Audience Notes


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Audience Notes

  1. 1. Audience <ul><li>James Perkins </li></ul>
  2. 2. A media text itself has no-meaning until it is decoded by an audience.
  3. 3. The Hypodermic Needle Model <ul><li>First to attempt to explain how mass media was perceived by audiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested that audiences passively receive the information without processing or challenging the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Dates back to the 1920’s, started to use propaganda. </li></ul><ul><li>The experience, intelligence and opinion of the subject are not relevant to the reception of the text. Can be manipulated by the media-makers to think or do differently. Still quoted today e.g. young children watching rap videos etc </li></ul>
  4. 4. Two-Step Flow <ul><li>Hypodermic Model proved too clumsy to precisely explain the relationship between the text and the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media was now an essential part of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysed the decision-making processes of the 1940 presidential election. </li></ul><ul><li>Information does not flow directly into the individual’s mind but filtered through “opinion leaders” who then communicate it to less active associates who are influenced by them. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Two-Step Flow <ul><li>The audience meditate the information and apply the ideas and thoughts from opinion leaders, not being influenced by a direct process. </li></ul><ul><li>But by a ‘Two-Step Flow’ </li></ul><ul><li>This made the media less powerful and they concluded social factors were also important in the way the audience received media-texts. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Uses & Gratifications <ul><li>During the 1960’s, the first generation to grow up with television became adults. </li></ul><ul><li>It became apparent that they made choices when interpreting media texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Audiences were made up of individuals who actively consumed texts for different reasons in different ways. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Uses & Gratifications <ul><li>In 1958 Lasswell suggested that media texts had the following functions for individuals and society; </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Transmission </li></ul>
  8. 8. Uses & Gratifications <ul><li>However, a theory published in 1974, gave other purposes for why they might choose and use a text </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion - escape from everyday problems and routine </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Relationships - using the media for emotional and other interaction e.g. soap operas for family life. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Identity - finding yourself related in texts, learning behaviour and values from texts </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance - information which could be useful for living e.g. weather reports, financial news, holiday bargains </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reception Theory <ul><li>This theory extended on the concept of active audiences and how they interpreted the text but also how their individual characteristics such as age and gender affected their reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the encoding/decoding model. Encoded by the producer and decoded by the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>There may be major differences between the same reading because of how it is decoded. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reception Theory <ul><li>However, using recognised codes and conventions and drawing upon audience expectations such as genre and use of stars, the producers can position the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>They can then create a certain amount of agreement on what the code means. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called ‘Preferred Reading’ </li></ul>