A media text itself has no-meaning until it is decoded by an audience.
The Hypodermic Needle Model
First to attempt to explain how mass media was perceived by audiences.
Suggested that audiences passively receive the information without processing or challenging the data.
Dates back to the 1920’s, started to use propaganda.
The experience, intelligence and opinion of the subject are not relevant to the reception of the text. Can be manipulated by the media-makers to think or do differently. Still quoted today e.g. young children watching rap videos etc