Anjal prakash - Guwahati Dialogue, 10th September, 2013


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Anjal prakash - Guwahati Dialogue, 10th September, 2013

  1. 1. Workshop on Transnational Policy Dialogue for Improved Water Governance of Brahmaputra River Anjal Prakash and Poulomi Banerjee September 10, 2013 Guwahati, India
  2. 2. The Brahmaputra River Basin.. Principal arm of GBM System; Total basin area 651,335 sq km Total 58 tributaries (22 in Tibet, 33 in India and 3 in Bangladesh) China (50%) India (33.6%) Bangladesh (8.1%), Bhutan(7.8%) Highest specific discharge system in the world , highly braided channels, large flood prone areas, bank erosion, channel migration Seismically unstable zone, part of indo-Burma bio diversity hotspots
  3. 3. Arunachal Pradesh(41.95), Assam (36.3%), Meghalaya(6.1%), Nagaland (5.6%), Sikkim (3.8%) west Bengal (6.3%) Accounts 30% of the total water resources and 40 % of the hydel power potential of the country Utilization is much less with <5% in hydropower, 10% in irrigation, 4% groundwater Arunachal Pradesh (69350 sq km ) is the greenest state of the region; it has been called the State with highest hydropower potential of 50,000 MW Assam is the worst flood affected state of the country with 15 major floods (19542012) High dependence on agriculture, widespread practice of traditional farming, low usage of modern farm inputs, inadequate agricultural infrastructure, low productivity, low income
  4. 4. Some facts on Bangladesh part of Brahmaputra basin  Brahmaputra-Jamuna system constitute of Rajshahi, Dhaka and     shyllet divisions of Bangladesh with total catchment area of 5,83,000 sq km Enters at Kurigram district (at the border of Kurigram Sadar and Ulipur upazilas) Brahmaputra-Jamuna is 276 km long, of which Brahmaputra is only 69 km The Teesta is principal tributary inputs, while Old Brahmaputra and the Dhaleswari are major distributaries Experiencing large-scale avulsion, widening and westerly migration and rapid bank erosion in response to large floods
  5. 5. Major issues and concerns Unstable physiography Climate change Water sharing Basin management Rights , acts and policies
  6. 6. physiographic conditions aggravated by climate change Rising temperatures, recession of glaciers, intense rainfall triggered by cloud burst impacting the entire eco and human system Districts of north east India ranked high in agricultural, water and forest vulnerability index Salt water ingression; sea level rise impacting the hydrology of the system High seismicity and sedimentation impacting the hydrologic characteristics and morphology of the river Floods and drought coexist
  7. 7. Water sharing between Dhaka and Delhi On 12 December 1996, Bangladesh and India signed 30 years Ganges treaty, and no further treaty after that Contentions in water sharing of Teesta, Feni (interim agreement of 2011 on sharing of Teesta water for 15 years) rivers Large scale hydroelectric projects in India and diversion of water to Ganga erupting tensions at different levels 4 hydro power projects (1297MW) on Teesta in India have potential conflict
  8. 8. Issues for regional cooperation on water sharing  Lack of bilateral/multilateral agreements, treaties(none of the riparian countries signed the UN water convention 1997)  Lack of apathy of the government to understand the fragility of the system, widespread corruption, deteriorating law and order and lack of transparency  Technological biasness (India largely focusing on hydro-power ) and its slow reach of leading to poor adaption  Lack of sharing of scientific information, lack of joint researches  Modification of river flow due to barrage, sluice gate and water retention structures affecting connectivity and river depth
  9. 9. Way forwards.. Hydro-diplomacy and consultation backed by technical knowledge to manage riparian relations between the two Shift from the issue being bilateral to multilateral Co-management of the Brahmaputra River in integrated framework Track III and IV diplomacy required to build confidence between two countries
  10. 10. Thank You
  11. 11. Actor and Stakeholders’ mapping for Organisationsinstitutions that influence the management of Brahmaputra River Key actors Policy Makers Executors Users Experts What is their mandate? How interested they are in the managemen t? (High, Med, Low) How much power do they have? (High, Med, Low) Degree of Key means to involvement influence (Active, them? Passive, Fence sitter)