Task based learning lesson design


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Task based learning lesson design

  1. 1. Designing a TBL Plan 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 1
  2. 2. What is needed for learning?Jane Willis:Essential conditions: Learning won’t happen unless… Motivation Exposure Opportunities to use the languageDesirable conditions: Instruction (it counts but not essential) 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 2
  3. 3. How can we help a learner? We cannot really teach language, we can only create conditions with which, language will develop spontaneously in the learners’ mind in its own way. 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 3
  4. 4. What does TBL mean? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 4
  5. 5. This is a task!Did you in the past few weeks:(Understanding what a task is)  ask for way to somewhere?  identify who is the person in charge of sth.?  try to find out who had taken your pen and forgot to return it to you?  try to borrow a brand-new bicycle from your friend?  work out the best bus-route to a school you haven’t been to?  explain to your head teacher why you didnt attend an important meeting last week? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 5
  6. 6. So a task is… A task is a piece of work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. It means what people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. (Long 1985:89) s uc h a s : 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 6
  7. 7. How do I plan a TBL lesson? Teaching objectives A warmer Task cycle a. Task demonstration / instruction b. Doing the task c. Preparing and giving a report4. Language focus5. Follow-up activities6. Considerations/check points 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 7
  8. 8. 1. Pre-task Stage:Teacher prepares the learners in topic, as a vehicle for eliciting the vocabulary 话题 Activate background knowledge, 背景 contextualize, 语境 essential vocabulary, 关键词汇 functional language/verb patterns, 有用 的句型 thinking-time, 学生准备的时间 confidence, feeling secure , 信心和安全 感的建立 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 8
  9. 9. 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 9
  10. 10. 2 Task-cycle: 2.1. Do the task Learning English by using it, providing spontaneous use with focus in fluency 先在用中学,先只求表达不求精确 Integrated skills are practiced with opportunities for all the participants 一个任务,多技能练习 Individual help becomes possible 教师给予有针对性的帮助 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 10
  11. 11. 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 11
  12. 12. 2 Task-cycle: 2.2. Prepare for the report A task has two roles ( 作用) It is used to prepare formal use of the language for public use, with focusing more on accuracy as well as on fluency. The report planning is assessed, and the organization strategy is practiced.高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 12
  13. 13. 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 13
  14. 14. 2. Task-cycle: 2.3. Give the report Learn English for different purposes by using it (formal delivery of a speech, An oral presentation task, language is rehearsed meaningfully and repeatedly in “preparing the task and do the task”. “repetition leads to fluency” 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 14
  15. 15. 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 15
  16. 16. 3. Language Focus Stage The report to the whole class prompts opportunities for remedial practice  to reconstruct the language used in the tasks,  to avoid fossilization, Data from the original chat in “do the task” can be recorded and printed-out for remedial practice or reflective use 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 16
  17. 17. Do you have breakfast everyday? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 17
  18. 18. Do you have breakfast everyday? What’s this? It’s porridge Do you have it for breakfast? Yes, I do. How do you like it, very much or a little? Very much. How often do you have it? Everyday. 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 18
  19. 19. Do you have breakfast everyday? What’s this? It’s a bowl of noodles Do you have it for breakfast? Yes, I do. How do you like it, very much or a little? A little. How often do you have it? Once a week. 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 19
  20. 20. A motto to remember Meaningful repetition leads to fluency The repetition has to be meaningful, contextualized, in use and authentic 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 20
  21. 21. Which is your breakfast today? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 21
  22. 22. Which one do you want for breakfast tomorrow? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 22
  23. 23. Which are your favorite vegetables? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 23
  24. 24. What vegetables do you like for lunch today? Bill, what vegetable do you like for lunch today? I like … tomatoes and potatoes. Sandy, what color is this? Do you like (the vege?) Green / red. Good! I like red too. Lucy, how do you like eggplants? Very much or a little? A little. All right. I don’t like it at all. I like cabbages. John, do you like cabbages? Yes. I do. How often do you have it? Everyday. Great! Me too. 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 24
  25. 25. What do you like for a drink after class? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 25
  26. 26. Which drink you like best? Lily, what’s this  Milk drink in English? How often do you  Everyday. have it? Tom, how do you like milk? A lot or a little?  Very much. Really? I don’t like it at all. What  A little. about you Meimei? How often do you … 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 26
  27. 27. Which one do you like for lunch?Which one do you like for dinner? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 27
  28. 28. Do you like hamburgers? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 28
  29. 29. Do you like Chinese Breakfast?How do you like this Chinese breakfast? A littleor very much? If not, what do you want to havefor your Chinese breakfast? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 29
  30. 30. What breakfast is this?Is this a Chinese breakfast?No. it isn’t. it is an ______ breakfastWhat can you see here?Eggs, bacon, chipssausages, tomato,mushrooms.How do you like it?Do you want to have it forbreakfast?How often do you want to… 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 30
  31. 31. 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 31
  32. 32. Is this an English breakfast?Is this a Chinese breakfast?No. it isn’t. it is an European breakfastWhat can you see here?Different cakes,watermelon, butter,bacon,some pie, pineapples,mushrooms.How do you like it?Do you want to have it forbreakfast?How often do you want to… 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 32
  33. 33. 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 33
  34. 34. Teaching objectives Language structures: Do you like …? I like … … very much/a lot, a little I don’t like … at all What about you/your father? What does he/she like to eat? What food does/doesn’t you/he like? Where is he from? Where do you usually like to eat? What food do you often like to eat? Why do you like …? Because … 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 34
  35. 35. Option for Structure:Asking one’s preference: Do you like …? What about her? What does he/she like to eat? What food does/doesnt he like? Why do you like …? Because …Express opinions: I like … … very much, a little I don’t like … at all.Asking one’s routine or habits Where do you usually like to eat? What food do you often like to eat? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 35 Where is he from?
  36. 36. Warming up (1)Asking about students’ breakfast (Starting from the learners’ personal experience) Alice, do you usually have breakfast in the morning? (Asking about one’s routine) When do you have it? (developing) What do you have for breakfast? (Eliciting the vocabulary needed for tasks later) 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 36
  37. 37. Warming up (2)Asking about students’ breakfast Jane, what about you? (Comparing preferences between learners) I usually have … for breakfast. (Teacher participates to built up the rapport.) John, do you like … for breakfast? Billy, what about you? (To get more students involved in the discussion) 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 37
  38. 38. From warming-up to opinion exchangeAsking about students’ lunch: Diana, what do you usually have for lunch? (To elicit more vocabulary for later use) What food you don’t like for lunch? Why? (Try to elicit some adjectives for reasons) John, do you like … for lunch? Billy, what about you? (To get more students involved in the discussion) 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 38
  39. 39. Function: Opinion comparisonAsking about students’ dinner: Diana, what do you usually have for lunch (to elicit more vocab for later use) What kind of food you don’t like for dinner? (vocabulary practice) Why? (try to elicit some adjectives for reasons) John, do you like … for dinner? Billy, what about you? (to get more students involved in the discussion) 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 39
  40. 40. What do you have for breakfast? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 40
  41. 41. Does she like noodles or dumplings? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 41
  42. 42. Do you like English breakfast? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 42
  43. 43. Do you like hamburgers for lunch? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 43
  44. 44. What do you like for dinner? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 44
  45. 45. Which is your favorite vegetables? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 45
  46. 46. What does your friend like to eat today? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 46
  47. 47. What do you like for a drink today? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 47
  48. 48. Operation check points Make sure that all the vocabulary are on the board in certain categories Then ask students to exchange opinions on food Demonstrate this activity to students Followed by asking some learners to act as models for the rest List the verb patterns for the next activities 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 48
  49. 49. Task 1: Yours and mine (pair work)Clear instructions by the teacher: Please write down the kinds of food you usually have for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Now please ask your desk mate what he/she often has for breakfast, lunch and dinner Put these food down on the left-hand side of the sheet. What are the food that both of you like? What are the food that one of you likes? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 49
  50. 50. What do we eat everyday? For breakfast, I  For breakfast. XXX usually have: often has: For lunch:  For lunch: For dinner:  For dinner: 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 50
  51. 51. Second task: Here is our meal today! (group work)In a group of five or six students, compare How many kinds of food that all of the members like? How many kinds of food that few of members like? Discuss why you like or dislike a certain kind of food Jot down notes for reporting back to the whole class 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 51
  52. 52. Operation check points (2)Make sure that All the students know how to use the language for the task (pre-task phase) The teacher demonstrates with a few learners for the whole class (pre-task) Or you can sit in each group to offer help (teacher’s role during the task) Take notes on learners strength and weakness for language focus later (as in 3) 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 52
  53. 53. Third task: This is our menu today! (Group work Option A) Ask each two students in each group to plan a breakfast, lunch, dinner respectively for the whole group Talk to all to make sure everybody in the group likes the food. So they have to check with each member that the food they select are their favorite They should write down the menu to report back to the group for consensus 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 53
  54. 54. Third task: My best meals! (Group work Option B)1. Ask each student to write down the best breakfast, lunch and dinner that they would like to have everyday.2. The teacher must move around to talk with students to offer help or advice3. The menu should be written down neatly for language accuracy focus 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 54
  55. 55. Next Step: Language focus (1)1. The teacher writes down the problem sentences in certain ways that she/he has observed during the tasks performance2. Asks students to analyze if they are correct or not ( do not tell them!)3. Encourages the students to discuss them in pairs or groups again 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 55
  56. 56. Language focus (2) Listen to the tape of the text While listening, stop occasionally to ask students to predict the next sentence or missing words Ask questions about the text Do some exercises based on the texts. Examples of the exercises are on the next pages. 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 56
  57. 57. Steps for follow-up activities Students copy the menu of “my best meals” onto their exercise book as homework (consolidation) Put the homework up on the wall of the classroom for demonstration (sense of achievement) The students select the best writing for the intranet / broadcast programs (sense of achievement) 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 57
  58. 58. Considerations PowerPoint document: what, how to present, for what purpose, where for resources? Preparing a larger task! Board work design (for doing tasks) Teaching aids preparation Feedback as motivation (educational) Sense of achievement (motivation) 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 58
  59. 59. PowerPoint document: What: pictures for visual effect Where: www.google.com ( 图像) How: arrangement as functions When: elicitation and during the task Who: getting targeted 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 59
  60. 60. How can I design a TBL task? Ordering, sorting, classifying listing comparing Any topics Problem solving Sharing opinionsSharing personal experiences Creative tasks or projects 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 60
  61. 61. A larger task ATask 1: What was your breakfast today? Task 2: what do you want for lunch? Task 3: Here is our lunch menu! Publicize the menus for adviceSurfing the net for reference and ideasRevise and work 关于任务型活动的设计实例 next week 高 歌 out the menu for 61
  62. 62. A larger task BWarmer: Have been to hospital for some rsns? Task 2: What did the doctor & patient say? Task 3: Seeing a doctor: a role play Task 4: Writing a doctor’s report Task 5: Who is the patient? Writing a guideline for seeing an English doctor 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 62
  63. 63. A larger task C Task 1: Do you want a house of your own? Task 2: What do you want in each house? Task 3: A Task 3: B Looking for Advertising a house a house Task 4: Negotiating for your houseTask 5: You have got your house! Share it with your Friends and describe your house to them 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 63
  64. 64. Moving towards TBL TasksA TBL example based on JEFC textStep One:Imagine you want to have a house ofyour own. Think by yourself : How many rooms do you want in your house? What do you want in your rooms? What do you want to have outside your house? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 64
  65. 65. Moving towards TBL TasksLanguage for Step One:I want a bed, a television and a fridge etc. in my rooms.Words suggested: furniture words, microwave oven, computer A vegetable garden, lawn, a fence, fruit trees A swimming pool, a tennis court, a garage 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 65
  66. 66. Have vs. there be What do you want  What do you want to have outside inside your rooms? your house? 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 66
  67. 67. Progression StepsStep Two:Mr Green has a house for rent. Nowtelephone Mr Green and ask: what are there in the house what are there outside the houseYour phone conversation starts with:(Language for Step Two) Is there … / Are there any … in /beside / behind, in front of / near … 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 67
  68. 68. Progression StepsStep Three: Situation 1Mr. Green’s house is too expensive and youdo not have enough money. However, yourfriend is rich and of course has a lot ofmoney. Now try to tell your friend how goodthe house is and ask him to rent the house. The house is very good! There is a big television inside and there are many trees outside! … You can play … outside … You can watch … in the … 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 68
  69. 69. Progression StepsStep Four: Written work:Option One: Write a newspaper ads.Saying that you are looking for a houseand what kind of house you wantOption two: Write an advertisement forMr. Green in a newspaper. Try to sayhow good the house is 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 69
  70. 70. Progression StepsStep Four: Written work:Option One: You have rent the houseand you are very happy. Now you arewriting a letter to your parents tellingthem how your house is. 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 70
  71. 71. Suggestions1. Never translate: demonstrate2. Never explain: act3. Never make speech: ask questions4. Never imitate mistakes: correct5. Never speak with single words: use sentence6. Never speak too much: make students speak much 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 71
  72. 72. Principles1. Never use the book: use your lesson plan2. Never jump around: follow your plan3. Never go too fast: keep the pace of the student4. Never speak too slowly: speak normally5. Never speak too quickly: speak naturally6. Never speak高too loudly: speak naturally 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 72
  73. 73. The dynamic classroom A good lesson plan does not necessarily mean a good result in teaching. Teaching is a moment to moment decision making process, therefore a plan is only a plan The teacher-learner rapport also counts The teacher’s Language proficiency 高 歌 关于任务型活动的设计实例 73