OECD STIG: Governance of International Science, Technology and Innovation for Global Challenges


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Presentation made for the Royal Society Oct 29 and Imperial College workshop Oct 30 2012.

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OECD STIG: Governance of International Science, Technology and Innovation for Global Challenges

  1. 1. OECD Steering Group for Governance ofInternational Co-operation on Science, Technology and Innovation for Global Challenges STIG Royal Society and Imperial College London, October 29 and 30 2012 Per M. Koch STIG Chair
  2. 2. The Policy Challenges • Systemic failure consisting of social, economic, cultural, biological, technological and/or environmental factors. • Impact-chains between the different global challenges e.g. climate, energy, water, food and health. • May be irreversible tipping points • Cannot be adequately addressed by single actors. • All are affectedStockphoto from Photos.com
  3. 3. The new global dimension adds complexity aswell as new possibilities• Until recently, global STI activities were mainly clustered in the “triad” (North America, Europe, Japan).• New countries are appearing on the global STI arena – Korea as example of successful technological catch up – Brazil (aeronautics, biotech), – China (solar and wind energy) – India (ICT, wind energy) – South Africa (coal liquefaction) –…
  4. 4. The role of science and innovation• STI play a crucial role in – Understanding impact chains underlying global challenges – Understanding interaction between various factors framing global challenges, including social and cultural factors. – Developing solutions
  5. 5. STI Challenges• Single countries are not willing to bear costs of action• No agreement or comprehensive mechanism for multilateral STI cooperation in place• No consolidated knowledge regarding the strengths and weaknesses of different institutional settings
  6. 6. Global research and innovation governance• There is no world government• But in many fields of human activities, global governance structures exist, e.g. : – Intergovernmental agreements and related organizations – International networks of public, semi- public and private institutions – Multi-stakeholder initiatives with strong influence of civil society – Private governance, e.g. standards imposed by lead firms in global value chains – Private and civil initiatives
  7. 7. Policy Challenges• Develop narratives that makes both policy makers and the general public understand the seriousness of the situation• Integrate STI in other policy areas• Requires a strategic mobilization of resources that goes far beyond traditional hands-off, bottom up, initiatives
  8. 8. STIG Deliveries
  9. 9. The analytical work is complete• OECD-report published in June 2012• General introduction and summary – Case Studies – Crosscutting chapter on governance
  10. 10. Five governance dimensions used inthe case studies• Priority setting• Funding and spending arrangements• Knowledge sharing and intellectual property• Putting STI into practice• Capacity building for research and innovation
  11. 11. Case Studies1. CGIAR: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research2. Gates: The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation3. GEO: Group on Earth Observations4. IAI: Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research5. IAEA: The International Atomic Energy Agency6. IEA: The International Energy Agency – Implementing Agreements7. JPI: EU Joint Programming Initiatives – Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change (FAACCE) + 2 mini case studies
  12. 12. The Oslo Workshop on International Co-operation in Science, Technology and Innovationto Address Global Challenges , May 18-20 2011 • Participants from all continents: policy makers, scientists and experts, NGOs, businesses • Arranged by – The Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research – The German Ministry of Education and Research – The Research Council of Norway • Presentations and background paper found at http://www.pandia.com/stig/
  13. 13. Additional workshops and meetings • Steering Group Meeting in Korea 2010 • German workshop on global challenges 2011 • South African expert workshop 2011 • Two Norwegian workshops on global challenges, energy, water and food 2011 • Royal Society and Imperial College workshops 2012
  14. 14. Other activities• An OECD brochure that present highlights from the report• A presentation of STIG at a dedicated workshop at ICSU Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development prior to RIO +20• A thematic issue of the Journal of the Knowledge Economy covering governance in 2013• Other workshops and meetings in member countries 2012-13
  15. 15. Some recommendations
  16. 16. Broad basedapproach• Go beyond “technology fix” paradigm• Understand the socio-cultural context• Technologies and solutions are more likely to be adapted if the political, economical and cultural conditions are addressed
  17. 17. Economies of scale• Exploit the economies of scale (specialization and complementarities) and scope (savings, cross-fertilization)• There should be clear benefits from co- operation that exceed the benefits of acting alone
  18. 18. Diversity and flexibility• Respect the diversity• There is no universal solution to effective governance approaches for international co- operation in STI• Allow for shifts to address arising needs
  19. 19. Policy lessons• Give compelling reasons to mobilize and legitimize• A strong mandate supports commitment and ownership• If there is no high level political will, demand-driven approaches seem most promising
  20. 20. Communication • Implement strategies and tools for communication with stakeholders and the public
  21. 21. Governance• Need for high-level coordination• Link local, regional, national and international policy levels• Link priority setting, budgetary and implementation issues from day one• Develop flexible, informal and responsive structural arrangements• Ensure a combination of bottom- up and top-down approaches to secure intelligent agenda- and priority-setting and avoid bias in selection process
  22. 22. National agendas• Effectiveness is enhanced if aligned with national research priorities• Some challenges run counter to national agendas• Convince existing funders to orient calls to the goals of international institutions
  23. 23. Legitimize national funding• International co-operation leads to higher citation impact and resulting visibility• International co-operation give funding, competence- building, networks and market access in return
  24. 24. Funding and management • Funding and spending mechanisms should contain contingency provisions (cp. delayed payments etc) • Harmonize funding of special projects with core institutional funding • Multi-annual funding is preferable. Alternatively: Create funds within agencies
  25. 25. Capacity Building • Build the competences and networks needed for future endeavors • Include capacity building in developing as well as developed countries • Some duplication is needed to develop alternative approaches • Foster south-south co- operation
  26. 26. Knowledge sharing and IPR• No one size fits all solution• Inventors and innovators may realize gains while still sharing results• Prioritize outreach from the research community to stakeholders• Acknowledge the needs of the two tribes of science and policy• Adapt knowledge sharing and IP provisions to each phase of the collaboration life cycle• Involve industry
  27. 27. More work needed• Scarcity of conceptual and empirical research on the governance of international cooperation in STI• Lack of indicators• Lack of instruments to strengthen the governance framework
  28. 28. Thanks to: The STIG Steering Group Robin Batterham, Klaus Matthes, Young-sik Choi of the STIG BureauKen Guy, Yuko Harayama, Iain Gillespie, Ester Basri, Jana Maria Mehrtens, and René Carraz of the OECD Secretariat The STIG Expert Group led by Chief Scientist Andreas Stamm, The German Development Institute (DIE) Keith Smith, Imperial College and Laura Dawson, Royal Society All workshop and seminar participants Per M. Koch Innovation Norway per.koch@innovationnorway.no