Implications of Evolving Water Markets on Peri-Urban Water Security in Kathmandu Ashutosh Shukla Nepal Engineering College...
Kathmandu Valley <ul><li>Most  urbanised  area in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Urban population growth rate: 5.22% </li><...
Alternatives <ul><li>Market Solution to Water Scarcity in Kathmandu </li></ul>Surface water Groundwater Water extractors W...
Market Alternatives <ul><li>Four forms based on investment in technology and services, volume of water extraction and cons...
Estimated Volume of Water Transferred by Tankers Variable Unit Peak season (dry season) Off-peak season (rest of the year)...
Significance of Water Tanker Operation <ul><li>Growth in Tanker Supplies  </li></ul>1.2 % 3.4 % 8 % Water supply by privat...
Comparison of price charged by vendors and utility KUKL’ s Water Tariff Piped Supply Rs. 3.9/m 3 US$ 0.048/m 3 Tanker Supp...
Water Extraction from Peri-Urban Areas Locations  Number of Water extraction points Water production in dry (peak) season ...
Distribution Network <ul><li>Traditional urban core and newly developed urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Areas with high of h...
Perspectives  of Government, Water Service Providing Agency and Water Vendors Evolution of Groundwater Market in Kathmandu...
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Implications of evolving water markets on peri urban water security in Kathmandu_Prof Shukla

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Implications of Evolving Water Markets on Peri-Urban Water Security in Kathmandu by Prof Ashutosh Shukla, Nepal Engineering College - presented at IDRC, New Delhi

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Implications of evolving water markets on peri urban water security in Kathmandu_Prof Shukla

  1. 1. Implications of Evolving Water Markets on Peri-Urban Water Security in Kathmandu Ashutosh Shukla Nepal Engineering College January 10, 2012
  2. 2. Kathmandu Valley <ul><li>Most urbanised area in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Urban population growth rate: 5.22% </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage basin of Bagmati River </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rainfall – 1600mm, 80% in Monsoon Season </li></ul><ul><li>Water demand: 320 MLD (KUKL, 2010), Steadily increasing since 1980. </li></ul><ul><li>Water Utility: Based on Integrated use of surface and groundwater by KUKL, the water service providing agency in Kathmandu </li></ul><ul><li>KUKL’s Capacity: </li></ul><ul><li>Wet Season- 105 MLD </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Season- 75 MLD </li></ul><ul><li>Losses- 40% in storage and distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Population served by utility: 80% (3.2 million) (KUKL, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Water Supply has been erratic and irregular </li></ul>
  3. 3. Alternatives <ul><li>Market Solution to Water Scarcity in Kathmandu </li></ul>Surface water Groundwater Water extractors Water tanker operators Intermediaries Consumers
  4. 4. Market Alternatives <ul><li>Four forms based on investment in technology and services, volume of water extraction and consumers served: </li></ul><ul><li>Small Scale Water Vending </li></ul><ul><li>Community Based Supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Water Extraction and Vending (Water Tankers) </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Scale (Water Bottling Industries) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Estimated Volume of Water Transferred by Tankers Variable Unit Peak season (dry season) Off-peak season (rest of the year) Number of the tankers operating in the valley Number 750 750 Average carrying capacity of the tanker truck Litres/ tanker 8220 8610 Number of trips per tanker per day Per tanker per day 4.15 2.38 Estimated amount of water supply Million litres per day (MLD) 25.58 15.36 Estimated amount of water supply Million cubic metres (MCM) 3.837* 3.226 Estimated annual water supply MCM 7.063
  6. 6. Significance of Water Tanker Operation <ul><li>Growth in Tanker Supplies </li></ul>1.2 % 3.4 % 8 % Water supply by private tankers and utility meets 26.2% of water demand of the valley
  7. 7. Comparison of price charged by vendors and utility KUKL’ s Water Tariff Piped Supply Rs. 3.9/m 3 US$ 0.048/m 3 Tanker Supply: Rs. 190/m 3 US$ 2.37 /m 3
  8. 8. Water Extraction from Peri-Urban Areas Locations Number of Water extraction points Water production in dry (peak) season (MLD) Water production in off-peak season (MLD) Chobar (nearby old cement factory + near Taudaha-Chanlakhel) 4 1.48 0.92 Matatirtha VDC 12 1.50 0.82 Jorpati VDC/ Mulpani VDC (Thali) 10 4.70 3.00 Balaju (nearby Ganga Cinema Hall) 2 0.93 0.60 Manamaiju VDC 4 1.39 0.10 Sitapaila/ Thulo Bharyang/ Swayambhu 4 0.28 0.12 Gongabu Buspark 1 0.50 0.05 Gothatar (Kadha Ghari) 3 1.80 0.75 Total 40 12.58 6.36
  9. 9. Distribution Network <ul><li>Traditional urban core and newly developed urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Areas with high of hotels/ restaurants </li></ul>
  10. 10. Perspectives of Government, Water Service Providing Agency and Water Vendors Evolution of Groundwater Market in Kathmandu Valley: Analysis of Actors, Market and Regulations <ul><li>Regulate groundwater market </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing ofvendors </li></ul><ul><li>Limit groundwater withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage water market </li></ul><ul><li>Complementing water utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Claim the status of water service provider </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation support market to function </li></ul><ul><li>No additional tax to discourage the market </li></ul><ul><li>Losing trust over water utility </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to pay </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to pay more provided water supply is reliable </li></ul>State and Water providing agencies Consumers Water vendors

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