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OECD STIG: Governance of international research and innovation cooperation for global challenges
 

OECD STIG: Governance of international research and innovation cooperation for global challenges

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Presentation of the OECD STIG-project on governance of international science, technology and innovation collaboration for global challenges. OECD STIG October 2011. Chair's presentation. UPDATE Nov 7 ...

Presentation of the OECD STIG-project on governance of international science, technology and innovation collaboration for global challenges. OECD STIG October 2011. Chair's presentation. UPDATE Nov 7 2012: Vi have set up a new blog on the follow up of STIG over at http://beyondstig.blogspot.com

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    OECD STIG: Governance of international research and innovation cooperation for global challenges OECD STIG: Governance of international research and innovation cooperation for global challenges Presentation Transcript

    • OECD Steering Group for Governance of International Co-operation on Science, Technology and Innovation for Global Challenges
      CSTP 99th, October 13 2011
      Per M. Koch
      Chair
    • Disclaimer
      Whatever is said in this presentation is my personal interpretation of the work done by the experts and of the discussions in the Steering Group, the STIG Bureau and the Oslo workshop.
    • Progress
      Two publications are in preparation
      Volume 1: On Governance of STI Collaboration for Global Challenges
      Prepared by the secretariat
      Based input from the STIG experts, the Oslo Workshop, the Global Science Forum and other sources
      Presented for the CSTP in 2012
      Volume 2: The Case Study Report
      Written by the STIG experts team
      Discussed by Steering Group in December
      Presented for the CSTP in 2012
      To be the foundation of a possible post-STIG ministerial declaration or set of principles
    • Background: Global Challenges
      We are facing challenges that may threaten the very fabric of our societies
      • Social
      • Technological
      • Medical
      • Environmental
    • The Policy Challenges
      Problems are caused by systemic failure consisting of social, economic, cultural, biological, technological and/or environmental factors.
      There are impact-chains between the different global challengese.g. between climate, energy, water, food and health.
      There may be irreversible tipping points we urgently need to avoid.
      Global challenges cannot be adequately addressed by single actors.
      We are all affected
    • Public goods and the role of states
      Global (Public) Good: Conceptually, characterized by externalities, non-rival in use, [non-excludable], e.g. climate change, epidemic disease, conservation of biological diversity.
      Innovation as long term evolution. Need for diversity to develop the necessary solutions.
      Dr. ProdiptoGhosh, Oslo Workshop
      Urgent needs requires international prioritization.
      Only states can compel payment and behavior.
      There is no supranational authority, so how can cooperation occur?
      We need a new multilateral framework for political discussion, agreement and control.
      Dr. Keith Smith, Oslo Workshop
      free-rider problem
      tragedy of the commons
      the waiting game
    • The new global dimension adds complexity as well as new possibilities
      Until recently, global STI activities were mainly clustered in the “triad” (North America, Europe, Japan).
      New countries are appearing on the global STI arena
      Korea as example of successful technological catch up
      Brazil (aeronautics, biotech),
      China (solar and wind energy)
      India (ICT, wind energy)
      South Africa (coal liquefaction)

    • The role of science and innovation
      STI play a crucial role in
      Understanding the impact chains underlying global challenges
      Understanding the interaction between various factors framing global challenges, including the social and cultural factors.
      Developing solutions
    • Reminder: S&T is also partly to blame for our problems
      • We need to prepare for unintended consequences of STI and assess the risks of the strategies we develop
    • How to make STI part of the solution
      There is recognition of increasing importance of STI cooperation to address global challenges
      The (EU) Strategic Forum for International Scientific and Technological Cooperation (SFIC)
      UN Summit (2009)
      G8+7 S&T Ministerial meeting (2008)
      OECD CSTP High Level Oslo Meeting (2008)
      OECD Oslo STIG Workshop (2011)
      OECD Green Growth Strategy (2011)
      RIO+20 United Nation Conference on Sustainable Development (2012)
      Still, multinational STI is often not included in national or international strategies
    • STI Challenges
      Single countries are not willing to bear costs of action
      No agreement or comprehensive mechanism for multilateral STI cooperation in place
      No consolidated knowledge regarding the strengths and weaknesses of different institutional settings
    • Global research and innovation governance
      There is no world government
      But in many fields of human activities, global governance structures exist, e.g. :
      Intergovernmental agreements and related organizations
      International networks of public, semi-public and private institutions
      Multi-stakeholder initiatives with strong influence of civil society
      Private governance, e.g. standards imposed by lead firms in global value chains
      Private and civil initiatives
    • Policy challenges
      Develop narratives that makes both policy makers and the general public understand the seriousness of the situation.
      Integrate STI in other policy areas.
      Requires a strategic mobilization of resources that goes far beyond traditional hands-off, bottom up, initiatives.
    • The Oslo Workshop on International Co-operation in Science, Technology and Innovation to Address Global Challenges , May 18-20 2011
      Participants from all continents: policy makers, scientists and experts, NGOs, businesses
      Arranged by
      The Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research
      The German Ministry of Education and Research
      The Research Council of Norway
      Presentations and background paper found at http://www.pandia.com/stig/
    • Organization
      Two general sessions (introduction, summing up) and four thematic sessions.
      Each of the thematic sessions was be focusing on governance dimensions identified within STIG as key to the development of effective collaborative frameworks
      There were two prepared introductory presentations in each thematic session, one by a STIG expert and one by an invited stakeholder.
    • Introductory Session
      Norwegian Vice Minister of Education and Research, Kyrre Lekve
      Yuko Harayama, Deputy Director, Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry, OECD
      Keynote speech by Dr ProdiptoGhosh, Distinguished Fellow, TERI, former Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India: Collaborative R&D for Global Problems
      Chair: Per M. Koch of the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research
    • Sessions 1 and 2
      1: Agenda- and priority-setting
      Chair: Klaus Matthes, Science and technology policy adviser to the German OECD delegation
      Presentation by Wolfgang Polt, Joanneum Research, Austria, STIG expert
      Presentation by Regina von Görtz, German Research Institute for Public Administration Speyer Agenda Setting and Priority Setting in Science and Science Policy
       
      2: Funding and spending
      Chair: Thomas auf derHeyde, Department of Science and Technology, South Africa (slide presenting the technology cycle)
      Presentation by Magnus Guldbrandsen, University of Oslo, STIG expert
      Presentation by Flora Painter, Inter-American Development Bank Effective International Cooperation  to Address Global Challenges
    • Sessions 3 and 4
      3: Capacity building, technology transfer and access arrangements
      Chair: Pierre Fabre, CIRAD, France
      Presentation by Erika Kraemer-Mbula, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa, STIG expert
      Presentation by David O’Brien,  International Development Research Centre Globally Dispersed STI Capacity: Is it an issue for addressing global challenges?”
      Prepared comment  by Bente Lilja Bye
       
      4: Delivering benefits – putting STI into practice
      Chair: EgilKallerud, NIFU, Norway
      Presentation by Andreas Stamm, German Development Institute, STIG expert
      Presentation by Keith Smith, Imperial College, UK  Delivering benefits – putting STI into practice
    • Governance Dimension 5
      Intellectual Property Rights
      Mechanisms for knowledge and benefit sharing, impediments to knowledge and benefit sharing, open access arrangements.
      Separate workshop cancelled due to lack of resources.
      IPR is now covered through a separate paper written by the secretariat.
    • Additional workshops and meetings
      Steering Group Meeting in Korea 2010
      German workshop on global challenges 2011
      South African expert workshop 2011
      Norwegian workshop on global challenges, energy, water and food 2011
    • The Case Studies – Lessons Learned (examples of topics of discussion)
    • Case Studies
      CGIAR: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
      Gates: The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
      GEO: Group on Earth Observations
      IAI: Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research
      IAEA: The International Atomic Energy Agency
      IEA: The International Energy Agency – Implementing Agreements
      JPI: EU Joint Programming Initiatives – Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change (FAACCE)
      + 2 mini case studies
    • Diversity and flexibility
      Respect the diversity
      There is no universal solution to effective governance approaches for international co-operation in STI.
      The changing nature of global challenges requires nimble governance approaches that allow for shifts to address arising needs.
    • Broad based approach
      Go beyond “technology fix” paradigm.
      Understand the socio-cultural context.
      Technologies and solutions are more likely to be adapted if the political, economical and cultural conditions are addressed.
      Exploit the economies of scale (specialization and complementarities) and scope (savings, cross-fertilization)
    • Capacity Building
      This is also about building the competences and networks needed for future endeavors.
      Capacity building, especially in developing countries, has to be included.
      Some duplication is needed to develop alternative approaches.
      Link up with other initiatives to share knowledge and resources.
      Foster south-south co-operation, an important element of capacity building.
      Do not treat capacity building as a niche element of governance relating only to developing countries.
    • Agenda and Priority Setting
      A strong mandate helps support the success of international collaboration.
      Including a broad range of stakeholders and participants in agenda and priority setting is important.
      A combination of bottom up and top-down approaches to governance helps to ensure an intelligent agenda and priority setting process that reaps the benefit of both approaches.
      Agendas are often too broadly defined in order to cover the interests of all, which makes it hard to prioritize.
    • The silo problem
      Effectiveness and can be enhanced if the respective programs are aligned with national research priorities.
      But not all global challenges are found in national priorities:“National agencies tend to be organized around policy domains while global challenges are cross-cutting problems. Importance of institutional coordination within countries as well as between analogous institutions in other countries of the LAC region [Latin America and the Caribbean].”
      Flora Montealegre Painter, Inter-American Development Bank, Oslo Workshop
    • Funding and Spending
      We need to dampen the maximization of national benefits, while at the same time communicate the positive local effects of such collaboration.
      An imbalance between low core funding and short-term volatile project funding makes long term planning difficult.
      Need for a true common pot.
      Goal alignment, expert review, monitoring and evaluations are needed to ensure legitimate and efficient selection and to avoid problems of moral hazard.
    • Bridging Research into Practice
      This is just as much about building learning arenas as about a linear delivery of inventions.
      The innovation cycle has to be significantly shortened.
      Policies must address severe problems related to market failures – including the absence of markets. Market creation measures can be crucial:
      feed-in tariffs for renewable energies
      mandatory regulations for specific market segments
      voluntary standards and product labels
      targeted public procurement.
      Establish communication to and with
      the broader public
      industry
      policy makers
    • Intellectual Property
      The participation of private actors will depend on the capability to develop IPR frameworks which balance incentives for private involvement with public needs.
      The role of IPRs differs depending on the industry, technology and products.
      Need approaches that are adapted to the specific needs of the research project, and to different phases.
      Still, some IP collaboration schemes, such as patent pools, may work in all global challenge areas.
    • Need for visibility and mobilizationof public support
      The final session of the Oslo Workshop concluded that there is a need to make need for such STI collaboration visible on the international arena.
      A need to develop an understanding of urgency.
      A need to mobilize public support, involving both citizens, policy makers, researchers and innovators.
      Active use of international arenas beyond the OECD, like the UN and the G8
      Active use of social media.
    • Per M. KochNorwegian Ministry of Education and Research pmk@kd.dep.noThanks to: The STIG Steering Group and BureauYuko Harayama, Iain Gillespie, Ester Basri, and Jana Maria Mehrtens, OECDAndreas Stamm, The German Development Institute (DIE) and the STIG Expert Group