Cloud computing may futuristic but it is nothing more than a way to pull together proven technologies, including virtualization, SOA, and service management. (Note: Don’t need all three but cloud is most powerful at the intersection where all three technologies converge.) The central ideas of the Cloud Computing model: 1. Abstraction maximizes the benefit of skills and expertise. It decouples the user from operational details, allowing them to focus on high-value work 2. Virtualization allows the complex IT environment to be managed as one single large resource providing services 3. Dynamically allocation provisions, configures, reconfigures, and de-provisions IT capability as and when needed, transparently and seamlessly That’s the big picture for cloud. Tie back to the three examples outlined earlier. Celerity (speed) and reliability is achieved through standardization, where commonly used configurations are stored in a catalog, ready for automatic deployment, reducing downtime and error rate flexibility is achieved through virtualization, smart resource sharing and allocation. It anticipates needs and uses the most appropriate resource to address the need, With complete control over the environment, it can pool resources together and react to unexpected demand. efficiency is achieved through better automation, standardization, and prioritization, minimizing processing time and matching the best resources with the most important and difficult tasks Transition line : Let’s look at the impact of cloud in a real-life scenario.
Also: According to Gartner , &quot;Worldwide total software revenue for software as a service (SaaS) within the enterprise software markets is projected to surpass $5.1 billion in 2007 , a 21 percent increase from 2006 revenue. The market is poised for strong growth through 2011, when worldwide revenue will reach $11.5 billion.&quot; – M2 Presswire – September 2007 Gartner says that 25% of the whole enterprise software industry, will be software as a service by 2012 and that’s right around the corner. Despite the current economic downturn, the software industry is poised for growth in 2008, with worldwide enterprise software revenue totaling $190.7 billion in 2008, an 8.2 percent increase from 2007 revenue of $176.3 billion, according to Gartner, Inc. – Business Wire, February 2008
Consulting methodogies – business SOA – for technology What does it yield – and what is the impact (Give an example – self service provisioning) At IBM, we have been working on a maturity model and process for achieving desirable stages of maturity, a model called the Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM). The level of de-coupling and amount of flexibility achievable at each stage of maturity are what make up the following seven levels of maturity: Silo (data integration) Integrated (application integration) Componentized (functional integration) Simple services (process integration) Composite services (supply-chain integration) Virtualized services ( virtual infrastructure) Dynamically reconfigurable services (eco-system integration) Each level has a detailed set of characteristics and criteria for assessment, and what follows is a brief description of the highlights of each level: Silo : The organization starts from proprietary and quite ad-hoc integration, rendering the architecture brittle in the face of change. Integrated : The organization moves toward some form of EAI (Enterprise Application Integration), albeit with proprietary connections and integration points. The approaches it uses are tailored to use legacy systems and attempt to dissect and re-factor through data integration. Componentized : At this level, the organization componentizes and modularizes major or critical parts of its application portfolio. It uses legacy transformation and renovation methods to re-factor legacy J2EE or .NET-based systems with clear component boundaries and scope, exposing functionality in a more modular fashion. The integration between components is through their interfaces and the contracts between them. Services : The organization embarks on the early phases of SOA by defining and exposing services for consumption internally or externally for business partners -- not quite on a large scale -- but it acts as a service provider, nonetheless. Composite Services : Now the organization extends its influence into the value chain and into the service eco-system. Services form a contract among suppliers, consumers, and brokers who can build their own eco-system for on-demand interaction. Virtualized Services : The organization now creates a virtualized infrastructure to run applications. It achieves this level after decoupling the application, its servcies, components, and flows. Now the infrastructure is more finely tuned, and the notions of the grid and the grid service render it more agile. It externalizes its monitoring, management, and events (common event infrastructure). Dynamically Reconfigurable Services : The organization now has a dynamically re-configurable software architecture. It can compose services at run-time using externalized policy descriptions, management, and monitoring. The business domain looks primarily at three things: the maturity of the business architecture, the relationship between business and IT and the business value achieved by moving to a service-oriented paradigm. We assess the business architecture and IT support of service orientation with the goal of improved reuse and flexibility, reduced complexity and time-to-market and in both business architecture and IT solutions. The organization domain looks at the maturity of the enterprise and/or business units in the context of organization structure, processes, mechanisms, learning and knowledge enablement, and governance in support of service orientation. This includes the ability to deliver on changing business requirements. The method domain looks at the maturity of the enterprise and or business units in their use of specific software (system) development method and process to support the SOA life-cycle and methods. This includes project management and project estimation considerations for the development of services, components and flows for the SOA life-cycle. The application domain looks at the maturity of the application portfolio to leverage service orientation. It focuses on the use of services for sharing and reuse of business functionality across business units and the ability to flexibly interchanging functionality to meet changing business needs. The architecture domain looks at the maturity of various levels of the architecture including, the enterprise and application architecture to support service orientation. The information domain looks at the maturity of the information and data architecture and management to support service orientation. It includes the notions of information as a service and the ability to apply best practices such as MDM and appropriate application of best practices such as Data Cleansing and Migration. The infrastructure domain looks at the maturity of the infrastructure, monitoring and management in areas of service monitoring and management, service security, and service virtualization. Designing the infrastructure to support the non-functional and operational requirements and service-level agreements needed to operate in a specific scope of the service eco-system.
Massive number of services To massive number of users With quality of service
Futures: SQL – Structured Query Language (Microsoft Database product Oracle – Database SOE – Standard Operating Environment – Proposed standards for application software ESM – Enterprise System Management – Standard system control software – Remote operations and reporting LAMP – Linux, Apache, MySql, PHP (or Perl) – Standard Web design suite for Linux – RedHat or Suse
GCDS: GIG Content Delivery Service EFDS: Enterprise File Delivery Service JIPM TSP/GBS IW PS4 UVDS – Unified Video Delivey Service Consumer RIA Clients
What is cloud computing?
When computing services are provided over the Internet rather then locally on a user’s own machine.
Computation is run on an supporting infrastructure which is independent of the applications themselves.
The infrastructure can take on many forms, but to the end user, the implementation is irrelevant, hence the “cloud” abstraction.
What isn’t cloud computing?
Cloud computing does not necessarily include grid computing, resources as a utility, or self managing computing.
Each of these can however be used in some cloud computing systems, but cloud computing can also be done with free and decentralized architectures.
Abstraction – alleviates IT consumers from the operations of applications, allowing end users to focus instead on the execution and high-value activities
Virtualization – access to business services on-demand independent of location and resource constraints
Dynamic allocation – dynamically provisions, configures, reconfigures, and de-provisions IT capability as and when needed, transparently and seamlessly
Speed and reliability through standardization, higher level of automation, and abstraction Flexibility through virtualization, dynamic resource sharing, and proactive capacity allocation Efficiency through higher level of automation, catalog standardization, and prioritization Abstraction Current Environment SOA Service Mgmt
Emerging model where users can have access to applications or compute resources from anywhere through their connected devices through a simplified UI
Applications reside in massively-scalable data centers where compute resources can be dynamically provisioned and shared to achieve significant economies of scale
A strong service management platform results in only marginal incremental management cost, if any, when more workload needs to be handled by the cloud
Virtual- ization Information Virtualization Elasticity Work Mobility
*A Service Management platform allows an operations management team to collect or discover information about how the resources associated with a service are configured and consumed and then access that information to support integrated management processes that address changes to and problems with the service.
When adding IT resources to
the service, the incremental
cost to manage these new
resources approaches zero
Provides for an infinitely scalable pool of connected computing resources Although often associated with Internet Services, clouds will exist both inside a data center to support that customers & internal users as well as supporting third-party managed service offerings. Efficient, green, and cost effective infrastructure
Main actors and their interaction mode in the use and delivery of Cloud Services, enable the identification of the models and evolving technologies that support the Cloud Computing strategy:
Acquisition Model (Service): "All that matters is results; I don't care how it's done"
Business Model (Pay for usage): "I don't want to own assets - I want to pay for elastic usage, like a utility"
Access Model (Internet): "I want accessibility from anywhere, from any device"
Technical Model (Scalable, elastic, shareable): "It's about economies of scale, with effective and dynamic sharing"
Garter, 2008 Service Consumers Service Catalog, Component Library Cloud Administrator Datacenter Infrastructure Monitor & Manage Services & Resources Component Vendors / Software Publishers Publish & Update Components, Service Templates Access Services IT Cloud
Cloud Computing: A New Paradigm Enterprise Cloud Network Cloud INNOVATIVE BUSINESS MODELS End Users / Requestors Government/ Academics Industry (Startups/ SMB/ Enterprise) Consumers
An “Elastic” pool of high performance virtualized compute resources
Cloud applications enable the simplification of complex services
A cloud computing platform combines modular components on a service oriented architecture
New combinations of services to form differentiating value propositions at lower costs in shorter time
Internet protocol based convergence of networks and devices
SIMPLIFIED SERVICES Source: Corporate Strategy
Cloud computing perceived benefits and demand drivers
Awareness and demand for cloud computing are fueled by perceived / potential benefits to business entities , individual users , and IT providers (includes enterprises + service providers)
Cloud computing’s “nirvana-like” promise drives higher service level expectations among business entities and individual users Which in turn puts pressure on the enterprise data center to deliver higher service quality (at lower cost)
Faster Time to Market
Higher Cust Rentention
Faster, easier innovation
New business models
New products and services
Faster time to market
Lower IT cost
Lower IT risk (brand protection)
Improved IT user productivity
Improved Client Satisfaction
Improved Disaster Recovery
Quality of Experience
Speed of access
Ease of access (anywhere, anytime)
Ease of use
Minimal software requirements on access device
No long-term commitments
Model for Delivering Cloud Services (single provider) Fulfillment Services
End Users make requests using a catalog of services
The Provider delivers service using fulfillment processes and technology
Services are normalized to achieve Abstraction and Encapsulation
Fulfillment Process Fulfillment + Enterprise Process (e.g. Open Account) Fulfillment + Enterprise Process + Governance (e.g. ITIL) Provisioning Services Usage & Accounting Services Monitoring Services Security Services Energy Management Services Technology … . End User Requestors & Operators … Service Requestor Service Catalog Request UI Operational UI Service Provider Service Creator Federated Data Repository Service Definition Tools Service Publishing Tools Service Fulfillment & Configuration Tools UI, Fulfillment, Data, MetaData Service Monitoring Tools KPIs Service Planning
August 24, 2008 Architectural Model for Cloud Computing End User Requests & Operators … Service Request & Operations Design & Build Image Library (Store) Deployment Operational Lifecycle of Images IT Infrastructure & Application Provider Service Creation & Deployment Virtual Image Management Service Catalog Request UI Operational UI Standards Based Interfaces Virtualized Infrastructure Service Management Service Oriented Architecture Information Architecture Standards Based Interfaces Service Catalog, Component Library Datacenter Infrastructure Cloud Administrator Access Services Optimized Middleware (image deployment, integrated security, workload mgmt., high-availability) Service Oriented Architecture Information Architecture User Request Management/Self Service Portal Security: Identity , Access, Integrity, Isolation, Audit & Compliance Usage Accounting License Management Image Lifecycle Management Provisioning Performance Management Availability/Backup/ Restore Service Lifecycle Management Service Management Virtual Resources & Aggregations SMP Servers Network Hardware Storage Servers System Resources Blades Storage Virtualized Infrastructure Server Virt. Storage Virt. Network Virt.
The Role of Storage in Clouds - 1 Deep Infrastructure (What cloud?) Service Management SOA Application Middleware Virtualized Infrastructure Server / Storage / Network Virtual Image Management Cloud Service User
The ‘Cloud Service’ is an application or upper layer function, or a platform service
e.g. Salesforce.com, hosted computing
“ Application computing” is done by the Cloud Service and is co-located with the storage
Incremental cost and time to add a new user is effectively zero
Desired Storage Infrastructure is the same as advanced Enterprise Storage (only cheaper)
Integrated server & storage management
Performance & security controls
Value of the Cloud Service
Complete application stack offload
Compute Requires some new/better storage function
The Role of Storage in Clouds - 2 Storage Application As a Cloud Service Service Management SOA Storage Application Storage Optimized Infrastructure Virtual Image Management Cloud Service User
The ‘Cloud Service’ is a Storage Intensive application or upper layer function
e.g. Medical Image Archive
Backup/DR for SMB
Client could be an individual or a server farm
Desired Storage Infrastructure is an optimized Storage Application
Archive + Indexing + Search, long term retention
Video/large object access
Local compute limited to:
Ingest and playback
Value in the Cloud Service
Specialty storage application
Compute Compute Requires some new/better storage function Requires specialty storage/function
The Role of Storage in Clouds - 3 ‘ Storage in the Cloud’ (like the old SSPs) Service Management SOA Storage Application – Device emulation Storage Optimized Infrastructure Virtual Image Management Cloud Service User
Storage devices are seen as local, deployed across the cloud
E: drive on laptop/desktops – Amazon S3
‘ Capacity on Demand’ for server farms
Desired Storage Infrastructure is a very low cost ‘Network Virtual Disk’ facility
Archive + Indexing + Search, long term retention
Local compute limited to:
Ingest and playback
Value in the Cloud Service
Capacity on demand
Making Cloud Computing a Reality requires: Virtualization Integrated virtualization and management with optimized systems and networks to break the lock between IT resources and business services Autonomic Management Autonomic management methods for both application and infrastructure services to meet user needs and expectations for delivery of high quality of service Ensembles Simplified IT infrastructure, reduced complexity and management through the creation of large, consistent pools of resources that are managed as one. Software Services Hardware
Methods for IT Simplification Service oriented architecture technologies frame business processes as services, ease of deployment, composition, reuse, change… Topologies of federated services must be mapped onto large numbers of diverse physical and virtual resources Business Processes as Services Heterogeneous servers, storage, networks “ Enterprises report that IT operational overhead = 70% of their IT budget and growing . . . leaving precious few resources for new initiatives.” – Forrester, 2007 OLD Virtual Resource Objects/Appliances, Libraries will reduce the labor required for software stack development and management Ensemble Ensemble Ensemble Ensembles, scalable pools of like systems that are manageable as single systems will replace multitudes of individual servers and reduce the labor required for physical systems management Service management software spans the diversity of heterogeneous physical and virtual resources, providing unified cross-platform management in support of SOA NEW
Internal (private) cloud. The cloud infrastructure is operated within the consumer’s organization.
Community cloud. The cloud infrastructure is jointly owned by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations).
Public cloud. The cloud infrastructure is owned by an organization selling cloud services to the general public or to a large industry group.
Hybrid cloud . The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (internal, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability.
Moving from ‘hand crafted’ software to repeatable assembly
Reuse of interchangeable components
Repeatable processes with increased automation & collaboration
Division of labor – let developers focus on new software
Ease of use – abstract complexity out of developers’ lives
Avoid over & under provisioning – CAPEX outlays
Data Intensive Computing
Ability to index and make sense of large data sets – parallization
Pre-format data in large repositories for low BW transmissions
Better access to data with large multi-tenant distributed cloud databases
Default backup and most cost effective archival of large data sets.
Accessibility = Any time, any place, any device
Cloud serviced clients
Leverage low cost compute cycles and assured data storage in the cloud
Communications is pacing factor
Challenge is to balance platform agnostic vs. end point device innovations
Ease of Assembly - Fabrication Abstract complexity away from developers & users (virtualization, widgets, open APIs) Put skills in the machines, enabling use of semi-skilled rural work force Moving from hand crafted -> repeatable assembly. Let SW developers focus on value add new functionality, let others focus on repeatable hosting and underlying platform tasks Division of labor, specialization Repeatable SW development CM processes with increased automation & collaboration New materials handling processes Interchangeable abstracted resources, reuse of SW components, web service standards Interchangeable parts, engineering tolerances Cloud SW Development & Deployment, Data Fusion 2009 Assembly Line – Muskets -> Ford 1815
Cloud Related Service Offerings Level of Abstraction
Internet Service Provider
Physical Infrastructure Adapted from Forrester Research Taxonomy
Mosso (from Rackspace)
Nirvanix Storage Delivery Network
Google App Engine and BigTable
Microsoft SQL Server Data Services
Blob or object data stores
Amazon Flexible Payments Service and DevPay
Yahoo! Maps API
Google Calendar API
APIs for specific service access for integration
Web-based software service than can combine to create new services, as in a mashup
Cisco WebEx office
Rich Internet application web sites
Application as Web Sites
Collaboration and email
Client apps that connect to services in the cloud
Software-as-a-Service Examples Types of Offerings Cloud Market Types
RACE Rapid Access Computing Environment – What is it Today? Track - Thursday, April 23 1:30-2:30 PM CSD - Cloud Computing & Software as a Service forge
RACE Phase IIa Pathway to Production (dev-test-prod) Track - Thursday, April 23 1:30-2:30 PM CSD - Cloud Computing & Software as a Service
Extending the Cloud to Deployed Users Web Services CDN/WOA/PEPs RIA Synchronization Low BW protocols User-hosted Caches Fixed Sites Rich Web-based Access Remote/Mobile Access Diverse Users Diverse Infrastructures Cloud
DISA Delivery Efforts
Consumer RIA Clients
Track - Wednesday, April 22, 3:00-4:30 PM PEO-GES Accelerating and Optimizing the Delivery of Information Track – Friday, April 24 8:00 – 9:00AM PEO-GES GIG Content Delivery Service and EFD Workshop Track - Tuesday, April 21 4:30-5:30 PM PEO-STS Joint IP Modem (JIPM) Track – Wednesday, April 22, 3:00-4:30 PM PEO-STS Joint IP Modem (JIPM)
Applicability of cloud “shared nothing” databases to C2 app challenges
Common structured data stores handling multiple data models
Utility Computing Programming Models for Production Environments
Common Edge Caching & Acceleration Techniques
Cloud serviced client platforms
Enterprise Mashups: Shindig/GWT, JackBe Presto
Geo-visualization – NASA Worldwind
Mediaplayers – VLC
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) soft & hard thin clients
Common HW Infrastructure Templates & Data Center Practices
Programming Models What’s the right fit for DoD? Hardware Resources Physical infrastructure Software-platform-as-a-service App-components-as-a-service Virtual-Infrastructure-as-a-Service Data Intensive Amazon Hadoop, Public Data Sets, Simple DB Google App Engine GCDS Akamai Compute Storage Networking Content Delivery