On the development of beliefs vs. capacities: A post-metaphysical view of Second tier skillfulness <br />Tom Murray<br />I...
Integral as EpistemicsMethodolgcl. Pluralism | Perspectives | Post-metaphysics<br />Integral theory (esp. “Wilber-5”) is f...
An inquiry into belief-holding<br />Exploring what an integral or second tier approach to belief and knowledge could mean ...
Portability of integral ideas<br />4<br />THEM<br />Beliefs, values??<br />US (integralists)<br />beliefs, knowledge, valu...
Overview<br />Development described in terms ofbeliefs and world views  vs. skills and capacitates<br />Post-metaphysicsas...
In groups of 3 or 4 (10 min.)<br />Reflect on an idea or “truth” from integral theory/practice or evolutionary spiritualit...
Some New Age vs. Integral Beliefs<br />Tom Murray |  www.perspegrity.com  |  August 2010<br />7<br />mythical, magical or ...
Integral/Evolutionary Beliefs and Concepts<br />How do we know/prove what is true/”real”?  How sure can we be?<br /><ul><l...
The universe is evolving – through us
All objects/events/perspectives fit in 4 quadrants
The True, the Good, the Beautiful..
Gross, Subtle, Causal, Non-dual states
Subtle energies and chakras.  Synchronicities
Over-soul; Spirit; Authentic Self; Omega Point
Collective consciousness?  Intuition?  Flow? Morphogenetic field? Ground of Being? Involution?
Higher meditative states/truths (oneness, wholeness, light, love, emptiness…)</li></ul>Tom Murray |  www.perspegrity.com  ...
Belief and certainty/commitment<br />We take integral ideas seriously — believe they are useful to us and to others<br />W...
Interdependent modes of justification/critique— which did you use/observe? —<br />First hand experience<br />Deep intuitio...
Second tier transcends & includesmagical, mythical, conventional, modern modes of justification<br />Q is when and how to ...
Magical thinking<br />All is one; there are no boundaries; we are all connected<br />Nonliving things have an animate life...
Magical/mythical thinking<br />How do we know: What to believe or do?<br />-- same criteria for the true and the good: --<...
Magical/mythical thinking (2)<br />Little differentiation between:<br />Inner vs. outer (ideas & imaginings vs. reality)<b...
Then comes Blue/Amber, Orange…<br /><ul><li>Blue meme: ideals, rules, principles, predictable patterns
Orange meme: systematic, possibilities/probabilities, logic; rigor, efficiency & perfection drives
Differentiating/discriminating:
Feelings vs. thoughts
Interiors vs. exteriors (self reflection)
True / Good / Beautiful (scientific method) (what is vs. what should be)
Self vs. group/culture
Belief vs. truth</li></ul>Tom Murray |  www.perspegrity.com  |  May 2010<br />15<br />
Integral/Second Tier thinking?<br />…more exploration later…<br />Tom Murray |  www.perspegrity.com  |  August 2010<br />1...
Theories/narratives of human development<br />As shared and promoted within the integral community…<br />17<br />
A heuristic spectrumof developmental narratives<br />Tom Murray |  www.perspegrity.com  |  August 2010<br />18<br />WHAT o...
“Skill” = <br />Higher order skills, capacities, capabilities, "skillful means" <br />Cognitive, social/ethical/emotional ...
Tentative Assumptions<br />Value of stage-based theories of development for (is and ought):<br />Descriptive models of hum...
E.G. belief & world-view basedNarratives of human development<br />Cohen & Hamilton’s Evolutionary Enlightenment<br />Kosm...
Belief & World-view basedNarratives of human develpment<br />Cohen & Hamilton’s Evolutionary Enlightenment:<br />An "evolu...
Kosmos Journal(Nancy Roof, Ed.)<br />Tom Murray |  www.perspegrity.com  |  August 2010<br />23<br />
McIntosh’s Integral Consciousness<br />Promotes an "integral worldview" and<br />“Integral consciousness [that is] a new p...
Beck & Cohen’s Spiral Dynamics (text)<br />A sequence of core intelligences or memes, that each "reflects a worldview, a v...
Skill & Capacity approaches to development<br />Action Logics (Cook-Greuter & Torbert)<br />Kegan’s Subject/Object Theory<...
Second Tier Skills/Capacities(integral, post-formal, post-post-modern)<br /><ul><li>What does it look and feel like to be ...
Thinking skills & social/emotional skills:
Communication & Collaboration
Leadership & Conflict resolution & Parenting
Knowledge building & Systems design
Self-awareness & self-directed learning
Epistemology—one’s relationship to belief
Wisdom skills — relates belief to action </li></ul>Tom Murray |  www.perspegrity.com  |  August 2010<br />27<br />
Wisdom Skills<br />Egoawareness (self/ego/will and being/spirit/essence; "I" dimension)<br />Relationalawareness (emotiona...
Memes as Beliefs vs. Skills<br />Critical mass to establish a meme<br />Then people from any level can be attracted to it<...
Some Problems with Development as a Worldview or Belief System <br />Beliefs: perspectival, culturally bound, fallible <br...
Supporting Belief vs. Skill<br />Design of skill/capacity support is more difficult <br />Persuasion/argumentation are anc...
The value of belief systems<br />Motivation, intention, vision!<br />…when and why to USE skills/capacities<br />Power of ...
A post-metaphysical approach to belief – holding?<br />Tom Murray |  www.perspegrity.com  |  August 2010<br />33<br />
Integral & post-metaphysical injunctions<br />Don’t confuse map with territory<br />Avoid the Myth of the Given<br />Take ...
Post-metaphysics<br />How we hold or beliefs<br />Level/type of certainty & importance (emotional)<br />How we explain or ...
…some useful distinctions…<br />Tom Murray |  www.perspegrity.com  |  August 2010<br />36<br />
Further deconstructing my argument<br />Tom Murray |  www.perspegrity.com  |  August 2010<br />37<br />Skills &Capacities<...
Belief/knowledge structuresa useful framework<br />Non/pre-Linguistic:<br />Experience (phenomena; what happens)<br />Ling...
Belief/knowledge structures (2)<br />Linguistic / symbolic <br />Concepts<br />Examples<br />Taste of chocolate; gut certa...
Concept Indeterminacy(Lakoff)<br />Abstract Concepts:<br />Graded (fuzzy)<br />Metaphorical (limited by embodiment)<br />H...
Interdependent modes of statement justification/critique— (revisited) —<br />First hand experience<br />Deep intuition (or...
Model/Theory indeterminacy/fallibility<br />Kuhn…<br />Lakatos…<br />Latour…<br />Meta-theorists…<br />(Rob Smith: “integr...
Group reflections onthings said to Exist (concepts)<br />OBJECTS / Concepts<br />QUESTIONS<br /><ul><li>Eros
Involution
UR, LL, …quadrants
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On the development of beliefs vs. capacities: A post-metaphysical view of second tier skillfulness.

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Murray, T. (2010). On the development of beliefs vs. capacities: A post-metaphysical view of second tier skillfulness. Presented at the 2nd Biannual Integral Theory Conference, John F. Kennedy University. Pleasant Hill, CA, July, 2010.

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  • Not about AQAL….or this is the foundation of AQAL; underlies; Makes philosphers of us all…Metaphysics is about what is real or what exists.
  • These are some of the general questions in my mind that lead to the paperI’d like to engage you in some of them so we can think about this together…More about questions than answers or models; I will talk about questions vs models under themes of positive epistemic capability vs negative capability
  • Beliefs define a communityWhat do we have to offer the wider world? Models? Skils/capacities? Methods; wayts; princilples?(offer the second tier world?)
  • How we FRAME devel narratives…- realtionship TO beliefs (values)- PM is a perspective on belief and knowledge itself…
  • We distinguish oursleves form prior memes…How important are some of these beliefs to you or others?How do we articulate what’s unsettling (or unjustified) about some beliefs? LATER: talk about mythical, magical and metaphysical thinkiing…its ROLE
  • And why does it matter??
  • Looking at epstemology; ways of thinking, capacities; not values/needs.
  • Many ways we talk about it; all the models wilber mentions- stage based models…STRAW man spectrum!- not critique of existing narratives/projects; an exploration into where next
  • Ref Kurt Fischer Skill Theory…
  • Ref Stein on is/ought conflation; naturalistic fallacy; myth of the xxx
  • puts humans at the forefront of the evolution of consciousness - deeply experience ..access to the motivation (ecstatic impulse) to break free of our egoic and narcissistic tendencies and align with a moral and spiritual sense of purpose and service - more than a surface belief system for its adherents—it is a lived experience that deeply implicates self identity
  • puts humans at the forefront of the evolution of consciousness - deeply experience ..access to the motivation (ecstatic impulse) to break free of our egoic and narcissistic tendencies and align with a moral and spiritual sense of purpose and service - more than a surface belief system for its adherents—it is a lived experience that deeply implicates self identity
  • not meant to be fair representations of the core content of the articles they are taken from, but are selected to illustrate a common theme - A story/narrative (vs. a theory/model)
  • alludes to skills and capacities, but does not describe them sufficiently to allow them to be evaluated or directly supported - a model set of principles; a philosophy
  • This is about the BOOK only- describes each meme in terms of response to life conditions (p. 56), concerns and priorities (p. 65), decision making style, education modes, family dynamics, community interactions, and life space structures (p. 332). - imply skill sets. -- missing a sufficient description of exactly what these ways of thinking are, as opposed to what they are like.- Asssesment: most/leat like me; about values and beliefs, not thinking skils
  • can’t blame others for not having these skills or focus; point is to bring more of this in to what we do…- and there are informal non-research ways to orient to skills and capacities over belief systems- in workshops by Cohen, Beck, McIntosh skill building IS happening; but not explicitly…
  • - I’m particularly interested in second tier skills (not only sequence of development but the FOCAL GOAL)-“look and feel” is it about skillful means or what is believed?- communication (including dialog, deliberation, and written communication), problem solving (including planning and design), decision-making, collaboration (including group dynamics), leadership (and parenting), and learning (including adaptation and self-improvement)
  • So far, just argued for the different narratives; next argue for problems with beliefs and need for more skills-based; moving along that spectrum- If I had to choose between a Turquise belief system and skills set… “Mean Green Meme” is actually a cultural identity grouping that does not reflect green skill development Think of intelligent/evolved integral non-believers; are hey second tier?
  • Wiping up the crowd; extreem states; - partial, always wrong-
  • Its both- at second tier
  • what do you think of as &apos;higher self&apos; &apos;true/authentic self&apos;:is it &apos;higher and overseeing&quot; rest of self; UNDERpinning/fundamental?; Encircling/embracing?
  • reality is not out there waiting to be seen; not simply as it appears
  • From Cooke; fact/value convolution
  • Zone == how x what?Who, how, what enact each other (conascent)- Seean EH:Object’s [altitude &amp; quadrivium] XSubject’s [&gt;= devel level &amp; quadrant]
  • - In people &amp; in philosophers…
  • We do these things with a vengeance! We are wired to do this..help us accurately understand the world but can create biases and errors- we also have the opposite drives… (just like we have aggression and nurturance drives in us)See it in yourself. See it in great philosophers….Embodied mind -- Lakoff &amp; Johnson, 1999; Clark 1996; Varela et al. 1993- abstract concepts (e.g. democracy, African-American, god, ego, compassion, spirit, evolution, formal operational thinking, left hand quadrant, green meme, or Eros)
  • OK for Wilber! That certainty and precision creates a force; but WE don’t have to copy it…How can we bring both of these into play?- everybody is partially RIGHT; vs Everybody is (partly) wrong
  • Reflective abstraction; subject/object; hierarchical complexity;
  • --need seqqay to post-metaphisics
  • On the development of beliefs vs. capacities: A post-metaphysical view of second tier skillfulness.

    1. 1. On the development of beliefs vs. capacities: A post-metaphysical view of Second tier skillfulness <br />Tom Murray<br />Integral Theory Conference<br />August 2010, JFK University<br />1<br />
    2. 2. Integral as EpistemicsMethodolgcl. Pluralism | Perspectives | Post-metaphysics<br />Integral theory (esp. “Wilber-5”) is fundamentally about Epistemology and Method<br />How do we know? What can we know is true/real?<br />How do we discover and justify what we think is true or good?<br />Epistemics: knowledge, belief, method, certainty, theories, concepts…<br />Includes emotional, social, ethical: uncertainty, unknowing, assumptions & worldviews, communication, decision making…<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />2<br />
    3. 3. An inquiry into belief-holding<br />Exploring what an integral or second tier approach to belief and knowledge could mean <br />…what integralists believe (and don’t believe)<br />What do we think it is important for others to believe/know/do based on integral theories?<br />Our relationship to what we believe: <br />How certain can we be?<br />How do we explain, promote, critique, justify? <br />How do we respond to other belief systems? <br />Epistemological and ethical implications…?<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Portability of integral ideas<br />4<br />THEM<br />Beliefs, values??<br />US (integralists)<br />beliefs, knowledge, values…<br />Skills??<br />
    5. 5. Overview<br />Development described in terms ofbeliefs and world views vs. skills and capacitates<br />Post-metaphysicsas part of second-tier enacting & skill<br />Positive & Negative Capability(and ethical implications)<br />…Audience deliberation…<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />5<br />
    6. 6. In groups of 3 or 4 (10 min.)<br />Reflect on an idea or “truth” from integral theory/practice or evolutionary spirituality that you have tried to explain to friends/colleagues (with limited success!). <br />How do you know/explain it is true or valid? <br />How certain were/are you?<br />Why did you want them to understand it?<br />6<br />
    7. 7. Some New Age vs. Integral Beliefs<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />7<br />mythical, magical or metaphysical thinking??<br />
    8. 8. Integral/Evolutionary Beliefs and Concepts<br />How do we know/prove what is true/”real”? How sure can we be?<br /><ul><li>Eros & Agape influence (or cause) evolution
    9. 9. The universe is evolving – through us
    10. 10. All objects/events/perspectives fit in 4 quadrants
    11. 11. The True, the Good, the Beautiful..
    12. 12. Gross, Subtle, Causal, Non-dual states
    13. 13. Subtle energies and chakras. Synchronicities
    14. 14. Over-soul; Spirit; Authentic Self; Omega Point
    15. 15. Collective consciousness? Intuition? Flow? Morphogenetic field? Ground of Being? Involution?
    16. 16. Higher meditative states/truths (oneness, wholeness, light, love, emptiness…)</li></ul>Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | May 2010<br />8<br />
    17. 17. Belief and certainty/commitment<br />We take integral ideas seriously — believe they are useful to us and to others<br />What exists (metaphysics) vs. what is true<br />Habermas: to believe an idea is to be prepared to justify it<br />But belief has a spectrum of certainty/commitment<br />What is most important to commit to? Vs. be laissez-faire or hypothetical about? (why?)<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />9<br />
    18. 18. Interdependent modes of justification/critique— which did you use/observe? —<br />First hand experience<br />Deep intuition (or gut feeling)<br />Reasonable assumptions/bases/premises<br />Logical inference (supporting truth) <br />It is ethically right<br />It is pragmatically useful (it works)<br />Consistent with other knowledge<br />Support of experts/authorities<br />Trusted sources (journal, NPR, etc.)<br />Someone I know and trust believes it<br />Most people (peers in my group) believe it<br />I used a trusted method<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | May 2010<br />10<br />
    19. 19. Second tier transcends & includesmagical, mythical, conventional, modern modes of justification<br />Q is when and how to we use these modes?<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />11<br />
    20. 20. Magical thinking<br />All is one; there are no boundaries; we are all connected<br />Nonliving things have an animate life force; intentions, can hurt & bless<br />Powerful beings (gods, spirits…) can punish or reward; we are vulnerable <br />I have the psychic power to effect the world; bless or curse; pray, manifest; (omnipotency) <br />I hear inner messages; I use special objects and rituals to access divinations<br />Impulses and emotions and power dynamics determine my actions (not abstract ideas or plans)<br />Wishful thinking (the unwanted is unreal)<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | May 2010<br />12<br />
    21. 21. Magical/mythical thinking<br />How do we know: What to believe or do?<br />-- same criteria for the true and the good: --<br />Authority figures and charismatics<br />Magical or sacred books and objects<br />Social norms, habit, they way it has been<br />Peer pressure; what everyone else does<br />My own experience<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | May 2010<br />13<br />
    22. 22. Magical/mythical thinking (2)<br />Little differentiation between:<br />Inner vs. outer (ideas & imaginings vs. reality)<br />The true and the good/right<br />Thoughts and feelings<br />Self and group<br />Past, present, future <br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | May 2010<br />14<br />
    23. 23. Then comes Blue/Amber, Orange…<br /><ul><li>Blue meme: ideals, rules, principles, predictable patterns
    24. 24. Orange meme: systematic, possibilities/probabilities, logic; rigor, efficiency & perfection drives
    25. 25. Differentiating/discriminating:
    26. 26. Feelings vs. thoughts
    27. 27. Interiors vs. exteriors (self reflection)
    28. 28. True / Good / Beautiful (scientific method) (what is vs. what should be)
    29. 29. Self vs. group/culture
    30. 30. Belief vs. truth</li></ul>Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | May 2010<br />15<br />
    31. 31. Integral/Second Tier thinking?<br />…more exploration later…<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />16<br />
    32. 32. Theories/narratives of human development<br />As shared and promoted within the integral community…<br />17<br />
    33. 33. A heuristic spectrumof developmental narratives<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />18<br />WHAT one believes<br />HOW one believes/thinks<br />What on does/can DO<br />Skills &Capacities<br />Beliefs &World Views<br />(Virtues, Habits)<br />(Values, Identity,)<br />
    34. 34. “Skill” = <br />Higher order skills, capacities, capabilities, "skillful means" <br />Cognitive, social/ethical/emotional skills<br />E.g. systemic thinking, ego awareness, construct awareness, leadership, communication, empathy<br />The beliefs in focus are meaning-generative:cultural, metaphysical, spiritual, philosophical… (not concrete facts)<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />19<br />
    35. 35. Tentative Assumptions<br />Value of stage-based theories of development for (is and ought):<br />Descriptive models of human development<br />Prescriptive:<br />“Health of the spiral”; “Greatest depth for greatest span”<br />More “second tier” capacity in general <br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />20<br />
    36. 36. E.G. belief & world-view basedNarratives of human development<br />Cohen & Hamilton’s Evolutionary Enlightenment<br />Kosmos Journal<br />McIntosh’s Integral Consciousness<br />Beck & Cohen’s Spiral Dynamics<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />21<br />
    37. 37. Belief & World-view basedNarratives of human develpment<br />Cohen & Hamilton’s Evolutionary Enlightenment:<br />An "evolutionary context" in which "who and what God is can no longer be taken as fixed—that from a developmental perspective, God is also evolving, just as we are" <br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />22<br />
    38. 38. Kosmos Journal(Nancy Roof, Ed.)<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />23<br />
    39. 39. McIntosh’s Integral Consciousness<br />Promotes an "integral worldview" and<br />“Integral consciousness [that is] a new perspective on the world that expands our perception of reality and provides fresh motivation…arises from and enlarged set of values framed by an expanded understanding of cultural evolution" <br />"[if] you read and consider the ideas in this book, they will literally raise your consciousness" <br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />24<br />
    40. 40. Beck & Cohen’s Spiral Dynamics (text)<br />A sequence of core intelligences or memes, that each "reflects a worldview, a valuing system…a belief structure, an organizing principle, a way of thinking or mode of adjustment" <br />But: talks about and around skills without getting sufficiently specific about exactly what they are, and focus more on human drives, needs, motivation, and values<br />Skills implied but not fleshed out in a teachable or measurable way<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />25<br />
    41. 41. Skill & Capacity approaches to development<br />Action Logics (Cook-Greuter & Torbert)<br />Kegan’s Subject/Object Theory<br />Skill Theory & Hierarchical Complexity Theory (Fischer, Commons, Dawson, Stein)<br />Many “developmentalists” past and present<br />(Wilber – covers both ‘sides of the fence’)<br />Psychologists/sociologists focusing on describing, understanding, measuring, supporting human capacity <br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />26<br />
    42. 42. Second Tier Skills/Capacities(integral, post-formal, post-post-modern)<br /><ul><li>What does it look and feel like to be in a second tier collaboration, inquiry, deliberation, or organization?
    43. 43. Thinking skills & social/emotional skills:
    44. 44. Communication & Collaboration
    45. 45. Leadership & Conflict resolution & Parenting
    46. 46. Knowledge building & Systems design
    47. 47. Self-awareness & self-directed learning
    48. 48. Epistemology—one’s relationship to belief
    49. 49. Wisdom skills — relates belief to action </li></ul>Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />27<br />
    50. 50. Wisdom Skills<br />Egoawareness (self/ego/will and being/spirit/essence; "I" dimension)<br />Relationalawareness (emotional/social/ethical/interpersonal intelligence; "We" dimension)<br />Constructawareness(cognitive; "It" dimension)<br />Systemsawareness ("Its" dimension; also a cognitive capacity, but reflecting on dynamic systems and networks of relationships as opposed to mental constructs)<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />28<br />
    51. 51. Memes as Beliefs vs. Skills<br />Critical mass to establish a meme<br />Then people from any level can be attracted to it<br />“Mean Green Meme” is actually a cultural identity grouping that does not reflect green skill development<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | May 2010<br />29<br />
    52. 52. Some Problems with Development as a Worldview or Belief System <br />Beliefs: perspectival, culturally bound, fallible <br />Attached to identity and support in/out group<br />Beliefs can “clash” in struggles of power and identity; skills are “cognitive tools” <br />Beliefs-systems can be ideologies/dogmas (manipulation/misconception/misuse)<br />Charismatic propaganda, peer pressure (inculcation/adoption vs. teaching/learning)<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />30<br />
    53. 53. Supporting Belief vs. Skill<br />Design of skill/capacity support is more difficult <br />Persuasion/argumentation are ancient arts<br />Articulating & supporting skills is new<br />Requires special knowledge; more precision <br />Skill acquisition: <br />Instruct, model, practice (practice!), feedback<br />Support and challenge<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />31<br />
    54. 54. The value of belief systems<br />Motivation, intention, vision!<br />…when and why to USE skills/capacities<br />Power of story, myth, narrative <br />Shared world-view <br />Synergetic action, solidarity, meaning-generation<br />Stable base for new levels of cultural evolution<br />Need shared beliefs (community) to create skills? <br />“Beliefs” can be stable useable knowledge of “how things work”<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />32<br />
    55. 55. A post-metaphysical approach to belief – holding?<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />33<br />
    56. 56. Integral & post-metaphysical injunctions<br />Don’t confuse map with territory<br />Avoid the Myth of the Given<br />Take a post-metaphysical perspective<br />Good goals – but can we enact them??<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />34<br />
    57. 57. Post-metaphysics<br />How we hold or beliefs<br />Level/type of certainty & importance (emotional)<br />How we explain or promote beliefs (cognitive)<br />Who should believe them and to what ends? (ethical)<br />Involves second tier skills/knowledge of “how the mind/ideas work” <br />concepts, models, communication, ego…<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />35<br />
    58. 58. …some useful distinctions…<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />36<br />
    59. 59. Further deconstructing my argument<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />37<br />Skills &Capacities<br />Beliefs &World Views<br />Models & Theories<br />(Values, Identity, Virtues, Habits)<br />Facts &Knowledge <br />
    60. 60. Belief/knowledge structuresa useful framework<br />Non/pre-Linguistic:<br />Experience (phenomena; what happens)<br />Linguistic / symbolic <br />Concepts (categories; what exists; is real)<br /> (concrete … > … abstract)<br />Statements (propositions; what is true/right)<br />Model/Theory (system of related beliefs)<br />[World-view]<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />38<br />
    61. 61. Belief/knowledge structures (2)<br />Linguistic / symbolic <br />Concepts<br />Examples<br />Taste of chocolate; gut certainty;<br />meditative state; being a parent; <br />a baseball game; (intuitions…)<br />Tree, democracy, interior, consciousness…<br />Trees are…; We should…; the cognitive line leads…<br />AQAL, SD, Einstein’s, ….<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />39<br />Non/pre-Linguistic:<br />Experience<br />Statements<br />Model/Theory<br />
    62. 62. Concept Indeterminacy(Lakoff)<br />Abstract Concepts:<br />Graded (fuzzy)<br />Metaphorical (limited by embodiment)<br />Have “metaphorical pluralism”<br />Generate polarities, paradoxes<br />A fragile house of cards used to build up (abstract) statements<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />40<br />
    63. 63. Interdependent modes of statement justification/critique— (revisited) —<br />First hand experience<br />Deep intuition (or gut feeling)<br />Reasonable assumptions/bases/premises<br />Logical inference (supporting truth) <br />It is ethically right<br />It is pragmatically useful (it works)<br />Consistent with other knowledge<br />Support of experts/authorities<br />Trusted sources (journal, NPR, etc.)<br />Someone I know and trust believes it<br />Most people (peers in my group) believe it<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | May 2010<br />41<br />
    64. 64. Model/Theory indeterminacy/fallibility<br />Kuhn…<br />Lakatos…<br />Latour…<br />Meta-theorists…<br />(Rob Smith: “integral is the mother of all escapes”)<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />42<br />
    65. 65. Group reflections onthings said to Exist (concepts)<br />OBJECTS / Concepts<br />QUESTIONS<br /><ul><li>Eros
    66. 66. Involution
    67. 67. UR, LL, …quadrants
    68. 68. The green (any) meme
    69. 69. Non-duality or ND states
    70. 70. Spirit/soul/reincarnation
    71. 71. (Collective) consciousness
    72. 72. Holon</li></ul>Does it exist?<br />In what way?<br />How sure are you? (sure enough to commit to…)<br />How would I explain/argue for (against) it?<br />Who should believe me?<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />43<br />
    73. 73. Perspectives on “Post-metaphysics”<br />When something exists metaphysically, it claims freedom from rational justification and dialog.<br />(it is beyond both physical and neural/psycho/social laws) <br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />44<br />
    74. 74. Post-metaphysics (1)<br /><ul><li>Is not anti-metaphysics (there are non-physical ‘things’)
    75. 75. No view from nowhere (privileged perspective), beyond myth of the given; map is not territory;
    76. 76. Perspectival: all truths/experiences come from a perspective and are partial</li></ul>There are no fixed eternal forms, structures, or archetypes, because everything is evolving<br />Phenomena are enacted/co-constructed (makes no sense to say things exists(ed) unless (until) perceived)<br />(there is no ideal, transcendental, essential, or primordial in the metaphysical sense)<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | May 2010<br />45<br />
    77. 77. Post-metaphysics (2)Habermas<br />Procedural/formal/method conceptions of rationality (“a rational person thinks this” to "…thinks like this") <br />Replaced foundationalism with fallibilism with regard to valid knowledge<br />Contextualized or situated reason in actual practices, historical contexts, & world views <br />Sees knowledge and truth as strongly related to ethics (affected by notions of rightness, sincerity, and authenticity) [and emotion]<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />46<br />
    78. 78. Post-metaphysics (3)Integral PM<br />Kosmic address: altitude + perspective (of S,O)<br />Who x How x What<br />Who: adequatio (developmental level(s) of perceiver)<br />How: method / tool; relationship of S,O; zone<br />What: quadrant (I,we,it,its)<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />47<br />the dog, Santa Claus, √-1, Emptiness, ecosystem,…<br /> - where/how do the referents to these signifiers exists?<br /> - “ecosystems exist only in a worldspace of turquoise or higher”<br />
    79. 79. Post-metaphysical Validation(Wilber’s “three strands” of knowledge, plus)<br /><ul><li>1. Injunction — If you want to know this, do this.
    80. 80. 2. Experience —Beyond concepts/words.
    81. 81. 2.5 Conceptualize, Infer, & Communicate —A “truth” from the experience & everything else you know.
    82. 82. 3. Dialog (with a community of the adequate) — What do others who followed the injunction think?</li></ul>Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | May 2010<br />48<br />— and Indeterminacy Analysis —<br /><ul><li>What are my/our biases, assumptions, capacities?
    83. 83. Describe alternatives; limitations; fallibilities…
    84. 84. What is the knowledge for and what level of certainty is needed/called for?
    85. 85. Other perspectives to invite? New Qs? — Iterate!</li></li></ul><li>Positive (epistemic) capability vs.Negative (epistemic) capability<br />Negative not as in destructive/deconstructive, but as awareness of limitation and fallibility <br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />49<br />
    86. 86. Post-metaphysics (4)as an ‘epistemic turn’<br /><ul><li>What we now know (bio-psycho-social) about ideas, knowledge, language :
    87. 87. Knowledge is socially constructed
    88. 88. All abstract concepts are “graded” (fuzzy) and metaphorical
    89. 89. Rationality is “bounded” & embodied
    90. 90. Concepts and language are indeterminate
    91. 91. …</li></ul>Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />50<br />
    92. 92. Misplaced Concreteness(Whitehead)<br /><ul><li>Abstractions (ideas) treated like concrete/physical realities
    93. 93. Fixed, external (objective)
    94. 94. Solid conceptual boundaries</li></ul>Psychology:<br />MP is not just an avoidable error: its hard-wired in embodied cognition<br />Subject / “Object” development<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />51<br />
    95. 95. Misplaced Concretenessthrough developmental levels<br />Magical thinking<br />imagination/dreams seem “real” and concrete<br />Mythical (and conventional) thinking<br />We believe the “stories” we hear/tell ourselves<br />Myth of the given <br />Rational thinking<br />Abstractions treated as realities<br />Map/territory confusion<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />52<br /><ul><li> Freedom
    96. 96. The economy
    97. 97. Green meme
    98. 98. Eros
    99. 99. UR quadrant</li></li></ul><li>“Epistemic Drives”(in beliefs, ideas, knowledge)<br />Concreteness/reification (of abstractions)<br />Seeing connections, patterns<br />(over-) Generalize & abstract<br />Attribute sharp boundaries to concepts (ignore the grey areas)<br />Foundationalism, essentialism, universality<br />Unity/oneness, totality/wholeness, integration<br />…proto-fascism, grandiosity, hegemony, elitism…?<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />53<br />
    100. 100. Belief and Emotion(embodiment, ethics, enaction)<br />Certainty / importance / emotional intensity <br />Fear, risk, urgency, ecstasy… (states)<br />Risk of misplaced concreteness<br />Magnification of epistemic (and other) drives<br />Regression to <br />black & white (us/them; either/or) <br />Reliance on authority, peers & norms <br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />54<br />
    101. 101. Positivism/certainty vs. fallibilism/indeterminacy<br />Positivist attitude: clarity, certainty, action<br />knowledge/meaning-generative; problem solving, theorizing<br />Negative capability: awe, humility, curiosity<br />Limits of language & knowledge & method<br />Tolerance for ambiguity, uncertainty, unknowing<br />Dealing with the above<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />55<br />Espoused fallibility vs.<br />Stylistic (or illocutionary/enacted) fallibility<br />
    102. 102. Palliatives:from “ontological humility” to “epistemic wisdom”<br />How do we hold beliefs post-metaphysically (with second tier epistemics)?<br />“I believe in reincarnation”<br />“Non-dual states are beyond mind, matter, time, space”<br />“the universe is constructed of holons” (or consists of perspectives)<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />56<br />
    103. 103. Experience (phenomena)<br />Continuously ground abstractions in phenomena (experience) and shared intuitions<br />Face it: reality and phenomena are:(infinitely?) messy, complex, codependent, deeply detailed…<br />ideas like to be pristine, singular….<br />Indeterminacy => vulnerability => ethical implications<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />57<br />
    104. 104. Concepts:Epistemic language games<br />Positivist epistemics: <br />It IS… (foundational, essential, ultimate)<br />It always is/was (eternal, given, primordial,..)<br />Negative (epistemic) capability<br />It is as if ; (what if; suspension..)<br />“Chances are”…“as far as we can tell,”<br />To the extent that… (in this context)<br />In this sense/way… (from this perspective)<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />58<br />
    105. 105. Statements:A 4th Validity Type<br />True<br />Good/Right/Just <br />Beautiful (sincerity/authenticity)<br />&<br />Meaning-generative<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />59<br />
    106. 106. Models<br />“Indeterminacy analysis” – deliver models with a “wrapper” showing assumptions and limitations of concepts (what falls in the grey area)<br />Not just “Caution: this map is not the territory”<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />60<br />
    107. 107. Certainty & Commitment in Belief & Action<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />61<br />
    108. 108. In sum<br />Understand the mind and limits of thought/language (Epistemic-turn)<br /><ul><li>Re-integrating all developmental levels, including magical & mythical thinking
    109. 109. Ontological humility => epistemic wisdom</li></ul>Compensate for fallibility<br />Expect and forgive fallibility<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />62<br />
    110. 110. End<br />Tom Murray – tommurray.us@gmail.com<br />
    111. 111. Extra slides<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />64<br />
    112. 112. Second Tier - going “meta”(from ITC-2008)<br />Meta-cognition (thinking about thinking) <br />Meta-knowledge (knowledge about the nature and limitations of knowledge); META-BELIEF!<br />Meta-learning (learning how to learn, also called triple-loop learning)<br />Meta-dialog (dialog about how we engage in dialog)<br />Meta-decision making (making decisions about how we will go about making decisions)<br />Meta-affect (investigating the feeling of our feelings; somatic awareness of feeling states)<br />Meta-leadership (supporting leadership in others)<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />
    113. 113. Calls for higher level thought<br />David Bohm: "underneath [humanity's dilemmas] there's something we don't understand about how thought works" and that what is needed is a "very deep [and] very subtle" awareness of thought itself.<br />Albert Einstein: "the significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them.” <br />Cultural development as skill of understanding mind, thought, language, knowledge, belief…=> the “post-metaphysical turn”<br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />66<br />
    114. 114. Some Polarities in Epistemic Drives <br />Abstract (ideas) vs. concrete (tangible, sensory, real)<br />General (generalization) vs. specific (specialization)<br />Integration vs. differentiation<br />Universal vs. relative (or contextual)<br />Fundamental (essential, central, root) vs. consequential (peripheral or subordinate)<br />Permanent (unchanging, fixed, predictable) vs. changing (transient, unpredictable, chaotic)<br />Simple vs. complex<br />Oneness/singularity/unity vs. multiplicity (the many)<br />Whole (holism; integration) vs. part (differentiation)<br />Completeness (comprehensiveness; totality; systemic) vs. partiality (details, deconstruction)<br />Similarity vs. difference (diversity) <br />Transcendence vs. immanence<br />Perfection and purity vs. imperfection <br />Tom Murray | www.perspegrity.com | August 2010<br />67<br />
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