent we have nurtured within it, Superdry fashion label and Alan McGee, The DWP is also refining the details of high-profile success becoming a key driver for the UK’s who set up Creation Records. But it also a Conservative manifesto pledge, Work stories, such as Alan recovery from recession.” permitted a whole range of individuals to Pairings, to get young unemployed people McGee who set up make a start in their careers across the working alongside sole traders such The UK, then, depends for its creative sector. as plumbers, electricians and builders. Creation Records future wellbeing on the ingenuity and Early discussions have suggested that a10 11
  • 11. 3. WHERE WE ARE creation. Some commentators expressed have concluded that Britain’s ensuing In February 2008, the DCMS had 3.4 Art and artists in crisis concern that the Comprehensive creative preeminence was born out of published Creative Britain. This endorsed Spending Review settlement effectively that scheme. Chris Smith, Labour’s first the idea that Britain’s future depended Arts organisations now face a future of protected the large London–based culture secretary in Tony Blair’s 1997 on its creative talent: “The creative much–reduced public subsidy. cultural institutions. One predicted the administration, saw the link between industries must move from the margins Institutions, galleries, theatres, specialist “mass slaughter of provincial arts”.8 creativity and innovation in the wider to the mainstream of economic and agencies, cultural forums and third– economy. He realised that money and policy thinking, as we look to create the sector promoters of the arts will all be The creative sector has been slow political effort invested in the arts would jobs of the future. The bedrock on which obliged to recalibrate costs and income to react to the reality of work creation pay dividends. He championed not just the the strategy is built is the Government’s generation to accommodate their share under the DWP’s new Single Work arts but also their economic significance, fundamental belief in the role of public of the 25 to 30 per cent spending cuts the Programme. All new welfare to work and the importance of artists and industry funding to stimulate creativity and government has sought from major arts contracts will be granted to large working together. Smith established the sharpen Britain’s creative edge. This funding bodies. There have already been “prime contractors” who will then sub– notion of the creative industries sector as is reflected in its support for the arts casualties, such as the UK Film Council contract to smaller companies, social classified today. and its commitment to public service and the Museums, Libraries and Archives enterprises and charities. In future, this broadcasting. These are the threads that Council. Many smaller organisations will be the only game in town for cultural In 2005, the Cox Review of Creativity connect a country that values excellence and individual artists have lost or face institutions wishing to use government in Business built on that work.9 This in the arts and culture, a population rich losing grants. schemes to help provide jobs for the Treasury–commissioned review urged in creative talent, and an innovative and long–term unemployed. The government government to ensure that creativity flourishing creative economy.” It is important to acknowledge that the is not being prescriptive about how pervaded every aspect of modern public broadly supports this strategy. A these contacts will deliver jobs, beyond life. It called for business people who But coinciding with publication of that survey of 2,022 members of the public indicating that partnerships and “understand creativity, who know when report came the run on Northern Rock who were asked whether they agreed schemes that involve self–employment and how to use the [creative] specialist, bank signalling the start of an economic with the Government’s intended cuts will be looked on favourably. and who can manage innovation” and crisis that changed the landscape and found that two–thirds favoured increased for creative specialists who could talk brought into question whether it would be reliance on private investment for the 3.3 Innovation and enterprise the same language as their clients possible for public funding to “sharpen arts and a fifth favoured no government and business colleagues. It argued Britain’s creative edge.” investment at all.11 The counter– In the last two decades of the 20th that creativity had to be at the core of argument, though sound, that the arts century, two very different politicians engineering and technology and that all generate far more than they cost is a hard contributed to the growth of Britain’s sectors had to understand the design one to argue at such times, though it was creative economy: Margaret Thatcher process. The message was reinforced cleverly restated by artist David Shrigley and Chris Smith. Thatcher’s Enterprise in 2009 by the former Department for The creative in the animated film he made to launch Allowance Scheme (EAS) of the 1980s Business, Industry and Skills when, industries must move a UK artists–led campaign to protect the was intended to reduce worryingly high in a report on the digital economy, it from the margins to arts from government cuts.12 unemployment figures. It achieved its acknowledged that the creative industries the mainstream of ends and it also gave a generation of were at the heart of economic growth and economic and policy However, despite the backing of top young people the chance to become needed to be “scaled and industrialised thinking, as we look artists such as Anthony Gormley, Tracey entrepreneurs. A high proportion of the in the same way as other successful to create the jobs of Emin, Jeremy Deller, Mark Wallinger and applicants for the EAS turned out to be high–technology knowledge industries the future David Hockney, support for the arts in young artists, musicians and designers, have been”.10 By the time Labour’s period the run–up to the October 2010 spending for whom the promise of being left alone of government was drawing to a close, the review was generally characterised as to pursue a creative ambition proved UK creative sector was growing twice as special pleading by a privileged elite. highly attractive. Some economists fast as the rest of the economy. The wider social and economic benefits of12 13
  • 12. 3. WHERE WE ARE art have little traction with a public that is Asking young people low–paid jobs such as bar work. But this faced with concerns about jobs, benefits, to waste six months on way of getting by is harder to find in a the health service and university funding. benefits or on taking recession, spelling hardship for many work that does not use young creatives who cannot (and do The shortfall will not easily be balanced their skills is a waste not want to) sign on while carrying out by an increase in philanthropic donations, of their talent freelance commissions. despite the timing of the Sainsbury family’s £25m donation to the British Any enterprise scheme aiming to help Museum in September 2010. Britain such a group has to understand that does not have a philanthropist culture reality: it cannot cater only for those like that of the United States and will Kit Friend, then a student campaigner, who have spent six months unemployed. not quickly acquire one. Such a culture argued in 2009 that graduates in the If young creatives are required by the would anyway be of little use to aspiring creative arts were the only group for system to abandon their career hopes, artists and creatives at the sharp end of whom the so–called degree “premium” this represents a loss to the nation of the economic crisis. Philanthropy, even which allegedly justified higher their skills for all time. in the US, is more often showered on university tuition fees, was a minus institutions than people: acquisitions sum. They earned less than their non– Asking young people to waste six of artefacts, endowing new wings of graduate peers. months on benefits or on taking work institutions, etc. One seldom hears of that does not use their skills is a waste of philanthropists backing young musicians Those 85 per cent of businesses their talent. It could also set back Britain’s or computer games designers (though that employ five or fewer people rarely international lead in some industries for there might be a good case for promoting advertise jobs. The larger companies, decades. The New Enterprise Allowance such Renaissance–style patronage). which make up the other 15 per cent, needs to take that into account. Given include big broadcasters, advertising the choice, young unemployed people The hidden victims of the arts cuts are agencies, media companies and larger have made it clear that they would rather those now hoping to work in the sector. publishing houses. Some of these create a job for themselves than stay idle Young people who seek creative careers undertake training and look after their on benefits. typically work and practise their vocations subcontractors and regular freelances in isolation. They find it hard at the best well. But throughout the sector, working of times to transform their skills into jobs for low wage and no wages at all is or income and face almost insuperable common; internships are frequently obstacles in finding work. They know unpaid or badly paid and nepotism is rife. that they want to act, perform, invent, Those who persist find that they must write, make jewellery, design shoes or bear the cost of acquiring the vocational take computerised music and animation skills themselves if they want to be to new levels. But even in good times employable in a rapidly changing sector. there are few rational career paths for These hardships were detailed in NDotM’s these ambitions. CCSkills noted that earlier report, Creative Survival in in 2005–6 there were 6,000 vacancies Hard Times.14 announced over a 12–month period but that in that same period more than half a Would–be photographers, designers, million students were studying subjects in performers and graphic artists tend to the field.13 supplement their income with part–time,14 15
  • 13. 4. AGE OF ENTERPRISE 4.1 Do it yourself As tens of thousands of students left university in the summer of 2010, the This is a group far newly appointed universities minister, more likely to create David Willetts, told a newspaper that its own jobs than find graduates should not despair at the them ready–made. lack of “graduate jobs”; they would do Government policy better to consider setting up their own businesses.15 His advice could have been has not always made particularly directed towards graduates this an easy option with degrees in arts and creative subjects. Self–employment has always been high in the creative sector accounting for 40 per cent of the workforce, compared with for them, since many – singers, 12 per cent in the economy as a whole. musicians, artists, photographers, (Both figures relate to 2007 and both designers – wanted to continue with percentages are now likely to be higher as occasional paid–for commissions a consequence of the recession.) while supplementing this with small amounts of paid work when they could The success of the creative sector find it. Interviews NDotM conducted in recent decades has, in part, been a with young people at that time revealed 4. consequence of so many of the workforce that they were reluctant to seek work THE AGE OF being willing to work independently and through job centres, fearing they would flexibly. This is a group far more likely to be expected to give up on their creative create its own jobs than find them ready– ambitions. As a result many remained ENTERPRISE made. Government policy has not always out of the benefits system entirely made this an easy option. and reported considerable financial hardship. Others had no alternative but In 2009, the Arts Council asked to abandon their ambitions. NDotM to investigate ways in which As tens of thousands of students left university in the summer the government might provide NDotM therefore recommended in of 2010, the newly appointed universities minister, David Willetts, opportunities for the young self– its report that the government should told a newspaper that graduates should not despair at the lack employed in the culture sector. 17 implement an enterprise scheme for of “graduate jobs” - they would do better to consider setting up It became apparent that there was the twenty–first century, borrowing their own businesses. insufficient clarity about the rules some of the features of the Enterprise governing benefit and self–employment Allowance Scheme set up by Margaret and a serious lack of understanding Thatcher’s government in the 1980s. In a at official levels of the situation facing submission to the DCMS in August 2010, young people who would necessarily NDotM reiterated that such a scheme need to start out creative careers could kick–start new creative enterprises as self–employed. Signing on for and encourage entrepreneurship (see Jobseeker’s Allowance was a problem Appendix One).16 17
  • 14. 4. AGE OF ENTERPRISE A step towards fulfilling this As we have noted in earlier reports, 4.3 The instant entrepreneur (since some successful start–ups went on recommendation was taken in October EAS alumni also include celebrated to employ more people). A figure reported 2010 when the Government announced artists and successful entrepreneurs, The scheme worked thus: the rate was, at in Hansard was that for every 100 people a New Enterprise Allowance. The among them Alan McGee, the founder £40 a week for a year, slightly higher than who completed the scheme, 139 people principle of giving an unemployed of Creation Records, Jeremy Deller, the the dole at that time. Applicants needed were working two years later. Given that person an incentive to start a self– 2004 Turner prize winner, the Wilson to demonstrate that they could provide employed business holds great promise sisters (who had also been nominated £1,000 of their own funds. Their weekly for the creative sector. Currently, the for the Turner prize) and Digby Pearson, allowance went straight into a bank Government’s target is to support 10,000 founder of the heavy metal record label, account with no requirement for the Some businesses failed unemployed people into starting small Earache. Julian Dunkerton began his EAS–er to “sign on” each week. A but many survived businesses with a financial help package Superdry clothes label while on the EAS: young man or woman on the dole was a good while and of £2,000. This is a modest ambition when recently, two decades on, his company thus instantly transformed into an launched their creators compared with the EAS which in one year, was floated on the Stock Exchange and entrepreneur. Some businesses failed into careers in theatre, 1988-89, made provision for 90,000 new valued at £80m. but many survived a good while and entrants.18 It is worth re–examining the journalism and music launched their creators into careers benefits of the 1980s scheme, many of in theatre, journalism and music. which have resonance today. Julian Dunkerton The non–prescriptive nature of EAS began his Superdry enabled performers and artists to sign 4.2 hat Thatcher did for W clothes label while on up. Surprisingly, there was no official almost all who joined the scheme were heavy metal the EAS. Two decades preference for start–ups in trade or first–time one or two–person businesses, manufacturing; the only imperative was it was a good record. NAO noted that The Enterprise Allowance Scheme on, his company was for claimants to get doing something. administration costs were low, at less operated from 1983–91. Not much floated on the Stock than 10 per cent and recommended lauded at the time, it seems from Exchange and valued It was widely believed at the time that that the scheme continue but that those this distance a beacon of progressive at £80m the main political function of the EAS participating should receive better and positive thinking about how to was simply to reduce the unemployment support in business skills.20 encourage the enterprise culture in figures. Nonetheless, some politicians young people. When, in February 2010, and economists now credit the scheme The long–term impact of the EAS was Ken Clarke, then shadow business The affection in which the alumni of with paving the way for the UK’s creative considerable. Françoise Benhamou secretary, used a business–networking that scheme hold the EAS is evident. boom of the 1990s. noted that France and Britain, with website to seek out the personal Some now find it strange that, while widely differing government strategies experiences of those who had taken as young graduates they would have Before the scheme wound up in 1991, towards unemployment, both achieved advantage of the old Enterprise vociferously opposed many of the the National Audit Office had declared increases in economic participation Allowance Scheme, many of his measures of Margaret Thatcher’s the scheme good value for money. in the audiovisual and performing respondents were from the cultural government, this scheme did so much to It estimated that the cost to the exchequer arts industries during the ten years to sector and wrote that, for them, EAS help them pursue their dream. The very per person employed had been £2,300 1992. Her conclusions were that while had been a starting point for later high proportion of start–ups that EAS per year, more or less in line with other France achieved its increases by major entrepreneurial success. A theatre generated in the cultural and creative measures aimed at creating employment. government spending, Britain’s success director, social entrepreneur, music sector was unremarked at the time resulted from the positive attitude publisher, decorator and photographer but the French economist Françoise As well as enjoying a survival rate not of the government in encouraging were just some of the creative industry Benhamou reported later that there were much lower than non–EAS start–ups, self–employment. This, she believes, responses. Many reported that they now 35,177 cultural sector participants in the these new businesses had created more contributed to a 34 per cent growth in ran larger companies employing others. EAS between 1985 and 1989. 19 jobs than there had been EAS participants employment in the artistic and cultural18 19
  • 15. 4. AGE OF ENTERPRISE The NEA is a beginning. It could be the pilot for a government to target funds at those who graduates in London revealed that half The past few years have seen a range wider strategy aimed cannot find work after a defined period of all new graduates were intending of initiatives designed to encourage at encouraging of trying if only to avoid the “deadweight” to start their own businesses and a innovation and entrepreneurialism in greater enterprise effect of paying people to start businesses third had embarked on their degrees young people. Some of those are reviewed in young people that they had always intended to start. But with the intention of starting their own in subsequent sections. Many rely on a six months is a long time for graduates business.22 Television programmes such small measure of government or local (or indeed anyone) to languish on the dole as Dragons’ Den and The Apprentice authority funding. It would be a mistake queue and be prevented from following have popularised entrepreneurship but to cut these vital stimulants to enterprise. the career they believe best uses their they are also responding to a growing New entrepreneurs are vital to the future professions between 1981 and 1992. talents and from which, we believe, the interest among young people in making economy. Without them we will see fewer During the same period, growth of the British economy will ultimately benefit. something themselves. Enterprise new businesses and break our way into active workforce was negligible, she The entrepreneurial spirit has to be UK, a government–backed body that fewer new markets. The NEA, based on reports. Benhamou also points out that encouraged while the entrepreneur is encourages entrepreneurship in Britain, a low–level of subsidy to freelance start– even those enterprises that ultimately still enthusiastic. has welcomed this new enthusiasm: ups, is a small beginning. failed left participants with skills and “The change in young people’s attitudes experience gained through the subsidy A major obstacle to creative people towards entrepreneurship over the past period that stood them in good stead for becoming self–employed or trying to ten years is exciting. Young people from returning to the labour market. start a business is finding the means all backgrounds are being prepared to to support themselves while waiting for enter working life with drive and ambition. The economist Hartmut Lehmann careers/businesses to take off. Many will We hope that the next generation will makes an additional point.21 He notes already be in debt from their university be more entrepreneurial than ever that the EAS successfully lowered net years. If they take a job outside their before. But the UK must provide the inflows into long-term unemployment chosen field they become unavailable for infrastructure to help turn this potential by about 8 per cent because it allowed any creative work that is available. This into dynamic businesses.” 23 participation by those who had been leaves them with difficult options: borrow unemployed for as little as eight weeks. further if they can, abandon their dream, The late Bernard Corry, an economist and or try to deceive the authorities. A major government adviser, undertook a study benefit of the way the EAS operated was of those moving from unemployment to that it enabled participants to follow their Television programmes self-employment. He found that those dream at little additional cost to the state. such as Dragons’ Den who became self-employed in the first and The Apprentice six months of unemployment were more 4.4 The new business class have popularised likely to survive two years after start-up entrepreneurship than those who remained unemployed Substituting an enterprise allowance but they are also for longer. Those who were unemployed for the unproductive payment of responding to a growing for 3-6 months before joining the scheme unemployment benefit is a low–cost interest among young had a 78 per cent survival rate. Those who option that, if the pattern of the 1980s were unemployed for 6-12 months had is repeated, will also create jobs. people in making only a 59 per cent chance of surviving. The NEA is a beginning. It could be something themselves the pilot for a wider strategy aimed at These are findings that should be encouraging greater enterprise in young considered in refining the details of how people. They are certainly showing the NEA will operate. It is tempting for a greater interest. A recent survey of20 21
  • 16. 5. CREATING SPACE 5.1 Clustering In opera and melodrama, artists shiver alone in garrets. But 21st century reality Consumers of art are is quite different. A strong feature of the now accustomed to expansion of the creative industries in taking their cultural the UK over the past decade has been experience alongside “clustering”. Creative workers place places where artists work a high value on being near each other, sometimes in shared studio blocks, sometimes appropriating the rundown quarters of inner cities, sometimes making a “creative cluster” of an As entire conurbations such as entire city. Liverpool, Glasgow, Brighton Hove and Bristol, have designated themselves The clustering phenomenon was first “creative cities” the story has been observed by Harvard business sage, of one of success in numbers. What Michael Porter, who noted in 1998 the appeared to be a local response to the advantage to businesses of being near loss of traditional industry in the UK to other similar enterprises. Thus one in the 1980s has been watched keenly area might house many computer by Britain’s international competitors firms or a particular street may consist and much imitated. In 2004, UNESCO 5. entirely of clothes shops.24 The economic launched a Creative Cities Network, CREATING advantages of a Silicon Valley are clear to linking cities around the world “to see: businesses are likely to benefit from harness their creative potential for social shared services and customer bases; and economic development”. Quite SPACE companies will be interconnected and how that linking across the globe was attract specialist workers and suppliers. meant to happen is not clear (despite at But it is not immediately apparent why a least four UN conferences since on the jewellery designer would want to be in subject). Nonetheless creative clusters the same building as a journalist. in which music venues or other cultural In opera and melodrama, artists shiver alone in garrets. But 21st Or why either would benefit from sharing institutions nestle alongside offices, century reality is quite different. A strong feature of the expansion premises with a dance teacher. studios and teaching institutions have of the creative industries in the UK over the past decade has become typical of UK cities. Consumers been “clustering”. Creative workers place a high value on being 5.2 Creative cities of art are now accustomed to taking their cultural experience alongside places near each other, sometimes in shared studio blocks, sometimes where artists work. Good examples of this And yet the geographical concentration appropriating the rundown quarters of inner cities, sometimes of cultural and creative enterprises, from are the Newcastle–Gateshead explosion making a “creative cluster” of an entire city. shared hubs and studio space to regional of businesses around the Sage and initiatives such as Gateshead’s decision the Baltic Gallery or the artists’ studio in the late eighties to become a centre for complexes that have grown up around small–scale creative jobs, has tended Bristol docklands alongside the Arnolfini to be accompanied by economic growth. Gallery and Watershed media centre.22 23
  • 17. 5. CREATING SPACE The positive impact that regeneration based on arts and culture clusters has on local economies can be seen in towns and cities around the UK, from Clydeside attract a wealth of private creative between success and giving up. (Section to London’s East End, businesses, Glasgow made a decision 6 of this report deals with the important More recently still, Folkestone and Derry in 1990 to rebrand itself and invest in a role of peer mentoring in developing London’s abandoned light cultural future. creative and entrepreneurial skills.) industry around Hackney 5.3 Getting together 5.4 Space in a recession and Tower Hamlets has been replaced by the Simon Evans of Creative Clusters, What works for institutions and business, Almost everyone who aims for a creative highest concentration of which advises businesses and local works also for individuals. Young artists career seeks cheap workspace. artist studios in the capital authorities on encouraging creative and designer–makers, musicians and Fine artists, software developers, fashion enterprise, has written that banks, performers like being near each other. designers and potters all sooner or later investors and governments tend not Creativity seems to thrive when like– need places where they can graduate to understand the business profile of minded creatives are in close proximity. from being a successful freelance to small creative companies. These tiny Despite a wide diversity in the type of running a small business. Entrants to the out in 2004 by Acme, one of the largest concerns tend to pool resources with work done by those within the sector, creative sector tend to be low earners and providers in England and updated by other micro–businesses rather than scale there are some ways of operating that even the cheapest commercial rents are NFASP in 2008 revealed a wide range up their own companies. For the new almost all creative workers have in above their means. of rents even within the affordable creative businesses, increasing size does common. A high proportion is self– sector, from £1.16 per square foot in not necessarily improve their product: employed. Creative industry workers are “Affordable studio providers” (usually the north–east to an average of £7.54 in “They evolve by getting better rather than twice as likely to be self–employed as charity–funded or subsidised in some London. Since studios vary widely in size getting bigger,” says Evans. those in other industries.25 In London, way) have aimed to fill this gap. an average rent is impossible to define. the percentage is higher: according to The charitable origins of some providers However, for a studio of 300 square feet, The positive impact that regeneration CCSkills, maybe as high as 46 per cent may restrict which kinds of artists can the average size in the affordable sector, based on arts and culture clusters of the creative workforce.26 be tenants. The National Federation of the commercial rent would be around has on local economies can be seen Artists’ Studio Providers, which set up £560 a month or £6,700 a year. A similar– in towns and cities around the UK, These mainly young (and poor) in 2007, describes itself as providing sized studio in the affordable sector would from Clydeside to London’s East End, practitioners need very cheap space for affordable space to non–commercial cost £190 a month or around £2,250 Folkestone and Derry. Brighton Hove making and doing. Working from home artists. Where a selection procedure is a year, a third the price.28 City Council, for example, claims to can be a good starting point for some in place then that, too, may favour non– be bucking national employment and but in most areas of creative endeavour commercial or “fine” artists i.e. those But the affordable sector is very business start–up trends as a result of it can only be a temporary solution: whose primary motivation is cultural vulnerable to property boom and bust its “creative city” initiative ten years ago. soon, they find, their work is too noisy, rather than commercial. In addition, only cycles. Around 75 per cent of properties Glasgow has emerged as an important or messy, or requires a larger area or if the studio provider is itself a not–for– are leased rather than owned outright. centre for the digital media sector needs more concentration than can be profit organisation will it benefit from the In 2007, when NFASP was set up, the in that country, partly as a result of guaranteed in the home environment. business rate concessions that keep artist threat then was rising property prices Scotland’s £25m “clusters” investment Having a space to go to is also a studios affordable. NAFSP holds and rents; 13 blocks were due to close in in 2000. At Pacific Quay, major commitment to your creativity. a register of providers and campaigns London alone. In fact, the 2008 financial broadcasters now operate alongside for more of this kind of space.27 crisis changed the immediate situation, small digital design firms. Britain’s In addition, as was frequently pointed bringing down commercial rents and towns and cities have arrived at their out to us in the course of this research, Currently in the UK about 147 leaving many cities with superfluous creative destinations by different routes. a place to work and to meet like–minded organisations manage 270 buildings space. Some of this has been taken up While Brighton built on its reputation people can be the turning point in a and provide studios for about 6,000 by traditional studio providers, informal as a liberal, artistic bohemian city to creative worker’s career, the difference artists. A survey (of England only) carried groups and local authorities.24 25
  • 18. BRIGHTON HOVE 5. CREATING SPACE studio and conference space and digital Small art and designer–maker production facilities. Its Guiding Lights businesses also flourish throughout the programme is itself a guiding light in city with the help of organisations such The example of how Brighton Hove bucked national successful mentoring and it has secured as Phoenix. This claims to be the largest employment and business start–up trends by declaring itself the secured top–level mentoring for its artist–run company in the south–east and a creative city is documented on the government website, aspiring film–makers. Other Lighthouse offers courses, low–cost studio space www.idea.gov.uk. The bid by the two neighbouring towns for initiatives include educational seminars and gallery space for exhibiting. Phoenix city status in 2000 included a declaration that the new city of for the industry and running a digital is a registered charity and receives Brighton Hove would encourage creative talent and attract arts MA in partnership with the minimal public funding (1 per cent). related businesses to the area. University of Brighton. It generates 75 per cent of its income from rents, and 20 per cent from its Brighton has ensured that it educational programmes. For some 200 years, Brighton has of the digital sector had seen employment encourages the fine art end of the welcomed creative people and been in the city grow at around 19 per cent, creative sector as well as income– able to capitalise on its reputation as a twice the national average. earning commercial creative ventures. bohemian resort offering entertainment The Basement is a dedicated space for and pleasure. The bid gave the seaside The growth of digital media in the experimental performance that aims to Brighton and Hove’s digital conurbation the opportunity to focus city has been enhanced by the strong nurture early–career artists; it receives sector has seen employment in the city grow at around 19% its aims. presence of Lighthouse, which has some subsidy from the city council and become the leading agency in the south– from Arts Council England. Brighton has focused on developing a east for supporting and promoting the strong private sector. One of the first acts digital arts and in providing production The Basement offers desks and of the new city council was to appoint a space for aspiring artists. In 1999, with an equipment and, most importantly, creative industries officer and set up Arts Council Lottery grant and some local rehearsal and performance space a free business clinic where individuals authority funding, Lighthouse acquired its to a small group of artists each year. could get advice. In the five years to city centre property. Professional mentoring, artistically and in x2 2009, as other industries in the area production and promotion skills such as experienced difficulties, the sector grew Now this enables it to generate financial and company management, is by 5 per cent. Before the recesssion, the income by letting office space to small key to the Basement’s mission. the national particularly strong economic performance compatible and by hiring out its own average. In February 2009, the government The cyclical process whereby artists that it is hosting the Olympic Games.) seen several cycles. By keeping facilities encouraged the use of empty shops as colonise run–down areas, pave the way Glasgow’s former Clydeside shipyards minimal, rents stay low. Before the temporary space for artists (there were for gentrification and then can no longer and Victorian merchant trading areas current recession, Acme calculated that reportedly around 90,000 throughout afford to live in the gentrified locations is tell the same story. Where artists first the effective subsidy to artists from the Britain). Arts Council England encouraged not new. In the 1950s, riverside Chelsea tread, public and private money follows. affordable studio sector was around £9 applications from organisations who was an artists’ quarter before becoming The FREEE art collective (www.freee.org. million a year in London alone. Some of could make temporary use of vacant a desirable residential area; two decades uk) expressed it more cynically in a giant this comes from public funding through spaces to contribute to local development later the warehouses of Liverpool’s and street poster in 2004: “The economic local authorities and the regional Arts of the arts and allocated £500,000 Bristol’s abandoned docklands were function of public art is to increase the Councils, some from social foundations towards helping convert vacant premises taken over by artists. More recently still, value of private property.” and trusts. But the contribution the for artistic purposes. However, property London’s abandoned light industry around studio providers make towards nurturing booms end and competition for space will Hackney and Tower Hamlets has been The largest not–for–profit space– artistic talent (and in paving the way for once again raise rents. NFASP is warning replaced by the highest concentration providers do appear to survive boom regeneration of the shabbier quarters of that within five years many of its leases of artist studios in London. (The area and bust cycles. Acme in London and our major cities) deserves greater public will expire. will become even more desirable now Wasps in Scotland, for example, have recognition and a more reliable and26 27
  • 19. GLASGOW 5. CREATING SPACE August 2010 saw the official opening The regeneration of this part of Glasgow to the public of the Briggait, a former fish has provided a strong motive for the market now transformed into a spectacular substantial public funding. Many of the Digital media contributes some £3 billion to the economy of site for offices, artists’ studios and gallery artists and organisations were already Scotland. The national ambition announced in December 2009 was space. Wasps Artists’ Studios, the major in the area, attracted by low rents. The for that to more than double to £6.3 billion by 2012. At the centre of studio provider in Scotland, started drive to keep artists there, along with the this economic miracle is the high–tech multi–million pound Pacific redevelopment of the grade A listed building failure of commercial ventures such as the Quay development in Glasgow, probably the largest digital media in 2001 to add to its property portfolio. The Briggait shopping centre, have combined cluster in the world. £7 million project has been helped with to make public investment both possible funds from Glasgow City’s “Housing the and desirable. Visual Arts” strategy, the Lottery Fund Built on the sites of former shipyards on the and several world–class galleries and and the Arts Council. It has been helped, Clyde waterfront, Pacific Quay houses BBC museums, but the European Commission’s too, by the fact that Briggait’s brief period Scotland, Scottish Television, Film City (in designation drew this cultural heritage to as a shopping centre in the 1990s was a the former Govan town hall) and the Hub, a the attention of the world. Now more people commercial failure. There was therefore purpose–built home for digital businesses are employed in tourism than worked in the little competition for use of this Victorian and for the Glasgow School of Art Digital former shipyards. space. The Briggait now incorporates 45 Design Studio. studios (all let), 24 office spaces, meeting In August 2000, the Scottish parliament rooms, a public cafe and the elegant central With its mix of public space, private announced a £25 million “clusters” courtyard, now a public space. enterprise, academic experts and small strategy to further develop the creative creative industries, Pacific Quay is almost reputation of the country, including “the Round the corner is Trongate 103, a a textbook example of a creative cluster. rapid development of the Pacific Quay site six–storey Edwardian warehouse which The target was to increase Unlike Brighton, whose evolution from in Glasgow as a digital media centre and opened as a mini–creative cluster in creative industry output by 30 artistic rendezvous for princes and paupers the development of a Creative Industries 2009, again with generous public funding, per cent and raise exports in the to modern media centre has seemed Campus on Tayside.” The target was to including £5.75 million from Glasgow’s digital industries to around 15 almost inevitable, Glasgow deliberately increase creative industry output by 30 “Housing the Visual Arts” fund. Ground per cent of total Scottish exports. set out to become an important creative per cent and raise exports in the digital and first floors house galleries and a industry centre. Applying for, and winning, industries to around 15 per cent of total Russian restaurant and are open to the the European designation “City of Culture” Scottish exports. public. Above are workshops and studios, in 1990 proved a turning point. Glasgow some available for educational purposes. had lost its economic bearings as the Ten years on, Glasgow continues its Trongate is also home to a Russian kinetic shipyards closed on the Clyde. In fact, development as a creative city with the sculpture museum and to Glasgow Media the great industrial city had always had a ambitious regeneration of the Merchant Access Centre (GMAC), which supports thriving cultural base with three universities City area. independent film–makers. consistent means of funding. Given the partnerships with commercial and The space needed to help propel a well–connected society … we need the huge public benefit that creative workers social developers and that, too, will creative career is not always workspace. right infrastructure that encourages bring to an area, this is a good initiative frequently need the input of national If we are to encourage a new generation people to take the next step, share ideas for a Big Society to coordinate. or regional development and funding of creative entrepreneurs, provision of and connect with other entrepreneurs.” agencies. Without this support, these suitable spaces to work and to learn Enterprise UK calls for a National The needs of young artists (and those valuable studio spaces face decline, says from others has to become a policy Strategy for Enterprising Places using with more commercial ambitions, too) NFASP. Without it, too, young artists, priority. Enterprise UK, dedicated to resources that are readily and cheaply should more often be incorporated musicians and designers face yet another encouraging enterprise among the available such as libraries, colleges, into local planning overviews and insuperable financial obstacle to making young, places a high value on providing universities. 29 encouraged in mixed–use developments. a career in the creative industries. spaces which bring out the best in young Studio organisations need also to forge people: “An entrepreneurial society is a28 29
  • 20. 5.5 DIRECTORY 5. CREATING SPACE Acme Studios Creative Industries Development Lighthouse The Shed 44 Copperfield Road Agency 28 Kensington Street 348 – 354 High Street South London E3 4RR The Media Centre Brighton BN1 4AJ Gateshead NE8 1EN 020 8981 6811 Northumberland Street 01273 647 197 0191 433 2839 www.acme.org.uk Huddersfield HD1 1RL www.lighthouse.org.uk www.gateshead.gov.uk 01484 483140 www.cida.org Actors Centre London Youth Support Trust Showroom 1a Tower Street Deptford, Hackney, Tottenham 7 Paternoster Row London Cockpit Arts Lambeth, London Sheffield S1 2BX WC2H 9NP Cockpit Yard Frances Egbuchiem Centre 0114 275 7727 020 7240 3940 Northington Street Unit B106 www.showroomworkstation.org.uk www.actorscentre.co.uk London WC1N 2NP Faircharm Trading Estate SE8 3DX 020 7419 1959 07956463832 www.lyst.biz Spike Island, Basement 18–22 Creekside Cumberland Road 24 Kensington St Deptford Bristol BS1 6UX Brighton London SE8 3DZ Mushroom Works 0117 929 2266 East Sussex BN1 4AJ 020 8692 4463 St Lawrence Road www.spike–island.org.uk 01273 699 733 www.cockpitarts.com Ouseburn Valley www.thebasement.uk.com Newcastle upon Tyne NE6 1AR Trongate 103 Cultural Enterprise Office 0191 224 4011 103 Trongate Bernie Grant Arts Centre Aberdeen, Dundee, www.mushroomworks.com Glasgow G1 5HD Town Hall Approach Road Edinburgh Glasgow 0141 276 8360 50 Bell Street www.trongate103.com London N15 4RX Merchant City National Federation of Artist Studio 020 8365 5450 www.berniegrantcentre.co.uk Glasgow G1 1LQ Providers (NFASP) 0844 544 9990 Unit 5 Wasps Artists Studios www.culturalenterpriseoffice.co.uk Toynbee Studios The Briggait Bow Arts Trust 28 Commercial Street Glasgow 183 Bow Road London E1 6AB 0141 553 5890 020 7426 0067 www.waspsstudios.org.uk London E3 2SJ Faircharm Studios, London (LYST) www.nfasp.org.uk 0207 538 1719 Deptford www.bowarts.org London SE8 3DX Zion Arts Centre 020 8694 6472 Phoenix Brighton 335 Stretford Road Briggait Waterloo Place Hulme 141 Bridgegate Brighton BN2 9NB Manchester M15 5ZA The Hub Glasgow G1 5HZ 01273 603 700 0161 226 1912 Pacific Quay www.zionarts.com 0141 553 5890 www.phoenixarts.org Digital Media Quarter www.thebriggait.org.uk Pacific Drive Glasgow G51 1EA www.hub–pq.com30 31
  • 21. 6. HELP Those setting up 6.1 First ports of call as sole traders in the creative sector Young people who want to work in the often gain most from creative industries frequently report being advised by that they receive little help from what someone who has they might have hoped would be a good done so themselves first port of call: job centres. Since jobs in a field similar to are few and rarely advertised, these their own and knows jobseekers are often looking for help and the obstacles and advice on how to support themselves into challenges of starting self–employment. Such help is hard to come by. Many young creative jobseekers a creative business report that they find little sympathy for their ambitions. The structures that might enable them to continue taking At the moment, those who find the freelance commissions while drawing means to start a one–person concern benefits are hard to navigate. Given the often find basic business advice hard high proportion of creative sector entrants to access. The government service for who will only ever work in their fields small enterprises is currently under of expertise as freelancers (musicians, review, though the Business Link website photographers, actors, for example) this (www.businesslink.gov.uk) continues to is a policy gap that needs attention: some offer online information. Wider publicity 6.HELP 85 per cent of creative sector businesses needs to be given to the variety of employ five or fewer people and rarely organisations advising business start– advertise jobs. ups, some government–sponsored, others independent or third sector (we An easy first step would be for list some online sources in this section). government job centres to provide their There is also a great and growing demand staff with guidance for claimants on how for individual mentoring, evident from to set up as a sole trader, how to find our consultations and reported by a wide further skills training and mentoring variety of support organisations and Young people who want to work in the creative industries frequently while working, and where to get the space providers. Those setting up as sole report that they receive little help from what they might have hoped business support and advice they will traders in the creative sector often gain would be a good first port of call: job centres. Since jobs are few and need once they get going. One effective most from being advised by someone who rarely advertised, these jobseekers are often looking for help and solution to the Catch 22 young creatives has done so themselves in a field similar advice on how to support themselves into self–employment. Such find themselves in if they try to earn a to their own and knows the obstacles and help is hard to come by. living while pursuing their ambition, challenges of starting a creative business. would be targeted use of the New Enterprise Allowance to help those who 6.2 Mentors and protégés are not yet claimants (but about to be) establish themselves as self–employed. The first Mentor was a friend of Odysseus who taught his son Telemachus how to become a worthy citizen. Since then, the32 33
  • 22. 6. HELP In 2006, research from NESTA revealed that in more than 90 per cent made business support from those who Their example should inspire senior 6.3 Incubation of creative businesses, had had similar experiences. executives in other creative organisations over half the senior and publicly funded arts bodies to find When Cockpit Arts held an open day management team This year, the scheme has been time for those starting out. Last year, the at its south–east London studio for had had no business extended to help those starting up small Aldridge Foundation (set up by Capita potential tenants to assess facilities, development training enterprises in video games design, founder Rod Aldridge) which aims to the availability of mentoring, formal and animation and film. The volunteer change the life chances of excluded young informal, was a key item of discussion. at all mentors include senior managers and people through entrepreneurship asked Existing tenants reported that the help executives from the BBC, the CEO of 370 business leaders for their views on they had received from peers was one of Bob Geldof’s company, Ten Alps, and how Britain could best encourage more the most significant benefits. Applicants’ word has tended to describe a tutoring media expert and entrepreneur Peter entrepreneurs. The top answer was questions made it clear that business type relationship between, for example, Bazalgette. The latter described his “more business mentors” followed by support was high on their list of priorities. an older and a younger actor or a mentoring role thus: “Self–belief only “more enterprise education”.30 proficient sportsperson and a talented takes you so far. In my experience novice. Recently this has come to be seen it’s good to have someone who can Mentors need not be superstars. as a key resource within business and disinterestedly filter your ideas and There are many ways to increase The value of mentoring industry. David Clutterbuck, who founded perhaps think of practical ways of provision of effective one–to–one help. and business support a mentoring organisation, described it in furthering them. That’s the job of a Support and advice can come from those is rarely quantified. 1995 as “The help given by one person to mentor and I love it.” without vast experience and the advice Its successes tend to another in making significant transitions of peers or those just a couple of years be anecdotal in knowledge, work or thinking.” In the Another scheme that has secured more experienced is often of equal value creative industries, where companies mentors from the very top is the film to a new business start–up. Tenants tend to be tiny, such “transitions” are hard industry’s Guiding Lights programme, and managers of shared studios report to achieve because the dispersed nature run by Brighton–based Lighthouse, an that those starting out find the formal of the sector doesn’t allow the normal organisation dedicated to encouraging and informal discussion of business As well as informal support, studio passing on of skills and business practice new digital artists and aspiring film– problems one of the major benefits of holders are offered formal mentoring and that happens automatically in makers. Past and current mentors sharing physical space. Young studio business supervision including annual larger companies. include Sam Mendes, Paul Greengrass, holders cite being able to call on the assessments. As a result, the charge for Stephen Frears, Barbara Broccoli, and expertise of someone who has recently a quite small space is higher at Cockpit In 2006, research from NESTA Kenneth Branagh. The Guiding Lights overcome the problems they are facing, Arts than for some larger studios in revealed that in more than 90 per cent programme is supported by Skillset or who has simply survived a few years, London. Nonetheless there is no shortage of creative businesses, over half the (the sector skills council for creative as a major reason for seeking out shared of applicants. senior management team had had no media) and the (now restructured) UK creative space. This kind of peer support business development training at all and Film Council. is a valuable low–cost resource for the The value of mentoring and business only 35 per cent of creative companies sector. There are the beginnings of support is rarely quantified. Its successes had set themselves business revenue The NESTA and Lighthouse gurus good quantitative research in this area tend to be anecdotal and few systematic goals. In response, NESTA last year set and superstars offering their time are in (from CEO in Glasgow, from CIDA in providers are analysing the impact. up a mentoring award scheme for media all likelihood operating at the extreme Huddersfield and from Cockpit Arts in However, Cockpit is currently undertaking companies. Fledgling companies were margins of feasibility in busy schedules. London) that provide sound arguments for such an exercise. Its “incubation package” selected to receive one–to–one mentoring But for that reason they make excellent public investment. For providers of studio and annual audits of the performance of from 18 top creative executives. models of how even the busiest specialist space, formal and informal mentoring is its studio holders enables it to make well– The scheme acknowledged that can take time out to mentor. increasingly seen as adding value to the founded claims about the value of good newcomers to the sector need tailor– packages they can offer. advice. Ellen O’Hara, head of business34 35
  • 23. 6. HELP Increased financial performance is not the only yardstick. Many careers. In mid–life many need more is impressive coordination with other support and affordable workspace. The money and may also seek more help Scottish institutions including Creative organisation works with government and creative entrepreneurs in how to manage rather than create. Scotland, which recently superseded local authorities but also at grassroots seek financial survival Cockpit Arts believes these broader (and inherited the funding strands of the level with individual artists and small rather than great issues need constant evaluation and Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Screen. creative businesses. CIDA has remained wealth. Their aims are assessment. Success of incubator independent and describes itself as a to work in their field schemes and entrepreneurship cannot be CEO’s flagship programme for creative “non profit–distributing company”. It does assessed solely on financial outcomes. entrepreneurs is Starter for 6 (initially a not depend on grants for core funding. joint venture with NESTA). Through this Instead it has contracts with various 6.4 A creative nation programme, aspiring entrepreneurs bid organisations, many of which are local for up to £10,000 investment. NESTA authorities. Increasingly it is finding development at Cockpit Arts has made a Perhaps the most intensive publicly believes this intensive programme a demand for its services from other detailed study of growth trends over four supported help programmes for creative of close business mentoring delivers European countries. years of operation from 2005, one aim of practitioners come under the umbrella almost 90 per cent success rates. Such which has been to assess the impact of of Scotland’s Cultural Enterprise Office. services to creative workers would be According to Anamaria Wills, chief mentoring and build on strengths.31 Key Jointly funded by Creative Scotland hard to improve upon anywhere in the UK. executive, CIDA has stayed close to its trends include that levels of turnover have (formerly Scottish Arts Council) and local However, the Scottish factor is significant. original idealistic ambitions of helping increased since 2005, when the incubator authorities including Glasgow, Aberdeen, CEO benefits from the strong “creative artists achieve their dreams. She believes model was introduced. Dundee and Edinburgh, CEO has city” ethos developed in Glasgow (and that one–to–one mentoring is the programmes covering general business outlined in the previous section). single most helpful thing CIDA does for At that time, there were no tenants advice, particular skills advice and emerging artists and entrepreneurs: with turnovers above £50,000; in 2009 individual mentoring. Any creative worker In addition, CEO has strong links “There is a never–ending list of people 16 per cent were above that threshold. or would–be entrepreneur in the country Scotland–wide with private and third who just want someone to talk to without In 2007, 27 per cent of holders reported can get one-to-one coaching. In addition, sector organisations so that those who feeling like a complete idiot. I think it is an increase in profit; in 2009 – a year it provides a wealth of free information contact CEO can be quickly put in touch the biggest and continuing need of our of recession – more than half achieved and access to day sessions on starting with appropriate help. The question sector – it doesn’t matter what level you an increase. Nonetheless, increased out as self–employed and moving small of continued funding of some of these practise at. Ours is a specialist world, financial performance is not the only businesses on to the next level. support packages must certainly become and many people are either freelance or yardstick. Many creative entrepreneurs a concern in the near future. seek financial survival rather than great The main office, based in Glasgow, can wealth. Their aims are to work in their provide tailored support across the entire 6.5 Realising dreams field. Cockpit’s own social mission, range of creative industries with specialist There is a never–ending which includes encouraging excellence advisers in the visual arts, design, fashion, CIDA, whose long name – Creative list of people who just in the designer–maker sector, supports film, literature, music, performance, Industries Development Agency – well want someone to talk the ambitions of those seeking life photography, animation and digital media. describes its function, is dedicated to without feeling like satisfaction rather than wealth. Applicants for help can access this advice to advising and mentoring creative in five different regional bases and also businesses. Launched in Huddersfield, a complete idiot. I think The mentoring includes help in have access to a strong team of advisers West Yorkshire, in 2000 with a high– it is the biggest and assessing non–financial impacts. O’Hara offering one-to-one advice on digital flown mission – “to help creative people continuing need of notes that individuals’ aims change, too. development, finance, marketing and realise their dreams” – it has a strong our sector The designer–maker sector attracts a legal matters. Since the Briggait creative social enterprise ethos. In its early preponderance of women whose creative complex officially opened to the public, days of helping artists it recognised and personal goals shift throughout their CEO offers drop–in sessions. There that their key needs were business36 37
  • 24. 6. HELP Successful entrepreneurs says Wills, but often the problem is The initiatives outlined above are kept in business is likely to result in the interviewed in the more complex. Once a mentor has all strong business advice models for employment of others. Aldridge Foundation been selected a contract is drawn up. the creative sector but are funded very survey believed Additional help can be accessed from differently. Cockpit Arts enjoys some grant Classroom or group models as funded mentoring was an anywhere in the organisation which also funding but has a robust business model; by many local and regional authorities important way to steers mentees towards workshops and CEO depends on local authority support for self–employed creatives offer, by counter the British getting to meet other emerging artists/ and funding from Creative Scotland but their nature, only general advice. That cultural fear of entrepreneurs to collaborate and share makes much use of nation–wide links does not mean they are not useful. Our business failure problems. For CIDA’s first 10 years of and networks; CIDA accepts a small attendance at two such group sessions operating, artists from anywhere could Arts Council grant but has developed a revealed that some attendees have a quite get access to a mentor for an hour strong business model that enables it extraordinary lack of understanding of free of charge, with staff offering their to maintain its independence. All have basic business practices (an observation services pro bono. However this has had elements that could be replicated and supported by NESTA’s research). As many in a company where there are few peers to be withdrawn. (Those resident in an form part of a government strategy for commentators and analysts have noted, at senior level to go to for support or area with which CIDA has a contract can business support programmes, including those starting businesses in the creative informed discussion.” still access the service and CIDA would the replacement for Business Link. sector frequently have little interest in the attempt to help others find funding.) detail of the business side. CIDA’s mentors work with individual Such demand does not surprise CIDA. artists and entrepreneurs offering According to Wills “Mentoring is the A government hoping to They want only to pursue their work. individual diagnostics and detailed biggest continuing need of the sector.” reduce unemployment For this reason, mentoring could do much business support programmes. The might note that every for the sector. The initiatives of NESTA services it offers some local authorities 6.6 Learning success and Lighthouse are worth replicating. But include advice on how to strengthen creative entrepreneur government initiative is required. Aldridge local creative economies. These will There is another reason that kept in business is found a willingness in the business be delivered over periods of weeks or mentoring can be more valuable likely to result in the community to take on the challenge of months. For individuals it offers help at than straightforward professional or employment of others helping the next generation but urged every level. According to Wills, for many business skills training. Successful that a practical mechanism is needed to individuals, even those who have been entrepreneurs interviewed in the link mentors and potential entrepreneurs. operating for 10 years, meeting with an Aldridge Foundation survey believed A prod from government to encourage adviser from CIDA is their first contact mentoring was an important way publicly funded bodies to set up such with appropriate advice. Some clients, to counter the British cultural fear Quantitative studies are rare but the schemes would be a good beginning. she says, “end up in tears during the of business failure. Learning from annual analyses of Cockpit make it clear diagnostic [first meeting] from the sheer successful entrepreneurs that they that one–to–one mentoring can produce relief of being able to talk to someone have failed in the past – and most significant results in the designer–maker who understands their business but can have – helps overcome this fear. One sector. The experience of CIDA over 10 challenge them seriously to do things of the interviewees, a successful years in which it has helped develop more differently, to raise their game.” After businesswoman who had a fashion than 400 small businesses in the UK is this diagnostic meeting CIDA decides business go into administration, said: a strong confirmation of the benefits of on the appropriate mentor. It may not “When I talk to students … it is that I individual tuition in turning a business necessarily be as the client expects. learned from that and picked myself to profitability. The net costs in all cases up that they find most inspiring.” may be less than zero. A government For example, a very high percentage hoping to reduce unemployment might of creatives seek advice on marketing, note that every creative entrepreneur38 39
  • 25. 6.7 ONLINE ADVICE 6. HELP Artquest Creative Boom ECCA Prospects The Artquest website contains advice Creative Boom is an online magazine The Enterprise Centre for the Creative The UK’s official graduate careers website and practical support for artists in for the UK creative industries, including Arts offers creative business services offers advice (though rather downbeat) on London, including business and art, design, PR, marketing, music, and facilities including seminars, the difficulties of becoming a freelance. support services; advice on benefits, fashion and illustration with 26 regional workshops, business and tax advice www.prospects.ac.uk/ housing, employment and childcare and e–zines offering job advice, information and is available to students and self–employment.htm step–by–step advice on becoming self– on upcoming events, and advertising graduates of the University of the Arts employed. It is funded by Arts Council workspace available for rent. London who have set up a business in England and University of the Arts. www.creative.boom.co.uk/jobs past three years or are thinking about Shell Live Wire www.artquest.org.uk starting one. This online community for 18–30 year www.ecca–london.org olds hoping to start a business is funded Creative Entrepreneurs Club (CEC) by Shell as part of its social investment Business Link The Creative Entrepreneurs Club programme. It offers free advice, awards This government service for advice is Scotland’s largest network of London Youth Support Trust (LYST) and grants and the opportunity for and support for all sizes of business professionals from the creative industries This charity provides space for extensive networking with other is currently under review and likely and organises events and workshops for would–be entrepreneurs with on– young entrepreneurs. to be replaced. However, its website members throughout the year. site help and personal development www.shell–livewire.org continues to offer useful advice www.creativeentrepreneurs.com support with emphasis on supporting on practical legal, tax and less–advantaged young people who employment matters. want to start a business. Its website Wales Artist Resource Programme www.businesslink.gov.uk Creative Scotland includes contact details for its offices WARP is a support network and drop–in Creative Scotland is the new national around London. centre for artists run by G39 an artist–run leader for Scotland’s arts, screen and www.lyst.biz gallery in Cardiff, Wales. CIDA creative industries. www.g39.org/warp The Yorkshire–based agency was www.creativescotland.org.uk established in 2000 to help creative National Federation of Artists’ people develop entrepreneurial skills Studio Providers and fulfil their potential. CIDA works Cultural Enterprise Office NFASP provides advice on artists’ with governments and organisations Scotland operates a specialist business studios and campaigns for provision as well as at grassroots level with support service including one to one of affordable studio space. individual artists and practitioners. One- coaching for any creative worker or www.nfasp.org.uk to-one mentoring of emerging artists entrepreneur in the country. It operates and entrepreneurs is a core activity. the Starter for 6 scheme originated www.cida.org by NESTA. Prince’s Trust www.culturalenterpriseoffice.co.uk The Prince’s Trust Business Start–up programme offers business mentoring Cockpit Arts for up to three years and low–interest This service is dedicated to the DreamStake loans to 18–30 year olds whose ideas designer–maker sector and has its DreamStake is a private business advice have been rejected by banks. origins in a charity for impoverished service offering mentoring, funding, www.princes–trust.org.uk artists. Now it has two centres, Holborn business and legal advice. It runs a and Deptford where it offers a package networking site including advertisements of career development and mentoring for events and spaces. support with studio space. www.dreamstake.net www.cockpitarts.com40 41
  • 26. 7. SUCCESS 7.1 Artist gentrification success. The examples below are chosen to reflect a broad range of solutions to the Even in the wider world of business, ambitious project of encouraging creative money is a lazy way to measure success. and cultural enterprise. If they reveal Entrepreneurs are often seeking autonomy anything it is that there is no blueprint or respect rather than wealth. Lord Sugar for how to provide support, space and himself has said that his peerage was more mentoring to would–be creatives.The important to him than his large fortune. need for affordable studio space for Social enterprises typically have some artists is long–term and continuing. wider purpose such as giving young people Recessions see greater availability of a chance to get out of a dangerous or space but that is no use if an upturn puts negative way of life. Artists and designer– artists out on the street. Commercial makers are usually focused on their work space is too expensive. The affordable rather than their earnings; they simply want sector, charities or grant–aided, has to earn enough to keep themselves doing managed to provide space at about a third what they love doing. Likewise musicians the price. and performers may dream of fame and fortune but their primary aim is to find the Acme Studios is one of the largest means to spend most of their time singing studio providers in England with its or performing. base in London’s East End where so many young artists are now living and Money is an even poorer way of working. It was launched in 1972 with 7. SUCCESS measuring the success of organisations two studio complexes: a former meat attempting to help young people make a factory in Brixton, south London, and a living out of their talents in the creative derelict brush factory in Bethnal Green, economy. Any such organisation that east London. Now Acme receives regular manages to stay in business in the face of funding from the Arts Council and a volatile economy, changing government operates as a charity to provide affordable policies on education, training and studios and some living accommodation employment support can be deemed a for artists. Over 12 buildings it manages 400 studios and in its almost 40 years Even in the wider world of business, money is a lazy way to measure of existence has helped around 5,000 success. Entrepreneurs are often seeking autonomy or respect rather artists. Acme is increasingly taking on than wealth. Lord Sugar himself has said that his peerage was more Bristol’s artists found other roles such as professional support important to him than his large fortune. Social enterprises typically themselves pushed and mentoring of its tenants. Co–founder, have some wider purpose such as giving young people a chance to out by the very Jonathan Harvey, took a lead role in get out of a dangerous or negative way of life. gentrification they setting up the National Federation of had brought about, Artists’ Studios Providers in 2007, a as property in the national organisation that champions the creation of more affordable studios. docklands area Through NFASP, Acme has campaigned became more desirable for a greater understanding of the wider benefits society gets from artists’ studios,42 43
  • 27. 7. SUCCESS The spaces required by young artists and makers are not always individual studios. As well as providing studio space heading to London; others were just and inspire creativity in others”. A former (around 70 studios including some big abandoning the dream of making a living church, it is close to some of the poorest Rehearsal rooms, enough for large–scale sculpture, Spike from art. Wasps initially leased unused parts of the city. Liz O’Neill, the chief places to meet and Island has recently launched Spike buildings and raised money to convert executive officer describes its mission as network, mentoring Design which aims to provide support for them. When David Cook, now chief supporting the less privileged children of and training are all creative businesses in their early stages executive, joined Wasps in the 1990s, the are and “clearing pathways for young equally important of development and offers desk space and this strategy had led to a steadily growing people to engage in and explore their business advice at the introductory rate deficit. Wasps took the decision that it creativity and supporting their creative of £100 a month (September 2010) which would be better to buy property rather journey from cradle to grave.” Thus Zion gives a tenant access to a computer, than lease it and established a charity to offers inspirational programmes for all shared reception and other business develop suitable spaces with the mission ages from pre–school 3–6 years olds, not least in gentrifying the areas where services and advice. Early tenants also to regenerate communities. Since school–aged children, curriculum–based they are situated. The dilemma for such included journalists and web designers. then Wasps has raised more than £15 education services and vocational arts space providers is how to ride the boom– Spike Island also makes money from million in private and public sector funds training and mentoring for under–25s. bust property cycles. Acme owns less running courses and workshops and from and owns and operates 17 buildings In addition it offers affordable studio than a quarter of its properties. NFASP is its printshop, the largest open–access throughout Scotland providing studios for space for artists to work from aged 18+. concerned that leases on many studios printshop in the south west. Most space 750 artists. Wasps was the lead agency Zion mixes creative activities with paying will not be renewed in an upturn. including the print studio is accessible to in the £8 million Briggait renovation, tenants (providing 50 per cent of its key holders 24/7. which provided around 70 new artists’ income) but it will also consider charging 7.2 allace and Gromit go to W studios. The rent, which is not subsidised, just £1 for the use of a room for a specific Spike Island With large exhibition space, many is £8 per square foot. Business support creative project. activities and a cafe open to the public, has not been part of the Wasps mission. Bristol’s Spike Island started life as an Spike Island is much more than a studio As outlined elsewhere in this report, At the same time, Zion is at the informal artists’ colony in a docklands provider. It has become an important provision of such advice in Scotland is cutting edge of creative technology warehouse in the 1970s. The artists artistic community and the centre of a widespread and easily accessible. The developments. It has partnerships with found themselves pushed out by the very new creative cluster in Bristol. Spike focus therefore has been on affordable, Apple (Apple Regional Training Centre gentrification they had brought about, as Island is a classic example of the benefit good quality space. According to Cook, 75 status) and with Manchester Digital property in the docklands area creatives bring to derelict areas. Just per cent of their tenants are graduates Development Agency: its creative media became more desirable. The collective around the corner from the tea factory, and 40 per cent have two degrees. suite has the very latest technology thus re–established itself in a disused tea Aardman Animations (home of Wallace Because of this, they would not find it improving the employment chances warehouse at the less sought–after end and Gromit) have taken up residence. hard to get other work. “Helping them of its young clients in an increasingly of the former docks, an area itself now Other businesses have followed so that remain artists has been the important competitive market. rapidly upgrading. Spike’s mission is to several hundred creative and craft people aim,” said Cook. provide space for both the production now work in close proximity. The ethos of mentoring and work and the exhibition of contemporary art. 7.4 Cradle to grave shadowing is strong at every level. Zion It manages this on a funding to income 7.3 Scotland keeps its artists was the first cultural organisation in ratio of 30/70. Its charitable status The spaces required by young artists and Manchester to use the Future Jobs Fund and funding conditions mean that it The chief studio provider in Scotland is makers are not always individual studios. to offer young people work and to date has to provide studios for low–income Wasps artists’ studios. It was initially set Rehearsal rooms, places to meet and has offered 14 posts (as many as there artists. Tenants must therefore sign a up in the early 1970s amid fears network, mentoring and training are all are permanent staff). Those leaving the declaration of low income in order to that Scotland was losing its artistic equally important. Zion Arts Centre in programme are offered further training qualify for the affordable rates (less than talent because of a severe shortage of Manchester describes itself as “a creative and development to enhance their £5 sq ft in 2009). affordable space. Some artists were space for young people to make work chances of subsequent employment.44 45
  • 28. 7. SUCCESS Two FJF post holders have been taken three, the tenant who is hopefully by on by Zion beyond their contracts, one as LYST believes it could now making money, will pay near to a a part–time trainee technical assistant commercial rent. The idea is that he and one who, as part of Manchester’s achieve more with its or she can then move on (though a few first cohort of Creative Apprentices, will tenants if they were to successful enterprises remaining and graduate with a Level 3 diploma in venue receive a government paying full rent helps fund the others). operations at the end of the year. Zion enterprise allowance. plans further apprenticeships. That small amount of The mix of small businesses is similar money would make a to those at the Bernie Grant centre as are 7.5 Creative regeneration big difference to the the range of social problems from high individual and help unemployment, violent street cultures, Like Zion, the Bernie Grant Arts Centre schemes such as theirs and drug abuse. LYST claims a good operates on the premise that art and become self–sufficient success rate over its three premises. creativity can contribute far more However, success is not necessarily a to a local area than exhibitions and question of business survival, says Rob performances. As an arts centre, built Whitmore, a LYST trustee and funder. in memory of a beloved local politician, Some businesses do fail. “The question BGAC’s core mission is to remove is, what has been learnt? Sometimes a barriers to participation in the arts and to and personal development support. failure is a good lesson.” Some studio celebrate the cultural diversity of the local In a strategy that spreads the cultural holders have been in prison; some have population in this deprived area of north involvement of local people even further, been involved with drugs. Whitmore London. Involving ethnic communities the centre has taken on 26 Future Jobs believes that sticking at the business that are very under–represented in the Fund trainees. These are attached to the is a success. He also believes he could creative sector is central to the centre’s studio holders who are happy to oversee achieve more with his tenants if they activity. In addition BGAC aims to involve their work and pass on experience and were to receive a government enterprise the community in all aspects of its work training that will put them in a better allowance. That small amount of money in order to make a substantial position when applying for jobs in future. would make a big difference to the contribution to social and economic individual, he believes, and help schemes regeneration in the area. At the other end of London in Deptford like Faircharm become self–sufficient is another initiative directed more to (and therefore a replicable model for Thus, alongside the centre’s exhibition social consequences than to creative others). “It would help them pay the rent space, theatre, rehearsal rooms and employment. At Faircharm Studios, the and just provide that extra confidence,” dance studios, BGAC has the Enterprise London Youth Support Trust (born out of says Whitmore. Building. This two–floor block provides the Prince’s Trust) is trying to help young 19 workspaces, some shared, and two south Londoners become successful kitchens for use of tenants. The aim is entrepreneurs. Their strategy is to provide to provide affordable workspace for local small studios at this former carburetter people to set up small businesses. These factory along with a significant amount of mainly young studio holders include on–site mentoring and business advice. graphic artists, greeting card makers, The building is leased and the rent to fashion designers, a magazine producer studio holders discounted for the first and a dance teacher. The aim has been two years while the young entrepreneur to help them get on–site business finds his or her feet. After that, in year46 47
  • 29. 8. CONCLUSION 8.1 Enterprising solutions give self–employment a try. According to Enterprise UK, almost half of the UK The creative sector, with its strong working population want to work for record of growth and its pre–eminence in themselves. Introducing young people to globally important emerging industries, is basic business skills at an early stage is recognised as key to the UK’s economic common sense.32 recovery. Inventiveness and creativity is needed across all industries and there is Inspiring as the television programmes evidence that a strong creative sector has may be, they are intended to entertain, a positive impact on all economic activity. and have tended to accentuate the As the UK emerges from recession it will eccentric and/or glamorous. Simpler need the creative and entrepreneurial freelance start–ups such as events skills of all its school leavers and planning, photography, designing graduates. The challenge is to ensure software, making music tend not to that those with talents and ideas do not feature. This, though, is the future. Most join the lengthening queues for jobs. On young people seeking creative careers the whole young men and women do not would benefit from a basic grounding in leave schools and universities believing self–employment while still at school and that they can create their own work and from being made aware of how much start freelance enterprises. They are of their world – small garage workshops, encouraged only to find a job. wedding photographers, dog walkers, corner shops, garden maintenance, 8. CONCLUSION As a nation we pay lip service to window–cleaners – depends enterprise and creativity but we do little on enterprise. to nurture it in schools and universities. However, television programmes such The introduction of a New Enterprise as The Apprentice and Dragons’ Den Allowance could be the spur to have popularised the idea of succeeding encouraging a new generation of creative at business, even starting a successful entrepreneurs. At the moment it is one yourself. Tim Campbell, a celebrated modest in its ambitions, seeking to help winner of one of the Apprentice television 10,000 into self–employment. However, The creative sector, with its strong record of growth and its series now speaks around the country on there is a tried and tested earlier model pre–eminence in globally important emerging industries, the importance of business skills being of how readily young people adapt to the is key to the UK’s economic recovery. Inventiveness and taught in schools, an initiative that we idea of making their own jobs and futures: creativity is needed across all industrie. A strong creative support. Enterprise UK has also called the Enterprise Allowance Scheme of for better education for young people the 1980s. By offering a route off of the sector has a positive impact on all economic activity. dole, the EAS transformed those who about entrepreneurship. It points out that larger numbers of the workforce than saw themselves as unemployed into ever are now self–employed and an even entrepreneurs. Offering a basic but greater number want to be. As spending attractive package of financial support, cuts bite and jobs are lost in the public the government of the day transformed sector, more men and women are likely the life chances of those prepared to to try to use redundancy payments to risk starting a business. The weekly48 49
  • 30. 8. CONCLUSION There is a clear need for larger employers to play their part in extending skills training throughout the sector. Mentoring could play an important role across having had no business training at all. associations – in film, theatre, games, 8.3 Imagine the creative sector There is a clear need for larger employers museums, etc – to produce mentoring to play their part in extending skills guidelines for their sectors. We don’t know what skills today’s young training throughout the sector. Mentoring school leavers will need a decade hence could play an important role across the One of the most important cultural but we do know that we are more likely creative sector. There are already high– shifts of the 21st century may prove to be to maintain our global lead as a creative payment was fixed slightly higher than profile initiatives in the film industry and that we have moved on from the notion economy if we nurture the inventive spirit. unemployment benefit at the time, the digital media. that creativity is merely icing on the cake Helping someone start a business, hire a encouraging the unemployed to think (or “a comfort in hard times” as one studio or find a mentor could prove to be creatively of ways in which they could But our researches reveal that young politician recently put it) and has become low–cost investments in the high–yielding qualify. There is no evidence that the creatives at the start of their career central to our lives and our economy. Two industries of tomorrow. Computer games benefit was abused (though maybe believe the kind of help that would be more “busted” myths are that there are development now contributes more than we now live in a less trusting age) and of most use is far more modest. They limits to the demand for cultural products £1 billion GVA to the UK economy; its the inevitable business failures were, want “hand–holding” sessions on how and that in a recession consumers are critical moment of expansion came in according to the National Audit Office, no to operate in the market, how to present concerned only with basic needs. Rather, 1991 when a small group of young more nor less than might be expected of themselves and even, in the words of one we are seeing that the global demand for men in a two–room office in Dundee all business start–ups.33 of our focus group volunteers, “how to music, film, interactive entertainment and developed “Lemmings”, a game that be.” They need something to replace the better–designed products is limitless. became an international success. Assessing the scheme at the end of the natural mentoring that young people at So, our image of creatives and Now 12 of Scotland’s top 20 computer Eighties, NAO recommended it should the beginning of their careers tend to find designers must change, too. They are not games companies are based in Dundee, continue, even though unemployment in regular staff employment. eccentric artists working in solitude, in whose Abertay University set up the first figures had by then come down. The competition with each other for success computer games degree course in the scheme was wound up soon after but Among our recommendations we call in a small market. The lesson of the past world in 2006. Today there are dozens. it had nurtured a significant number of for a sector–wide mentoring scheme two decades is that artists, makers and Over the UK as a whole the video games creative businesses and individuals whose aimed at helping young people into thinkers thrive and learn in sympathetic industry provides employment for about names, as we record elsewhere, are well self–employment or to start small environments of like–minded creatives. 28,000 people.35 It is a tragedy that known to this day. The New Enterprise businesses. This kind of mentoring could They consume each other’s products, this industry is now being edged down Allowance must strive to do the same be cheaper and more effective than many enhance and help in the development of the global league tables for lack of tax for this generation. It should form the existing business training programmes. other businesses and drive innovation concessions enjoyed by their competitors basis of a national programme that will Furthermore, such a scheme would throughout the wider economy. and by other industries within the UK. encourage the creative entrepreneurs we find an abundance of willing mentors need to compete internationally. and could be established at low–cost. In an essay published in September Larger employers could develop “match– 2010, Sir John Hegarty, creative director 8.2 Mentors and myths making” schemes in much the same way and founder of the advertising firm Bartle that some already encourage community Two more “busted” myths are that there Bogle Hegarty, argues that government The structure of the creative sector has work. Government, too, can play its part needs to cater better for rapid change. been well described as a “flea circus”.34 by establishing a strong national ethos are limits to the “Industrial policy and employment The huge number of tiny businesses of expecting those at the top of their demand for cultural law ... is too often written for an age of is not structured to supply the skills professions to help newcomers and products and that in a permanence rather than an age of flux... needed for the sector to compete globally. new enterprises. That ethos could be recession consumers Encouraging talent and ingenuity Business skills, too, are poor throughout embedded by asking all government– are concerned only with is essential”.36 Hegarty warns that the sector with half of all senior funded institutions and organisations to basic needs. creative industries are “populated by executives in 90 per cent of businesses set up schemes and urging major sector enquiring, restless and versatile minds,50 51
  • 31. 8. CONCLUSION similarly an attempt to out–think rather It is a tragedy that than out–spend. Providing young creatives the computer games with low–cost meeting and working space; ensuring easy access to business industry is now being advice and mentoring, and offering the edged down the global kind of unemployment support that league tables for lack encourages enterprise rather than of tax concessions welfare dependence are broad policy enjoyed by their directions that Government could follow competitors and by right now. other industries within the UK Finally, those who already work in the sector have an important re–evaluation that they must undertake themselves. In the past, a job in the creative industries was too often a nice landing place for those with the right parents and who are more than happy to unplug educational backgrounds. The future of their Mac Book and travel.” Recalling the creative industries in this country the encouragement he received at cannot be left to depend on recruits from an early age by attending a Saturday that narrow stratum of society where school at Hornsey School of Art in young people can afford to work for little London, he calls for art schools to be or for nothing. Only 4 per cent of the UK’s kept open at the weekend targeting creative workforce is from a non–white deprived areas and ethnic minorities. background. Some 61 per cent of the The suggestion is echoed by Enterprise workforce is male. From opera to DJ–ing, UK (in Entrepreneurship 2020), which games design to dance and fashion, from proposes using the wealth of unused conserving old buildings to creating new desk and training space around libraries, ones and breathing life into towns and colleges, job and community centres for cities, Britain need the creativity of all its existing entrepreneurs to meet potential citizens in all their diversity. entrepreneurs and help them on their way to success. Hegarty also calls for a biennial creative exhibition to be held in the UK to showcase British talent and encourage students to consider creative careers, a proposal so simple that you are left wondering why we have not already done it. “We can’t outspend other economies; we can out–think them,” he concludes. The recommendations of this report are52 53
  • 32. APPENDIX Submission to DCMS on funding of the arts. NDotM August 2010. New Deal of the Mind made the – Economies of scale can and do following submission: work – we’ve proved it and work with In July 2010, the Culture, Media and Sport Committee launched an inquiry into government, entrepreneurs, artists The Funding of the Arts and Heritage requesting views on the following issues New Deal of the Mind (NDotM) is a and cultural institutions charity which helps people into work in the arts and creative sectors, formed 1. etting into the arts and the G What impact recent, and future, spending cuts from central and local Government from a coalition of artists, entrepreneurs creative industries is tough. Being will have on the arts and heritage at a national and local level; and opinion formers who recognise the unemployed is worse but our economic, social and cultural value of research shows that young artists What arts organisations can do to work more closely together in order to reduce Britain’s creative talent. and creative entrepreneurs would duplication of effort and to make economies of scale; rather endure personal hardship – have developed over 100 creative We in order to pursue their ambitions What level of public subsidy for the arts and heritage is necessary and sustainable; jobs since March 2009 and will have and their tenacity and dedication is created hundreds more by the end astonishing. These are the people – hether the current system, and structure, of funding distribution is W of next year. with the drive, commitment and the right one; talent to create new business that – know a thriving creative We will be so essential to helping the UK – hat impact recent changes to the distribution of National Lottery funds will have W sector is vital to the UK’s future back to economic recovery. on arts and heritage organisations; economic recovery. 2. Job vacancies are seldom advertised, – hether the policy guidelines for National Lottery funding need to W – Arts and culture help regeneration, unpaid internships are commonplace be reviewed; create jobs and boost innovation in thus reinforcing the view that the wider economy working in the arts is only for the well – The impact of recent changes to DCMS arm’s–length bodies – in particular the off or well connected. Consequently, abolition of the UK Film Council and the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council; – Our research shows aspiring artists ethnic minorities are seriously under and creatives want practical help, represented as are people from – hether businesses and philanthropists can play a long–term role in funding arts W not handouts less affluent backgrounds. We have at a national and local level; proved that by working with partners – Enterprise Allowance Scheme An and applying economies of scale, it – hether there need to be more Government incentives to encourage W for the 21st century would be a cost has been possible to create jobs in private donations. effective way to help build the next the arts and cultural sectors which generation of creative entrepreneurs have given hundreds of unemployed young people the chance of six – Imaginative indirect funding and months paid work, gaining valuable support might include mentoring, experience, skills and a foot in the business and financial advice, door. The majority of those would not workspace and apprenticeships have been able to afford to work as unpaid interns and had no personal – There should be greater connections to help so their chances understanding of flexible freelancing of getting a job in this sector without and self employment NDotM would have been remote.54 55
  • 33. 3. Although the jobs are funded through incubators across the UK which we is the in the EU and, according to Some argued against public financial the FJF, it was NDotM that made FJF believe could help foster innovative research published in February support because they didn’t believe flexible and relevant to the arts and local approaches by drawing on the 2009 by the National Endowment “hard working midwives and cultural sector by putting in a joint bid experience, skills and support of local for Science, Technology and the teachers” should pay for them to for FJF jobs on behalf of scores of arts people through enterprise agencies, Arts (NESTA) likely to employ more follow their dreams. But they did organisation who were not offering community groups, trades unions and people than the financial sector by argue for the rules on working and enough placements to be eligible on chambers of commerce, charities, 2013. That is even more astonishing claiming benefit to be changed so their own and in some cases, simply arts and cultural organisations. Local when you consider that 85 percent that they could more easily start up didn’t have the capacity to deal with authorities could help with planning, of creative businesses employ fewer as freelancers. Within government the bureaucracy of applying anyway. leases and business rates while local than five people. The same research departments and Jobcentres, there is This was a good example of how businesses could be encouraged reckoned the rate of growth of the a cultural acceptance of very narrow working with multiple partners to rent out unused office space to creative sector is double that of definitions of work – someone is achieved a good outcome through creative start–ups but there needs to the rest of the economy. Evidence either an employee or employer and pragmatism and practicality. be a trade off around skills not just of how regeneration based on arts there is very limited understanding cash. NDotM is currently engaged in and culture can have a beneficial of freelancing, self employment, 4. Support and advice for people setting research for a report, commissioned impact on the local economy short term contracts or other ways up on their own is patchy but the by Enterprise UK which will look and communities can be seen in of working that are so predominant places such as The Enterprise Centre at a range of different options and Newcastle, Brighton, Manchester, in the arts and creative sector. at the Bernie Grant Centre in North experiences from across the UK for East London, Folkestone, Derry and Because of that, there is a lack of London and similar “hubs” across such creative hubs or incubators. Glasgow among many other places. flexibility around benefits where it is the UK, shows that they can support actually easier to stay on JSA than local creative businesses. Some are 6. he area of gaining work experience T 8. March 2010, NDotM published In take a short term contract which may run by local authorities, arts centres for those wanting to run their own a report (attached separately) lead to more paid work but would or community groups in response to business is one where NDotM would commissioned by Arts Council endanger someone having to start local demand by their very nature, welcome the idea of a limited FJF England called, “Creative Survival registering for JSA all over again many of these tiny enterprises style short term paid work placement in Hard Times” which provided a once a short term contract ended. are run in an unstructured way programme that would put suitable valuable insight into the obstacles by independent, non conformist unemployed young people working and barriers facing young people This “Snakes and Ladders” individuals which makes it hard for alongside self employed people. wanting to pursue a career in the experience actively discourages them to move easily to the next stage The potential benefits for both parties arts and creative sector, and offered people from taking a chance on a in business growth and where sharing are clear but would be particularly several recommendations for temporary job which would give them access to financial and business relevant to a young creative government and arts institutions. valuable experience, self confidence mentoring, space and infrastructure entrepreneur learning the ropes of We interviewed young artists and and networking opportunities and support could have a huge impact. running their own business where creative entrepreneurs and found seems to be totally contradicting This is the sort of indirect or relatively some skills are as valid for a plumber that overwhelmingly they wanted any stated desire to help the next small investment that could pay huge or musician. work space, access to information, generation of entrepreneurs. As a dividends in terms of strengthened mentoring and business skills. Low starting point, current provisions communities, sustainable local 7 T he financial contribution to the UK cost but highly practical interventions for paying self–employment credit business and help build a competitive economy of the creative industries is that could make a big difference to could be simplified and publicised and innovative economy for the future. widely recognised to be in the region their lives were far higher on their and for payment to be extended of £50 billion a year. Representing list of priorities than money. from 16 weeks to a year which would 5. NDotM would welcome active an estimated 6.4 per cent of the encourage some jobseekers to take encouragement of creative hubs or economy, the UK’s creative sector a self–employed option. Those we56 57
  • 34. interviewed for “ Creative Survival” Enterprise Allowance Scheme (EAS) In many instances, these same whose circumstances may have did not think it rational to be offered which was brought in by Margaret businesses employed local people changed, as well as young people unemployment benefit to do nothing Thatcher in the 1980’s. Introduced by and put money back into the local starting out. Just as the arts and or to work for nothing. If they are to US President Roosevelt in the depths economy. It is well documented creative sector cannot rely on state receive benefits, they would rather of the 1930’s Depression, the WPA that former beneficiaries of the EAS handouts,neither should it rely on be given financial help to set up a created 3,500 branch libraries, 4,400 include Alan McGee, founder of the ability of a few people from a very creative business where any financial musical performances every month, Creation Records, Julian Dunkerton narrow section of society to work for help should encourage productive a national collection of oral histories who set up the Superdry fashion free to attract new talent. self employment. featuring featured the stories of label, the artists Jane and Louise the last living slaves and hundreds Wilson and many other successful The arts encompasses opera to 9. Our experience and research of thousands of jobs for artists, entrepreneurs. We believe the time is DJ decks, games design, dance, underlines the sense that most writers, musicians, designers right for an EAS for the 21st century fashion, digitisation of archives, would–be creatives value their and other creatives. which would encourage people to creating new buildings, conserving freedom and independence and would set up on their own, kick start new old ones and breathing new life into not exchange it for a better–paid Among the artists and writers creative enterprises and fan the our towns and cities, so we should regular job. They are therefore willing supported through the WPA were flames of entrepreneurship which has seek to use all measures possible to take casual, low paid work and Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and always played such an important role to encourage jobs in the arts for an consequently miss out on any advice Willem de Kooning, Saul Bellow, John in the UK’s success, particularly in equally diverse range of people. That and help available to people claiming Cheever and Ralph Ellison. What was the fields of design, technology doesn’t mean a blank cheque but it Jobseeker’s Allowance. hugely significant was the recognition and innovation. does mean some innovative thinking that arts, culture and creativity are not and being as imaginative and creative It is these same people who are just an “add–on” for the good times 12. n conclusion, our experience I as those we seek to encourage – a most likely to become the successful but are essential forces for economic, of helping young unemployed small investment in the risk takers creative entrepreneurs and artists social and cultural good that allow people into jobs in the arts and could pay huge dividends to the UK – of the future – not least because of ideas to blossom, knit communities creative sector, working with a socially, culturally and economically. their commitment, self belief and together and leave a legacy of music, range of partners, has shown us willingness to make personal sacrifice art, theatre, literature, design and that investment in individuals is in order to fulfill their creative dreams. heritage for everyone. just as important as investment As one of “Creative Survival’s” co– in institutions. In this difficult authors said, “the creative sector is 11. ome economists credit the EAS with S economic climate, it is vital to be widely recognised as key to economic enabling the UK’s creative economy flexible and imaginative. That means recovery, … we treat those who to surge ahead of international looking at practical measures are striving to work in the creative competitors in the decade to 1991. that will help nurture and support industries abominably with low pay, The National Audit Office found the the next generation of creative long internships and little help with EAS was successful in terms of entrepreneurs and artists such as professional training.” cost–benefit outcomes and compared space and advice. favourably with other employment 10. DotM grew out an article by N measure. We know that businesses There must be improved New Deal of the Mind Martin Bright in which he called set up under the EAS had a greater mechanisms for widening the intake Somerset House for an imaginative approach to success rate than the average start up of people working in the arts which South Wing unemployment based on President with some 65% percent still trading means a more flexible approach to Strand Roosevelt’s Works Progress three years after launch. freelancing and self employment London Administration (WPA) and the which would also help older people WC2R 1LA58 59
  • 35. BIBLIOGRAPHY ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 10. BIBLIOGRAPHY The Art of Innovation, NESTA, 2008 Demanding Growth, NESTA, March 2009 Acme Studios London Jonathan Kestenbaum Chief Executive, NESTA An assessment of productivity indicators for Digital Britain, BIS, June 2009 Aldridge Foundation the creative industries, DCMS, August 2007 Adenike Malcolm South London Manager, New Models New Money: A Foundation for Hasan Bakhshi Research Director, London Youth Support Trust Assistance to Small Firms, National Audit the Artist. Queensland Government and NESTA Office: Training Commission, HMSO, 1988 Centre for Social Impact, April 2010 Gwyn Miles Director, Somerset House John Baraldi Director, Bernie Grants Arts Centre Ellen O’Hara Head of Business Brighton Hove: Sustaining City Growth, Do–it–yourself: Cultural and Creative Chris Webber, February 2009 Employment in Hard Times, NDotM, Development, Cockpit Arts, London Tom Bewick Chief Executive,Enterprise UK July 2009 Marie–Anne McQuay Curator, Spike Clusters and the new economic competition, Wenda Bradley and Christine Hall Island, Bristol M.E. Porter, Harvard Business Review, 1998 The effectiveness of the Restart programme Co–Founders Artemis Arts, Lewes and the Enterprise Allowance Scheme, Liz O’Neill Chief Executive Officer, Cox Review of Creativity in Business, HM H. Lehmann, 1993 Theo Bridge PopUpHOUSE, Soho Zion Arts Centre, Manchester Treasury, 2005 The Entrepreneurial Society Robert Gavron, Anthony Browne Adviser to the Mayor Mark Prisk Minister for Business Creative Britain: New Talents for the New Marc Cowling, Gerald Holtham and Andrea of London Enterprise Economy, DCMS, February 2008 Westall, IPPR ,1998 Damian Collins Head of Conservative Miriam Randall Operations Manager, The Creative Class, Richard Florida, 2002 Entrepreneurship 2020. Practical ideas Creative Industries Network Lighthouse Brighton for an enterprising society. Interim report. Creative Graduates Creative Futures, Institute Enterprise UK, June 2010 David Cook Chief Executive, WASPS Studios Julianne Schultz Editor, Griffith Review, for Employment Studies, January 2010 Sydney Australia Yvette Cooper former Work Pensions The footprint: A baseline survey of the Secretary Showroom Workstation Sheffield Creative Industries Economic Estimates, creative and cultural sector, CCSkills, 2007 DCMS, February 2010 Joe Davenport Employment Initiatives The Opposition between Two Models of Carol Sinclair Independent Consultant Manager, Brighton Hove City Council Creating Innovation,H Bakhshi, E McVittie, J Labour Market Adjustment: the Case of Simmie, NESTA, 2008 Audiovisual and Performing Arts Acivities Jeremy Stockwell Co–ordinator, Kit Friend Analyst, Accenture Lewes Hub Project in France and Great Britain over a Ten Year A creative recovery: How the UK’s creative Period, Françoise Benhamou, Journal of Tim Harrison Development Manager, Ed Vaizey Minister for the Arts industries can regain their competitive edge, Cultural Economics, Vol 24, 2000 The Basement, Brighton Reform, September 2010 Rob Whitmore Executive Director, Raising the Bar, Ellen O’Hara, Cockpit Mick Hawksworth Independent film maker Peter de Haan Charitable Trust Commercial workspace provision for visual Arts, 2009 arts: a comparison with the affordable sector, David Jackson Ixion Holdings Anamaria Wills Chief Executive, CIDA Michael Cubey, Acme, February 2006 So, what do you do? A new question for policy in the creative age, Charles Tims Alan Johnson Shadow Chancellor Creative Survival in Hard Times, NDotM, and Shelagh Wright, Demos, 2007 March 2010 Deborah Keogh Chief Executive Officer, Cultural Enterprise Office, Glasgow60 61
  • 36. END NOTES 1 The DCMS has defined the creative industries as Advertising, Architecture, the Art 21 Lehmann. The effectiveness of the Restart programme and the Enterprise H. Antiques Market, Crafts, Design, Designer Fashion, Film Video, Interactive Leisure Allowance Scheme. 1993 Software, Music, Performing Arts, Publishing, Software Computer Services and 22 Survey carried out by Hiscox Insurance, September 2010 Television Radio 23 Entrepreneurship 2020. Enterprise UK. June 2010 2 Creative Industries Economic Estimates. DCMS. February 2010 (the most recent) 24 Clusters and the new economic competition. M.E. Porter. Harvard Business Review. 1998 3 UNCTAD places Germany second by including engineering and excluding architecture and advertising 25 An assessment of productivity indicators for the creative industries. DCMS. August 2007 4 creative recovery: How the UK’s creative industries can regain their competitive edge. A 26 The footprint: A baseline survey of the creative and cultural sector. CCSkills. 2007 Reform. September 2010 27 www.nfasp.org.uk 5 Creating Innovation: Do the Creative Industries Support Innovation in the Wider Economy? H Bakhshi, E McVittie, J Simmie. NESTA. 2008 28 Commercial workspace provision for visual arts: a comparison with the affordable sector. Michael Cubey. Acme. February 2006 6 Demanding Growth. NESTA. March 2009 29 Entrepreneur 2020. Enterprise UK. 2010 7 “ ultural bodies count their blessings”, Financial Times, 21 October, 2010 C 30 Aldridge Foundation Survey. November 2009 8 “ s they bow to London’s arts Mafiosi the Tories still handcuff the provinces”, Guardian, A 22 October 2010 31 Raising the Bar. Ellen O’Hara. Cockpits Arts 2009 9 HM Treasury December 2005 32 Entrepreneurship 2020. Practical ideas for an enterprising society. Enterprise UK. Interim report. June 2010 10 Digital Britain. BIS. June 2009 33 Assistance to Small Firms. NAO. HMSO. July 1988 11 BBC, September 2010 34 So, what do you do? Charlie Tims, Shelagh Wright. Demos. 2007 12 www.guardian.co.uk/culture/video/2010/sep/09/arts–funding–david–shrigley 35 EDM. Hansard. February 2010 13 The footprint: A baseline survey of the creative and cultural sector. CCSkills. 2007 36 creative recovery: How the UK’s creative industries can retain their competitive edge. A 14 NDotM, March 2010 Reform. September 2010 15 Guardian. 16 July, 2010 16 DCMS, 2007 17 it yourself: Cultural and Creative Self–Employment in Hard Times. NDotM. Do June 2009 18 Hansard. 20 July 1989 19 Françoise Benhamou, The Opposition between Two Models of Labour Market Adjustment: the Case of Audiovisual and Performing Arts Activities in France and Great Britain over a Ten–Year Period. Journal of Cultural Economics Vol 24, 2000 20 Assistance to Small Firms. NAO. HMSO. July 198862 63
  • 37. Photography Credits1 Edmond J. Safra3 Morley von Sternberg4-6 http://photoeverywhere.co.uk7 Rob Moore8 http://photoeverywhere.co.uk

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