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Hyderabad Research Site_ Ms. Sreoshi Singh

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  • 1. Peri- Water Security in Peri-Urban South Asia: Adapting to Climate Change and Urbanisation Case of Hyderabad in India Sreoshi Singh Inception Workshop August 16 – 20, 201o Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 2. Some Administrative Understanding Ranga Reddy district came into existence in the late 1970s, with Hyderabad being its headquarter. In 1980s, the district was divided into 4 revenue mandals, which was later disintegrated further into 37 mandals. Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (HMC) has been expanded to include the 12 surrounding municipalities and has formed the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC). Beyond the GHMC boundaries, there is another development zone, known as the Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA). HMDA was originally divided into 3 development zones namely CDA, HADA, BUPA. They were merged to form the HMDA in 2009. For this study : Mandals adjacent to Hyderabad UA.
  • 3. Background Hyderabad has largely remained as a historical city from the 15th century till 1947, when it was declared as part of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad along with many other metropolitan cities became a node in the global web of economic flows and linkages , when the government introduced the Structural Adjustment Programme in mid 1990s. The population of HUA increased from 4.3 million in 1991 to 5.7 million in 2001.
  • 4. Some of the manifestations Capital growth in high-technology manufacturing. Development of financial and business related activities, etc. Inauguration of the HITEC City project by the Government in 1996. Towards the end of 1998, with 64 hectares of land (by the AP Government), 90% of the capital (Larsen & Toubro limited) and a joint venture with AP Industrial Infrastructure Corporation, the HITEC City was set up in the peri urban zone. Rapid growth of real estate to provide for the high demand for homes.
  • 5. Present urban landscape is characterised by: New residential colonies are sprawling out in the direction of the newly developing industrial, educational and research centers, in high value lands along the lines of highest accessibility. Some of the areas which have experienced massive real estate development are Madhapur (an erstwhile peri urban village), is now merged with the city in continuation with Jubilee Hills, a posh residential area of Hyderabad. Shamshabad, also a peri urban village has now seen massive growth of newly developing residential colonies and financial and business enclaves.
  • 6. Impact Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply Sewerage Board (HMWSSB) constituted in 1989 has resolved to take over the maintenance of water supply system of 9 municipalities adjoining Hyderabad. The current sources of water for the city of Hyderabad are: Osman Sagar on Musi river Himayat Sagar on Esi river Manjira Barrage on Manjira river Singur Dam on Manjira river Krishna Drinking Water Scheme Phase I & II
  • 7. To cope with the increasing demand in Greater Hyderabad, the Government in 2009 has undertaken a project worth Rs 809.62 crore for drawing water from the Godavari. The work entails transmission of 735 million litres per day of treated Godavari water from the reservoir. A very important point to note is that Krishna as well as Godavari are both non- perennial rivers which run dry every year during summers resulting in severe crisis for drinking water in the city and its environs.
  • 8. Impact on peri-urban areas: Some Glaring Facts According to a report by Central Groundwater Board, Southern region (2007), based on the stage of groundwater development: 15 mandals within the Ranga Reddy district are categorized as safe (less 70% of available resource) 8 semi critical (70-90%) to critical (90-100%) and 12 over exploited (more than 100%). The maximum stage development of groundwater is 187% in Shameerpet mandal, a peri urban area of Hyderabad. Shamshabad, another peri urban area also falls within this category.
  • 9. 70 per cent of the Himayatsagar (one of the largest manmade lakes) has shrunk, because: • Its catchment lies in the area where recent developments have started in full swing. • Drying up of smaller lakes in the surrounding areas accentuated by low rainfall and low groundwater recharge along with construction of the International Airport are some of the reasons behind this (Ramachandraiah and Prasad, 2004). Increase in vehicular pollution and other anthropogenic activites like biomass burning has impact on the climate of peri-urban areas through changes in spatio-temporal patterns of precipitation (Shepherd et al., 2002, Shepherd and Burian, 2003, Niyogi et al., 2006, Mote etal., 2007, Lei et al. 2008, Guttikunda and Aggarwal, 2009).
  • 10. With privatization of water, tariffs are same for commercial and domestic use resulting in possible conflict. In terms of quality, a total of 72 villages falling within 9 mandals have recorded high fluoride values, due to growth of industries in the vicinity. Basis for selection of villages: Selecting a mix of OE, safe zones : Shamshabad, Shamirpet, Qutubullahpur and Rajendra Nagar comprising a total of 106 villages (2001 census). Safe zones because, these are areas which are undergoing tremendous real estate growth and is hardly expected to remain safe in the years to come posing threat.
  • 11. Percentage growth in total population (1991- 2001) Shamshabad Rajendranagar Percentage growth in total population Qutubullahpur (1991-2001) Shamirpet 0 200 400 600 800 1000
  • 12. Urban and Rural population in the 4 mandals (1991) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% % urban population 30% % Rural population 20% 10% 0%
  • 13. Urban and Rural Population in the 4 mandals (2001) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% % urban population 40% % Rural population 30% 20% 10% 0%
  • 14. Observations from the field visit undertaken last month Shamirpet Mandal (Aliabad village) : Locational and Administrative details • Nearest locality : Shamirpet mandal HQ/Alwal within GHMC boundaries (23 kms)- accessibility though public transport • Governed by the gram panchayat • 30 kms from Secunderabad which is the nearest city. • Falls under the jurisdiction of the HMDA • Census data shows that forest land has disapperared from 1991-2001 and the culturable wasteland in the village has increase considerably, and the amount of unirrigated land has also gone up, leaving very little land left for agriculture. Observations and Discussions • Borewater is the only source for this village. • The variability of rainfall during monsoons leads to increased stress on groundwater levels, for which farmers have installed bores upto 100 to 150 feet deep, in some cases even more, in order to provide water to the paddy fields. • In some cases, only during good monsoon periods (which is a rare phenomena), water requirements are met by transferring from the large water bodies (Shamirpet lake) located in the vicinity through artificial channels.
  • 15. • 7 hours of water supply from a tank which was built in 1988, to which water is pumped up and supplied through pipes to the entire village for various uses. Earlier supply was through tubewells. • 7 to 8 hours of electricity permits running of the pump for the entire period of time. • For agricultural purposes, separate bores have been installed, some of them being 180 feet deep. Electricity being free of cost, farmers draw water for the entire 7 hours during which electricity is available to grow their paddy crops, which is extremely water consuming. • Occupations of people are restricted to agriculture. Some work for 4 months in the agricultural field, while the remaining months, land is left fallow and they work in the manufacturing/tertiary/informal sector • No visible knowledge of climate change impact. Local people are unaware of the disastrous impact of climate change resulting in rainfall variability and possibilities of further drop in the groundwater levels in future. • Some big residential enclaves are coming up in the vicinity. There are also some medium and small scale factories in the vicinity.
  • 16. Shamshabad Mandal (Peddashahpur & Pedda Golkonda): Locational and Administrative details Nearest locality is Shamshabad HQ (7 kms) Peddashahpur is adjacent to the NH7 (Bangalore) Pedda Golkonda is located behind the International Airport, off the Srisailam Highway. Both are connected by buses to Shamshabad and Rajendranagar (Hyderabad) (15 kms). Governed by the gram panchayat 25-26 kms from Hyderabad Also part of the HMDA, which they are not aware of, not even panchayat members. Census data – land under irrigation has reduced. Area not available for cultivation has gone down. This could be due to the infrastructural growth, engaging lands for growing less water consuming crops (grapes, flowers).
  • 17. Observations and Discussions Dependent on groundwater completely. 2 bores have been installed within 1-2 kms from the village. 50% of the population works as cultivators, followed by manufacturing and tertiary sectors, which provide menial jobs. Earlier there was a bore right inside the village, but when the water quality declined, another bore was installed 2 kms away. Supply of water for 6-8 hours in the day. Storage tanks are installed in various parts of the village for convenience. Most of the taps were leaking. Lands have been sold at very high rates, when construction of the airport started. Some of the owners have set up business in Shamshabad or have bought land elsewhere and built houses.
  • 18. No technical interventions to identify newer sources or conserving existing sources of surface water which might be threatened due to unplanned and unsustainable development. In Golkonda Kalan/Pedda Golkonda, 1000 acres of land has gone into the construction of the Ring Road and International Airport. Several lakes in the vicinity have dried up in the last 10 years. 7 bores have been installed in various parts of the village with a maximum depth of 350 feet. During summers, water supply is available every alternate day for 6-7 hours, when electricity is available. Manintenance of pumps is a responsibility that lies with the panchayat.
  • 19. In Golkonda Kalan, low market access often leave villagers dependent on local moneylenders to invest in their lands and in return have to compulsorily sell half of the entire produce at a much lower rate than the market rate and higher interests for the investment made. With increasing urbanisation and water stress, profitability and sustainability issues for families is a serious concern. Four to five villages along with Golkonda Kalan are affected by polluted waters of a pharmaceutical factory in the vicinity, which releases effluents into the groundwater, unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Conflict between domestic, agriculture and industry.
  • 20. Methodology This will include ethnographic research, semi-structured/structured interviews, focus group discussions and Participatory Rural Assessment methodologies. Through secondary data we will capture: • Changing landuse pattern • Changing boundaries of the city • Changing patterns of rainfall and temperature • New infrastructural projects being undertaken/proposed to be taken up by HMDA as well as private land developers • Scope and area of HMSSWB and other private suppliers of water Primary Survey of Households Sample: villages from each selected mandal representing each of the conflicting sectors. These villages have not been selected as yet. It will be decided after looking at the secondary information as well as visits to villages before finalising.
  • 21. Thankyou

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