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Water security and vulnerability_Vishal Narain

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Water security and vulnerability: Perspectives from a periurban context_Vishal Narain …

Water security and vulnerability: Perspectives from a periurban context_Vishal Narain

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  • 1. Water security and vulnerability Perspectives from a periurban context Vishal Narain
  • 2. Overview of talk
    • What is periurban ?
    • Why are periurban issues going to be important ?
    • What are the dimensions of periurban water (in) security ?
    • Who are the most vulnerable ?
    • What should we do about this ?
  • 3. Defining periurban
    • No consensus definition
    • As a place
      • Villages around cities
    • As a process
      • Process of transition from rural to urban
    • As a concept
      • An analytic construct to study rural-urban relationships and flows of goods and services
  • 4. Features of periurban
    • Mixed and changing land use
      • Agricultural lands, mining, farmhouses of urban elite, conservation and recreation centers
    • Natural resources under stress: land acquisition for urban expansion, receive urban wastes
    • Social heterogeneity and flux
    • Erosion of social capital
      • Migration, acquisition of CPRs
  • 5. Why do periurban areas need attention?
    • Urbanization a fact of life in the developing world
    • Periurban areas will grow in importance; will shape the nature of urbanization processes
    • Receive scant attention because of fragmentation between rural development and urban planning
  • 6. Dimensions of water insecurity
    • Water insecurity shaped by insecurity of land tenure
      • Water sources go as lands are acquired for urban expansion
      • Tubewells not only irrigate, but also quench local thirst
    • Residents lose both land and water to quench urban thirst
      • Lands acquired for water treatment plants
      • Lands acquired for canals to carry water to city
    • Building of expressways diverts routes to water sources
  • 7. Dimensions of periurban water insecurity
    • Wastewater use
      • Urban wastewater widely used to irrigate
      • Cheap source of water and nutrients
      • Often the only source when tubewells are gone
      • Long-term health effects for consumers and producers
  • 8. Who are the most vulnerable in periurban contexts
    • Water security is the issue, and not just water scarcity
    • The most vulnerable
      • Those who have most of their land at one place
      • Those whose lands are at a low lying area
      • Those whose households are at an elevation
  • 9. Who are the most vulnerable ?
      • Those whose lands are strategically located e.g. along main roads
      • Those who have no alternative assets in the city
      • Those whose relatives and friends have sold off their lands
      • Tenants vs landlords
        • “ Passing on” vulnerabilities
        • Kann is a common form of land tenure
        • Growing in practice vis a vis sajedaari (sharecropping)
  • 10. Implications for discourses on climate change
    • Periurban residents face a ‘double exposure’
      • Urbanization and climate change
      • Periurban water security can be understood at the intersection of climate change and urbanization
    • Vulnerability is about the intersection of multiple stressors
    • Social capital considered important in facilitating adaptation to the impacts of climate change but is constantly eroded in periurban settings
  • 11. So what do we do ?
    • Base urban expansion on studies of urban carrying capacity to avoid spillover effects into the rural hinterland
    • Recognize the futile distinction between ‘rural’ and ‘urban’ water supply
      • Develop a better understanding of the flows of water between urban and rural areas
    • Create greater awareness of periurban issues
    • Support action research to foster greater periurban water security