Water Security in Peri-Urban South Asia:
Adapting to Climate Change and Urbanisation
Case of Hyderabad in India
August 16 – 20, 201o
Some Administrative Understanding
Ranga Reddy district came into existence in the late 1970s, with
Hyderabad being its headquarter.
In 1980s, the district was divided into 4 revenue mandals, which was
later disintegrated further into 37 mandals.
Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (HMC) has been expanded to
include the 12 surrounding municipalities and has formed the
Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC).
Beyond the GHMC boundaries, there is another development zone,
known as the Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority
HMDA was originally divided into 3 development zones namely CDA,
HADA, BUPA. They were merged to form the HMDA in 2009.
For this study : Mandals adjacent to Hyderabad UA.
Hyderabad has largely remained as a historical city from the
15th century till 1947, when it was declared as part of the
state of Andhra Pradesh.
Hyderabad along with many other metropolitan cities
became a node in the global web of economic flows and
linkages , when the government introduced the Structural
Adjustment Programme in mid 1990s.
The population of HUA increased from 4.3 million in 1991
to 5.7 million in 2001.
Some of the manifestations
Capital growth in high-technology manufacturing.
Development of financial and business related
Inauguration of the HITEC City project by the
Government in 1996.
Towards the end of 1998, with 64 hectares of land (by
the AP Government), 90% of the capital (Larsen &
Toubro limited) and a joint venture with AP Industrial
Infrastructure Corporation, the HITEC City was set up
in the peri urban zone.
Rapid growth of real estate to provide for the high
demand for homes.
Present urban landscape is characterised by:
New residential colonies are sprawling out in the direction
of the newly developing industrial, educational and
research centers, in high value lands along the lines of
Some of the areas which have experienced massive real
estate development are Madhapur (an erstwhile peri urban
village), is now merged with the city in continuation with
Jubilee Hills, a posh residential area of Hyderabad.
Shamshabad, also a peri urban village has now seen
massive growth of newly developing residential colonies
and financial and business enclaves.
Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply Sewerage Board
(HMWSSB) constituted in 1989 has resolved to take over
the maintenance of water supply system of 9 municipalities
adjoining Hyderabad. The current sources of water for the
city of Hyderabad are:
Osman Sagar on Musi river
Himayat Sagar on Esi river
Manjira Barrage on Manjira river
Singur Dam on Manjira river
Krishna Drinking Water Scheme Phase I & II
To cope with the increasing demand in Greater
Hyderabad, the Government in 2009 has
undertaken a project worth Rs 809.62 crore for
drawing water from the Godavari.
The work entails transmission of 735 million
litres per day of treated Godavari water from the
A very important point to note is that Krishna as
well as Godavari are both non- perennial rivers
which run dry every year during summers
resulting in severe crisis for drinking water in
the city and its environs.
Impact on peri-urban areas:
Some Glaring Facts
According to a report by Central Groundwater Board,
Southern region (2007), based on the stage of
15 mandals within the Ranga Reddy district are
categorized as safe (less 70% of available resource)
8 semi critical (70-90%) to critical (90-100%) and
12 over exploited (more than 100%).
The maximum stage development of groundwater is
187% in Shameerpet mandal, a peri urban area of
Hyderabad. Shamshabad, another peri urban area also
falls within this category.
70 per cent of the Himayatsagar (one of the largest
manmade lakes) has shrunk, because:
• Its catchment lies in the area where recent
developments have started in full swing.
• Drying up of smaller lakes in the surrounding areas
accentuated by low rainfall and low groundwater
recharge along with construction of the International
Airport are some of the reasons behind this
(Ramachandraiah and Prasad, 2004).
Increase in vehicular pollution and other anthropogenic
activites like biomass burning has impact on the climate
of peri-urban areas through changes in spatio-temporal
patterns of precipitation (Shepherd et al., 2002, Shepherd
and Burian, 2003, Niyogi et al., 2006, Mote etal., 2007, Lei
et al. 2008, Guttikunda and Aggarwal, 2009).
With privatization of water, tariffs are same for commercial and
domestic use resulting in possible conflict.
In terms of quality, a total of 72 villages falling within 9 mandals
have recorded high fluoride values, due to growth of industries
in the vicinity.
Basis for selection of villages:
Selecting a mix of OE, safe zones : Shamshabad,
Shamirpet, Qutubullahpur and Rajendra Nagar
comprising a total of 106 villages (2001 census).
Safe zones because, these are areas which are undergoing
tremendous real estate growth and is hardly expected to
remain safe in the years to come posing threat.
Percentage growth in total population (1991-
Percentage growth in
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Urban and Rural population in the 4 mandals (1991)
40% % urban population
30% % Rural population
Urban and Rural Population in the 4 mandals (2001)
50% % urban population
40% % Rural population
Observations from the field visit undertaken last
Shamirpet Mandal (Aliabad village) : Locational and
• Nearest locality : Shamirpet mandal HQ/Alwal within GHMC boundaries (23
kms)- accessibility though public transport
• Governed by the gram panchayat
• 30 kms from Secunderabad which is the nearest city.
• Falls under the jurisdiction of the HMDA
• Census data shows that forest land has disapperared from 1991-2001 and the
culturable wasteland in the village has increase considerably, and the amount
of unirrigated land has also gone up, leaving very little land left for
Observations and Discussions
• Borewater is the only source for this village.
• The variability of rainfall during monsoons leads to increased stress on
groundwater levels, for which farmers have installed bores upto 100 to 150
feet deep, in some cases even more, in order to provide water to the paddy
• In some cases, only during good monsoon periods (which is a rare
phenomena), water requirements are met by transferring from the large
water bodies (Shamirpet lake) located in the vicinity through artificial
• 7 hours of water supply from a tank which was built in 1988, to which
water is pumped up and supplied through pipes to the entire village for
various uses. Earlier supply was through tubewells.
• 7 to 8 hours of electricity permits running of the pump for the entire
period of time.
• For agricultural purposes, separate bores have been installed, some of
them being 180 feet deep. Electricity being free of cost, farmers draw
water for the entire 7 hours during which electricity is available to grow
their paddy crops, which is extremely water consuming.
• Occupations of people are restricted to agriculture. Some work for 4
months in the agricultural field, while the remaining months, land is left
fallow and they work in the manufacturing/tertiary/informal sector
• No visible knowledge of climate change impact. Local people are
unaware of the disastrous impact of climate change resulting in rainfall
variability and possibilities of further drop in the groundwater levels in
• Some big residential enclaves are coming up in the vicinity. There are also
some medium and small scale factories in the vicinity.
Shamshabad Mandal (Peddashahpur & Pedda
Golkonda): Locational and Administrative details
Nearest locality is Shamshabad HQ (7 kms)
Peddashahpur is adjacent to the NH7 (Bangalore)
Pedda Golkonda is located behind the International Airport, off
the Srisailam Highway. Both are connected by buses to
Shamshabad and Rajendranagar (Hyderabad) (15 kms).
Governed by the gram panchayat
25-26 kms from Hyderabad
Also part of the HMDA, which they are not aware of, not even
Census data – land under irrigation has reduced. Area not
available for cultivation has gone down. This could be due to the
infrastructural growth, engaging lands for growing less water
consuming crops (grapes, flowers).
Observations and Discussions
Dependent on groundwater completely. 2 bores have been
installed within 1-2 kms from the village. 50% of the
population works as cultivators, followed by manufacturing
and tertiary sectors, which provide menial jobs.
Earlier there was a bore right inside the village, but when
the water quality declined, another bore was installed 2 kms
Supply of water for 6-8 hours in the day. Storage tanks are
installed in various parts of the village for convenience.
Most of the taps were leaking.
Lands have been sold at very high rates, when construction
of the airport started. Some of the owners have set up
business in Shamshabad or have bought land elsewhere and
No technical interventions to identify newer
sources or conserving existing sources of surface
water which might be threatened due to
unplanned and unsustainable development.
In Golkonda Kalan/Pedda Golkonda, 1000 acres of
land has gone into the construction of the Ring
Road and International Airport.
Several lakes in the vicinity have dried up in the
last 10 years.
7 bores have been installed in various parts of the
village with a maximum depth of 350 feet.
During summers, water supply is available every
alternate day for 6-7 hours, when electricity is
available. Manintenance of pumps is a
responsibility that lies with the panchayat.
In Golkonda Kalan, low market access often leave villagers
dependent on local moneylenders to invest in their lands
and in return have to compulsorily sell half of the entire
produce at a much lower rate than the market rate and
higher interests for the investment made. With increasing
urbanisation and water stress, profitability and
sustainability issues for families is a serious concern.
Four to five villages along with Golkonda Kalan are affected
by polluted waters of a pharmaceutical factory in the
vicinity, which releases effluents into the groundwater,
unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Conflict between
domestic, agriculture and industry.
This will include ethnographic research, semi-structured/structured
interviews, focus group discussions and Participatory Rural Assessment
Through secondary data we will capture:
• Changing landuse pattern
• Changing boundaries of the city
• Changing patterns of rainfall and temperature
• New infrastructural projects being undertaken/proposed to be
taken up by HMDA as well as private land developers
• Scope and area of HMSSWB and other private suppliers of water
Primary Survey of Households
Sample: villages from each selected mandal representing each of
the conflicting sectors. These villages have not been selected as yet.
It will be decided after looking at the secondary information as well
as visits to villages before finalising.