Perspective and Regulatory Framework on peri urban Issues_Dr. Mahendra Subba
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Perspective and Regulatory Framework on peri urban Issues_Dr. Mahendra Subba

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Urban Environmental Planning and Infrastructure Development: Perspectives and Regulatory Frameworks of Government of Nepal- Dr. Mahendra Subba, DDG, Department of Urban Development, Ministry of ...

Urban Environmental Planning and Infrastructure Development: Perspectives and Regulatory Frameworks of Government of Nepal- Dr. Mahendra Subba, DDG, Department of Urban Development, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, Government of Nepal

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Perspective and Regulatory Framework on peri urban Issues_Dr. Mahendra Subba Perspective and Regulatory Framework on peri urban Issues_Dr. Mahendra Subba Presentation Transcript

  • Perspective and Regulatory Framework on Peri-Urban Issues and Water Security Mahendra Subba Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC)
  • Organization of the presentation Context Urbanization trend Issues Responses Gaps A way forward
  • 23.7% 19.7% 29.5% 12.7% Kathmandu Valley 14.4%
  • Urbanization level 40 35 Total Population in million 30 25 Total 20 15 Urban 10 28% Urban 5 14% 0 2001 2021
  • Distribution of urban population Far West East Mid West Hill-mountain 9% Tarai 22 % 8% 18 % 39 % West 14 % Kathmandu Inner Tarai Central Valley 12 % 47 % 31 % Ecological Region-wise Development Region-wise
  • 17,09,377 Urban Growth Scenario based on municipal population projection until 2021 Projected Population until 2021 Population in 2001 Existing Road Under Construction Road Proposed Road 6,71,846 Kathmandu 4,20,307 Metropolis Pokhara 2,99,024 2,76,328 1,53,280 2,18,704 1,56,412 83,339 1,12,484 1,66,674 57,535 67,447 75,384 Biratnagar Dhangadhi Butwal Birgunj Nepalganj
  • Critical Issues
  • Haphazard urbanization: Urban form of the KTM Valley 1994-2000
  • Singhadurbar 1967-2000: Encroached river system
  • Ecological impact on river system and water quality
  • Southern fringe of Patan 1967-2000: Urban sprawl and depleting agricultural land Decline from 64% to 42% of the total area (66,655 hectares) during 1984-2000
  • Proliferation of brick industries: one of the factors behind agricultural land conversion
  • Land (1991) Land process hastens fragmentation in VDCs of Lalitpur fragmentation transformation N u m b e r o f la n d p a rc e ls fra g m e n te d 0 40 80 120 160 0 -8 0 8 0 -1 2 7 1 2 7 -2 5 4 2 5 4 -5 0 8 Before fragmentation 5 0 8 -1 0 1 6 1 0 1 6 -1 5 2 4 1 5 2 4 -2 0 3 2 2 0 3 2 -2 5 4 0 2 5 4 0 -5 0 8 0 Area of land parcels in sqm 5 0 8 0 -7 6 2 0 7 6 2 0 -1 0 1 6 0 1 0 1 6 0 -1 2 7 0 0 12700- After fragmentation
  • Backlog of services: Urban households without basic facilities Services % households without access Piped drinking 46.3 % water Sanitary system 45.6 % Garbage disposal 55.0 % Electricity 12.6 % Telephone 68.1 % Source: CBS 2004, Nepal Living Standard Survey
  • Urban households by source of drinking water (2001) 70 60 % of households 50 40 30 20 10 0 Piped water Well Tube well Spout water Rivers/stream Others Source of drinking water
  • Pipe-water facility at KMC
  • Planning permit issued by KVTPIC: Organized housing emerging user of groundwater 25 20 15 Apartment housing Number Land development 10 Group housing 5 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
  • Responses: Policy and Plan National Urban Policy, 2007 Long-term Development Concept of the Kathmandu Valley: Urban Rural Delineation Line/Land Classification
  • Urban Drinking Water and Sanitary Policy, 2009 • Preservation of water source and catchment areas • Promotion of rain water harvesting
  • Periodic plan/municipal plan • Internalization of national policies in municipal plan and actions through Environmental Management Plan
  • National Adaptation Program of Action on CC (NAPA) (Draft) • Conservation of water bodies/source • Rain water harvesting and recharge • Conservation of potential recharge areas • Treatment and reclamation of waste water
  • Groundwater management and Regulation Policy (Draft) • Control the life and quality of groundwater
  • Investment/Projects • Urban Environment Improvement Projects (UEIP) underway in 12 municipalities and 3 more municipalities in pipeline (US$ 200 m) RBTP in Hetauda (R) and Overhead tank in Bharatpur (L)
  • Investment/Projects • Rainwater Harvesting Demonstration Programs underway in 4 municipalities and having program to proliferate all over the country • Annual programs to install Rain Water Harvesting System in existing Government buildings
  • Demonstrative rain water harvesting facility DUDBC, Kathamandu Kirtipur
  • Demonstrative rain water harvesting facility Dharan Ilam
  • Investment/Projects Eco-city programs for restoration of water bodies and maintaining greenery in cities
  • Act, Regulation and Guidelines • Town Development Act, 1988 • Local Self-Governance Act, 1998 and Regulations, 1999 • Environment Protection Act, 1996 and Regulations, 1997 • Building Regulations • Rain Water Harvesting Guidelines, 2009 • Urban Environment Management Guidelines (draft)
  • Limitation and Gaps
  • Fragmented institutional arrangement: Leading to weak coordination and enforcement Ministry of Local Ministry of Physical Development Planning and Works District Municipality Kathmandu Valley DUDBC/ Development Town Development Others Committee Committee Village Development TDIC TDIC TDIC Committee Kathmandu Lalitpur Bhaktapur
  • Regional agency like KVTDC suffer from inadequate institutional arrangement Source: KVTDC
  • Personnel Number Human resource of Technical 13 KVTDC is ill Gazetted 7 designed to Non-gazetted 6 oversee and manage Administrative 108 growth Total 121
  • Policy inconsistency Long-term Development Land-Use Zoning Map Concept 2002 2007
  • A Way Forward • Delineate urban and rural land to preserve agricultural land, forest land, and water bodies • Enforce zoning or environment performance standards and land subdivision to control land use
  • A Way Forward: • Maintain greeneries and (re)plantation— and promote eco-city program • Promote Green Building Technology and Materials to reduce ecological footprints
  • A Way Forward: • Promote rain water harvesting and recharge • Foster institutional provisions having regional orientation but local empowerment and pro-activism
  • Thank you !