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Peri urban Project Introduction_Anjal Prakash and Vishal Narain

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About the Project – Water Security in Peri-urban South Asia: Adapting to Climate Change and …

About the Project – Water Security in Peri-urban South Asia: Adapting to Climate Change and
Urbanization- Dr. Anjal Prakash, SaciWATERs, Hyderabad and Dr. Vishal Narain, MDI, Gurgaon

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  • 1. Water security in periurban South Asia Adapting to climate change and urbanization Inception Workshop August 16, 2010 Kathmandu
  • 2. What is periurban • peripheral areas around cities • urban fringe, urban outgrowth, urban agglomeration • as urbanization advances, periurban becomes more visible – The categorization of rural and urban becomes less relevant • bear the brunt of urban expansion – Supply land and water to the cities – Receive urban wastes
  • 3. Features of periurban • Changing and mixed land use – Driven by real estate boom – Multiple claimants over land • Social transition and heterogeneity • Periurban livelihoods across rural and urban resources and assets • Environmental and natural resource management issues • Institutional lacunae
  • 4. Implications for water use and access • Land acquisition changes water access • Land use change alters demand for water • Water sources filled up and acquired for urban purposes • Polluting industries relocated to peripheries • CPRs diverted for urban purposes: poor and landless suffer
  • 5. Implications for water use • Rural-urban water flows – Absence of a property rights structure • Urban-rural water flows – Sewage irrigation cheap but adverse health implications • Urban elite can afford costly water extraction technologies – Farm-houses • Conflicts escalating over scarce water in the absence of institutions across rural and urban jurisdictions
  • 6. Water (in) security aggravated by climate change • Periurban residents lose water on account of urbanization and climate change – Fluctuations in water availability – Extreme events: drought/floods, glacial outbursts • Differ in their capacity to adapt to these changes • Vulnerability varies across class, caste and gender
  • 7. The present project To understand the implications of urbanization processes for water access and use in peri-urban locations in 4 select research sites in South Asia and to examine water related vulnerability, adaptation and resilience of different social groups in the context of climate change
  • 8. Objectives • Examine – changing water availability/ insecurity as a result of the interaction of urbanization and climate change for periurban residents – the adaptation of periurban residents to these changes and assess their cost-effectiveness – Institutional lacunae in addressing these concerns – Mobilize and bring together a wide range of stakeholders as a basis to intervene
  • 9. Approach and methodology • A diversity of approaches rooted both in the interpretive and positivist sciences • Qualitative, participatory methodologies to involve residents as a basis for designing interventions for them • Quantitative techniques and cost-benefit analyses for relevant interventions • Stakeholder meetings to catalyse change
  • 10. Water (in)Security in Khulna, Bangladesh • Khulna, a southern metropolis of Bangladesh, is one of the 15 most vulnerable cities under climate change impact • It is the third-largest city in Bangladesh, located on the banks of the Rupsha and Bhairab rivers • Threatened by cyclones like, SIDR and Aila associated with storm surges as well as recurrence of droughts
  • 11. Water (in)Security in Khulna, Bangladesh • Sea level rise, reduced upstream flow and prolonged dry weather are expected to drive up salinity - crisis for freshwater • urban wastewater is getting diverted to peri-urban areas and surrounding rivers • River floods increase salinity in drinking water sources • Surface water salinity near Khulna as recorded in 2007, was the Sea level rise in Khulna highest in the preceding 32 years • Drinking water insecurity for peri urban locations
  • 12. Water (in)Security in Hyderabad, India Present urban landscape in Hyderabad is dominated by: • New residential colonies due to newly developing industrial, educational and research centres, in high value lands along the lines of highest accessibility • Some of the areas which have experienced massive real estate development are Madhapur (an erstwhile peri urban village), is now merged with the city in continuation with Jubilee Hills • Shamshabad, also a peri urban village has now seen massive growth of newly developing residential colonies and financial and business enclaves
  • 13. Water (in)Security in Hyderabad, India • Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply Sewerage Board (HMWSSB) constituted in 1989 to supply water to an Water sources are area of 172.6 sq. km for Hyderabad- supplies water to 9 municipalities adjoining Hyderabad. shrinking and water Sources of Water supply is unreliable • Osman Sagar on Musi river • Himayat Sagar on Esi river in most of the • Manjira Barrage on Manjira river • Singur Dam on Manjira river locations – water • Krishna Drinking Water Scheme Phase I & II conflicts have been • Increasing demand in Greater Hyderabad compelled the Government in 2009 to undertake a project worth Rs on a rise 809.62 crore for drawing water from the Godavari
  • 14. Water (in)Security in Hyderabad, India • Groundwater as only source of drinking water – issues of water quality – salinity and biological contamination • variability of rainfall during monsoons leads to increased stress on groundwater levels- competitive deepening • No attempt to find out Aliabad village in sustainable sources of Shameerpet mandal – drinking water – water groundwater level has conservation is not on the gone down – hand-pumps card! are non operational
  • 15. Water (in)Security in Gurgaon, India Gurgaon, a district in the North- West Indian state of Haryana, has grown significantly over the last two decades Growth took place due to proximity to Delhi and IT industries modern high rises co-existing Land prices have gone up tremendously – land mafias are with village settlements operational
  • 16. Water (in)Security in Gurgaon, India • Water table has been declining at a rate of about two meters (six feet) every year since 2006 • Poor aquifer to recharge due to erractic rainfall pattern coupled with the concrete structures • Large water bodies that have historically served as traditional rainwater harvesting structures are now drying up • New settlements are replacing Former village pond water bodies giving way to real estate growth
  • 17. Water (in) security in peri- urban Kathmandu • Urban fringe around the city underwent rapid urbanization and conversion of agricultural land into residential dwellings • Urbanization and development of physical infrastructure in the city have put pressure on the natural resources in the peri- urban areas • Emergence of water market due to gap left by combined services of traditional sources and piped water supply
  • 18. Water (in) security in peri- urban Kathmandu • Sand mining from the river bed have serious implications for local hydrology • Water transported from the peri- urban areas through water markets • Financial transaction of Private Tanker based market is 4.5 times higher than KUKL’ s annual expenditure for 2007/08 (Shrestha and Shukla, 2010) • Competition of water resources in urban vs peri-urban areas is a cause of concern and possibility of conflict in the future owing to unequal access
  • 19. Water (in)security in peri-urban South Asia • Different levels of development and mis-management of water throws environmental stress for peri-urban residence • Traditional water harvesting sources are engulfed by the ways cities are expanding or extracting resources of their neighborhoods • Unsustainable development brings in water insecurity which is further aggravated by climate change • All four locations have unique socio-economic and political context of development but are bound by the issue of water security issues for poor women and men
  • 20. Thank you for your attention

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