Supporting        Social Deliberative Skillsin Online: Dialog, Deliberation, and Dispute Resolution                       ...
―The Fourth Party: Improving Computer-    Mediated Deliberation through Cognitive,             Social and Emotional Suppor...
Project collaborators       Beverly Woolf: CompSci, PI (intelligent and collaborative educational        systems)       ...
Outside Collaborators                    (some budding)       National Mediation Board (management/labor disputes in     ...
Dialog/DeliberationDispute/Conflict Resolution     Civic engagement/public dialogue     International & inter-group conf...
Debate, Dialogue and                                   DeliberationDeliberation: ―thoughtful, careful, or lengthy consider...
Social Deliberative Skills:    Social/Emotional/Reflective             Perspective taking & cognitive               empath...
Social Deliberative             Skills
9
Social Deliberative Skill:      application of HOSs to me/you/weHigher Order Skills                                Higher ...
Skills & Issues in Transformative Conf.         Res., Social Justice & Inter-group relations   How mediators/facilitators...
Support/Scaffolding vs.             ―Education‖                                    Outcomes:                              ...
Use technology to support         deliberative skills in three                                ways   1. Support participa...
Participate today at Beyond Tolerance                                                                                     ...
[CURRENT] WEEK 1: Discuss the pros and cons of leg...                                                                     ...
Mediem     Opinion Sliders16
iCohere example: Passive support for                              skills      (also supporting: appreciation, inquiry;    ...
Facilitator Dashboard (―Wizard of Oz‖ trials)18
>>          Data domains                  and analysis     1.   Classroom online dialogues     2.   ODR (online dispute   ...
Text Analysis Domains   College classroom dialogs (UMx3x3, FP x1x4)     Experimental & Control groups   ODR       E-Co...
Samples from online                               dialogs     EBay (e-commerce):         ―This seller is fraudulent and s...
e-democracy: Minneapolis           Powderhorn Neighbors Forum                           51 posts — by 31 authors, Dec. 201...
Workplace dispute:                        Intake summaryBoss (Grieta)  Moderator   ―Ryker has created a situation in whic...
Codoole – coding                 tools24
Contingency Analysis Mosaic Plot
Automated Text AnalysisLIWC (Pennebaker et al.) – Dictionary-based       4,500 words/STEMS; 80 word categories       we ...
Deliberative properties for          several domains
Automatic Text Analysis   •   Dialogue characteristics:       •   Compare: dialogues/domains;           participants; role...
E-commerce: LIWC1.5       Automated Text Analysis  10.5                             Neurtal  0                          Se...
LIWC Analysis Mediator (neutral)          Negotiatorvs.                         (Seller, Buyer)+ less self-reference      ...
Faculty Dialogue: Analysis Across Phases                          Coh-Metrix
Faculty Dialogue: Analysis Across Phases                                       Coh-MetrixOverview and Discussion Phases:+ ...
End33
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  • Ras, idealog, icohere, MODR, ebay, NMB, Juripax, ..
  • PCP, e-democracyhttp://www.franklinpierce.edu/institutes/neccl/IF: “expand the scope and health of our public discussions”
  • Differences in: Goals, values, needs; Background/worldview/identity; Beliefs, ideas, positions; Power, roles
  • Social Justice/ChangeCommunity; empowerment; inter-group dialog
  • Soc comp slides_march_2012

    1. 1. Supporting Social Deliberative Skillsin Online: Dialog, Deliberation, and Dispute Resolution Tom Murray Senior Research Fellow, Univ. of Massachusetts March 2012 1
    2. 2. ―The Fourth Party: Improving Computer- Mediated Deliberation through Cognitive, Social and Emotional Support‖  3-Year NSF Social Computing grant, started Fall 2010  Description at www.tommurray.us/socialdeliberativeskills/2
    3. 3. Project collaborators  Beverly Woolf: CompSci, PI (intelligent and collaborative educational systems)  Tom Murray: CompSci; project manager/co-PI, principal visionary and instigator (ed-tech, cog-psych & D&D)  Leah Wing (social justice and conflict resolution), Ethan Katsh (ODR), Legal Studies, co-PI‘s  Lori Clark & Lee Osterweil, CompSci, co-PI‘s (ODR, software engineering)  Linda Tropp, Psychology of Peace and Violence, advisor (intergroup relations/conflict)  Zan Goncalves, New England Center for Civic Life (―teaching, practice and study of deliberative democracy‖)3  Idealogue Inc.; iCohere. Inc. — Advanced dialogue software platforms.
    4. 4. Outside Collaborators (some budding)  National Mediation Board (management/labor disputes in transportation sector)  DemarsAssociates.com/PayPal/ebay (e-commerce)  Juripax.com (online workplace and divorce settlements)  Idealogue.com (depth-oriented online dialogue platform)  iCohere.com (online communities and work groups)  Mass Dept. of Dispute Resolution (civic engagement)  Pioneer Valley Planning Commission (civic engagement)  New England Center for Civic Life (―teaching, practice and study of deliberative democracy‖)4
    5. 5. Dialog/DeliberationDispute/Conflict Resolution  Civic engagement/public dialogue  International & inter-group conflict  Labor/management, consumer disputes alternative dispute resolution  Interpersonal disputes / mediation  Deliberative decision making (school, work, home)
    6. 6. Debate, Dialogue and DeliberationDeliberation: ―thoughtful, careful, or lengthy consideration byindividuals; and formal discussion and debate in groups‖ (Davies &Chandler 2011)
    7. 7. Social Deliberative Skills: Social/Emotional/Reflective Perspective taking & cognitive empathy Perspective seeking (curiosity/inquiry) Self-reflection: on ones biases, intentions, emotional state Meta-dialog: Reflect on the quality of the dialog Epistemic skill: e.g. treating facts/data differently from opinions/hypotheses Tolerance for uncertainty, ambiguity, disagreement, paradox7 …
    8. 8. Social Deliberative Skills
    9. 9. 9
    10. 10. Social Deliberative Skill: application of HOSs to me/you/weHigher Order Skills Higher Order Skills applied to:• argumentation• critical thinking SELF• explanation & clarification goals; level of certainty;• inquiry/curiosity feelings, values, assumptions… (question asking & YOUinvestigation) goals, assumptions, feelings,• reflective judgment values; perspective taking;• meta-cognition "believing" & cognitive empathy…• epistemic reasoning WE agreements, goals; quality ofApply these skills, not to the discourse/collaboration;EXTERNAL REALITY differences and similarities in(―IT‖/problem domain) but to values, beliefs, goals, power, roles…theINTERSUBJECTIVE domain
    11. 11. Skills & Issues in Transformative Conf. Res., Social Justice & Inter-group relations How mediators/facilitators assess and respond to differences:  Race, ethnicity, culture  Gender, sex  Situational power (e.g. management vs. labor)  In-group/out-group dynamics Challenge assumptions of universality in predominant CR methods  Orientation to individual vs. group (‗I statements‘)  Focusing on future vs. history (and ‗story‘)  Role of high-emotion language  Independent vs. known & trusted facilitators  Can‘t assume all are free to speak
    12. 12. Support/Scaffolding vs. ―Education‖ Outcomes: - Agreements/solutions - Relationship, Trust (social capital) - SKILL USE (and practice) FacilitatedExistingSkills Online DELIBERATION Facilitator Passive Support Adaptive Support (Dashboard Support (interface) (4th party) )
    13. 13. Use technology to support deliberative skills in three ways 1. Support participants through passive interventions (e.g., visualization tools, prompts, and process structures)—>Ideologue software; 2. Support facilitators or mediators to evaluate the situation and decide what to do—>Dashboard; 3. Provide automated adaptive support (e.g., coaching, guidance, or tutorials) that directly or indirectly teaches or builds these skills—> text analysis.
    14. 14. Participate today at Beyond Tolerance 5/ 11/ 10 8:39 AM Logged in as tomm UPDATE PROFILE HOME LOG OUT An online sanctuary for the exploration of religious and cultural understanding. TOOLBAR Dont see your topic? Create new... Part of a group ? Select...Idealogueinc.com Search Clear DI ALOGUES OPI NI ONS CREATE AND JOIN CONVERSATIONS EXPRESS YOUR VIEWS AND SEE PERSPECTIVES ALL MY DIALOGUES INVITES OPEN TO YOU ACTIVITY NEW ALL MY OPINIONS MY SLIDERS NEWMediem platform Words in dialogue What is the role of religion in conflict? Is it the root o… How comfortable are you speaking about your religio… Do you feel that culture holds a strong sway over reli… Do you think non-faith students should be allowed t… Are science and religion compatible? How does media influence your views on various reli… Are some people destined for a positive afterlife whil… Do you think interreligious and/or intercultural datin… Does having more access to varied religious and spir… Are there certain situations where dialog is not possi… Is there a universal truth, or is every truth subjective … as an activist... To what extent do you think something can be called… Spiritual values and social action "One nations terorist is another nations freedom fig… Why do you suppose most of the terrorists are young ? Did the founding fathers of the United States intend t… Does feminism demand that feminists fight for the s… How valuable do you think studying abroad is in und… Showing 1-10 of 42 Showing 1-10 of 47 PARTI CI PANTS RESOURCES CREATE AND SEARCH PROFILES edit BROWSE DOCUMENTS AND MULTIMEDIA ALL MY DIALOGUE PARTICIPANTS NEW ALL MY RESOURCES NEW tomm How To Grow a Terrorist Without Really Trying Kleoboule Interfaith Amigos Channel the Three Stooges SG J Street Print Ad in NY Times littletree "Mass -Market Epiphany" by Ross Douthat nds Budrus Trailer Ace Oxford English Dictionary -- Feminism 14 matt Florida State Law Review: Family courts and child cus… ajordan The mama lion at the gate: Maternal chauvinism is a … stephb Womens Institution Rankings
    15. 15. [CURRENT] WEEK 1: Discuss the pros and cons of leg... Logged in as tomm UPDATE PROFILE HOME LOG OUT [CURRENT] WEEK 1: Discuss the pros and cons of legalizing mariju ana. To focus the conversation, we invite you to assume you are on an advisory panel for the state legislature, having some preliminary conversations online, and you will eventually be drafting a group recommendation. Consider not only your own preferences but what is best for the state (or society). edit delete ines-v arthur-x joseph -t laura-t CONTRIBUTE YOUR THOUGHTS rtwells matthew-s 1 4:53 EDT Sunday, November 1 3 by tomm tomm tomm has joined the conversation 2 3:53 EDT Saturday, November 12 by ines- v DI ALOGUE TABLE ines-v added a resource: Getting a Fix Everyone (no demographics set) 2 3:52 EDT Saturday, November 12 by ines- v I have to disagree with your third point that marijuana is a gateway drug. Of all the people I know that smoke marijuana, they do not do any hard drugs. I do agree that gateway drugs exist, however I feel lik e that typically happens from one hard drug to another when one doesnt seem to be enough. But if you want to talk about gateway drugs we would also have to mention alcohol and cigarettes which many people consume and smoke. Alcohol and cigarettes are also drugs and often considered gateway drugs. They are both legal so that option is void in regards to marijuana. You also mentioned cancer and other lung related issues. Marijuana is a natural plant. Cigarettes are made up of extremely harmful chemicals that cause lung related issues and cancer much faster than marijuana ever could. Yet, they are still legal. If anything, cigarettes should be illegal when considering public health. Marijuana is a lot safer than cigarettes. I do appreciate you playing Devils advocate though! Id lik e to explain how I see it differently (ines-v) 1 8:26 EDT Friday, Novem ber 11 by arthur- x It seems lik e the vast majority is suppo rtive of the legalization of marijuana, so Im going to play devils advocate in order to bring the oppositions side to the table. First off, research has demonstrated that marijuana use reduces learning15 ability by limiting the capacity to absorb and retain information. A 1995 study of college students discovered that the inability of heavy marijuana users to focus, sustain attention, and organize data persists for as long as 24 hours after their last use of the drug. Earlier research, comparing cognitive abilities of adult marijuana users with non-using adults, found that users fall short on memory as well as math and verbal sk ills. Although it has yet to be proven conclusively that heavy marijuana use can cause irreversible loss of intellectual capacity, animal studies have shown marijuana-induced
    16. 16. Mediem Opinion Sliders16
    17. 17. iCohere example: Passive support for skills (also supporting: appreciation, inquiry; anonymous discussions)
    18. 18. Facilitator Dashboard (―Wizard of Oz‖ trials)18
    19. 19. >> Data domains and analysis 1. Classroom online dialogues 2. ODR (online dispute resolution) 3. Online civic engagement19
    20. 20. Text Analysis Domains College classroom dialogs (UMx3x3, FP x1x4)  Experimental & Control groups ODR  E-Commerce (e-bay auto disputes; x 3000)  Juripax – divorce settlement & workplace dispute (x 2) Civic Deliberation  E-Democracy.com (Minnesota neighborhood) (x 3)  Mass Dept of Dispute Resolution —Forest Futures process (x 2) Misc  GovTeen.com (Philosophy & Ethics forum) (x 2)  Bi-community faculty deliberation on conference venue
    21. 21. Samples from online dialogs EBay (e-commerce):  ―This seller is fraudulent and should be removed from eBay. Why should a eBay buyer have to be put through this.‖  ―…my good feedback be tarnished by these bottom feeders. That lay and cheat honest people out for there hard earned money.‖21
    22. 22. e-democracy: Minneapolis Powderhorn Neighbors Forum 51 posts — by 31 authors, Dec. 2010 Post #1: …while I still love my neighborhood for all its arty, communitygarden, Fair Trade goodness, I am disappointed -- and yes, angry.…these past few weeks [by what] feels disturbingly like [racial] targeting.This, coupled with the [documented] surveillance of parents of color…Post #2: Im so sorry that you are having this experience, especially inaneighborhood that prides itself on diversity. Thank you for sharing heresopeople can be more aware that this is still happening.…Post #6: …The whites in Powderhorn pride themselves on diversity,but few actually mingle with their neighbors of color. They tend to reach 22out to the other liberal artsy gardening whites…
    23. 23. Workplace dispute: Intake summaryBoss (Grieta)  Moderator ―Ryker has created a situation in which a continuation of the work relationship is no longer possible. What I am concerned, we are talking about terminating the work relationship. I will of course cooperate fully with a constructive mediation and hope for the best. It is unlikely that I myself can come to a solution with Ryke.r‖Employee (Ryker)  Moderator ―Since late last year it has been a mess in the company. Management is unclear and inconsistent. The work relationship is disrupted. They want to get rid of me. I am literally "sick" of it. My confidence in the company has been shaken to such a point that I am not sure if I want to stay.‖
    24. 24. Codoole – coding tools24
    25. 25. Contingency Analysis Mosaic Plot
    26. 26. Automated Text AnalysisLIWC (Pennebaker et al.) – Dictionary-based  4,500 words/STEMS; 80 word categories  we focus on 19 of them  80 >> 4 general descriptor categories (word count, words per sentence, % of words captured, and % of words >6 letters), 22 standard linguistic dimensions (e.g., % pronouns, articles, auxiliary verbs, etc.), 32 psychological constructs (e.g., affect, cognition, biological processes), 7 personal concern categories (e.g., work, home, leisure activities), 3 paralinguistic dimensions (assents, fillers, nonfluencies), and 12 punctuation categories (periods, commas, etc). Coh-Metrix (Graesser et al.)  syntax, referential cohesion, semantic cohesion, rhetorical composition…  100 measurements output  We focus on 4 composite measurements (or major factors): Narrativty, Referential Cohesion, Syntactic Simplicity, and Word Concreteness
    27. 27. Deliberative properties for several domains
    28. 28. Automatic Text Analysis • Dialogue characteristics: • Compare: dialogues/domains; participants; roles; experimental groups • Domain #1) eBay Data  100 posts, 10 sessions  3-way exchanges  Roles are identifiable (neutral, seller, buyer)
    29. 29. E-commerce: LIWC1.5 Automated Text Analysis 10.5 Neurtal 0 Seller Buyer-0.5 -1
    30. 30. LIWC Analysis Mediator (neutral) Negotiatorvs. (Seller, Buyer)+ less self-reference + more self-reference+ less negative emotion + more negative emotion+ less cognitive words + more cognitive words+ more articles (precise) + less article use+ more big-word use + less big-word use (i.e., abstract)
    31. 31. Faculty Dialogue: Analysis Across Phases Coh-Metrix
    32. 32. Faculty Dialogue: Analysis Across Phases Coh-MetrixOverview and Discussion Phases:+ highly used negative connection+ high lexical co-reference+ less negation use+ low similarity in meaning+ simple syntaxImpasse and (non-)Resolution Phases:+ less used negative connection+ low lexical co-reference+ more negation use+ high similarity in meaning+ complex syntax
    33. 33. End33
    34. 34. Extra slides…34
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