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Advanced Organic Vegetable Production and Marketing Alex Hitt Peregrine Farm Graham, NC www.peregrinefarm.net
SCHEDULE Wednesday January 19th, 2011 8:00-8:45  Introductions and Burning Issues Identification: 8:30-9:00 Peregrine Farm...
Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor We...
Advanced Thinking
Each Situation is Different site specific Nothing Is Fixed In Stone a goal to work towards Rome Wasn't Built In A Day long...
The Social Component It’s About Quality of Life <ul><li>Employees and Family </li></ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul><ul><ul...
 
 
Peregrine Farm  history <ul><li>First generation farmers </li></ul><ul><li>First crops planted in 1982 (blackberries and r...
1981 Today Rome wasn’t built in a day
Today 1986
Peregrine Farm crop diversification <ul><li>1982 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 acres each blackberries and raspberries </li></ul...
 
 
Peregrine Farm change in marketing <ul><li>Early years- all PYO </li></ul><ul><li>1986-1995- 50% wholesale, 50% PYO and fa...
Keys to Success <ul><li>Good markets </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing Education </li></ul><ul><li>Good Records </li></ul><ul><...
Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor We...
 
 
 
Sustainable Soil Management <ul><li>Three parts of soil </li></ul><ul><li>physical- sand/silt/clay  </li></ul><ul><li>can’...
 
Biological   <ul><li>Organic matter maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding the beast </li></ul><ul><li>Where does OM come f...
 
 
Biological <ul><li>Organic matter maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>The right conditions to maximize biological activity: </li...
Biological <ul><li>Organic matter maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>till as little as possible which reduces aeration and warm...
Legumes and Nitrogen Fixation <ul><li>Rhizobium bacteria  </li></ul><ul><li>Inoculate or not? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh ...
 
 
Cover Crops <ul><li>Annuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biennial...
Winter Annual Cover Crops <ul><li>Legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Crimson Clover </li></ul><ul><li>Hairy Vetch </li></ul><ul><li...
 
Summer Annual Cover Crops <ul><li>Legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Soybeans </li></ul><ul><li>Cowpeas </li></ul><ul><li>Velvetbea...
 
Biennial and Perennial Cover Crops <ul><li>Legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet Clover </li></ul><ul><li>White Clover </li></ul...
Nutrient Management <ul><li>Cation Exchange Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cation nutrients- K, Ca, Mg </li></ul></ul><ul>...
 
 
Nutrient Management <ul><li>Not just a substitution of materials-rethink the entire system and ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li...
Nutrient Management <ul><li>lime- watch Mg </li></ul><ul><li>correct P&K- watch Mg </li></ul><ul><li>cover crops for N and...
Nutrient Management <ul><li>What we use </li></ul><ul><li>lime- dolomitic (would use Hi-Cal) </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus ...
Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Building Soils for Better Crops </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile Soil- A Grow...
Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor We...
Why Bother? <ul><li>“ From his experience as a researcher at Rutgers, Firmin Bear stated that well-thought-out crop rotati...
What is Crop Rotation? <ul><li>A  planned  system of growing different kinds of crops in recurrent succession on the same ...
Why Is Crop Rotation Important? <ul><li>Crop Rotation is  planned  diversity, which provides stability to biological syste...
Why Is Crop Rotation Important? <ul><li>Rotation preserves and improves soil structure  </li></ul><ul><li>A good rotation ...
Three Types of Rotations   <ul><li>Cash crop based  </li></ul><ul><li>Cover crop based </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient based  <...
Rotation Guidelines <ul><li>Separate similar crops or families of crops as much as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apiaceae...
 
Rotation Guidelines   (cont’d) <ul><li>Alternate cover crops  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>legumes/grasses,  </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Rotation Guidelines   (cont’d) <ul><li>Alternate heavy feeders with light feeders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy feeders : br...
Rotation Guidelines   (cont’d) <ul><li>Alternate flowering crops with vegetative crops </li></ul><ul><li>Place crops with ...
Rotation Guidelines   (cont’d) <ul><li>Alternate deep-rooted crops with shallow-rooted crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow...
Tips to make it easier to “live” with a Rotation   <ul><li>“A rotation that really suits your farm will create a structure...
Tips to make it easier to “live” with a Rotation <ul><li>Make rotational units (blocks/sections/fields) the same size if p...
 
Tips to make it easier to “live” with a Rotation <ul><li>You can have more than one rotation scheme on a farm </li></ul>
Tips to make it easier to “live” with a Rotation <ul><li>Try and have rotational units with crops going in at the same tim...
Tips to make it easier to “live” with a Rotation <ul><li>Maintain good records of your crop rotation plans! </li></ul><ul>...
Rotation with Livestock and Perennials   <ul><li>Moving animals annually through cropping fields. </li></ul>
Rotation with Livestock and Perennials <ul><li>Alternating annuals production with several years in soil building perennia...
Steps to Planning a Rotation   <ul><li>Identify all crops to be grown and expected acreage requirements </li></ul><ul><li>...
Steps to Planning a Rotation   <ul><li>Make a map of available farm land showing size of fields and locations of rotationa...
 
<ul><li>“ Time spent planning a rotation is never wasted.  Not only will you learn a great deal about important biological...
 
 
Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>The New Organic Grower - Coleman </li></ul><ul><li>Crop Rotation on Or...
Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor We...
Farm Design Considerations <ul><li>Infrastructure Development  (in order of importance) </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation First...
 
 
 
In the Field Soil Preparation <ul><li>Do major/deep soil work in fall (or when it’s the driest) </li></ul><ul><li>Spread m...
 
In the Field Soil Preparation-Equipment Needs <ul><li>Deep soil turning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom plow </li></ul></ul><...
 
 
 
In the Field Planting system <ul><li>Tractor tire width determines bed width or row spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Straight-par...
 
In the Field Planting system <ul><li>Synthetic mulches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally laid in fall with drip irrigation  ...
 
In the Field Seeding <ul><li>A fine seed bed is needed for good soil to seed contact </li></ul><ul><li>Soil worked too fin...
 
 
In the Field Transplanting <ul><li>Water flats well before planting </li></ul><ul><li>Mark rows  </li></ul><ul><li>Cover r...
 
Irrigation <ul><li>Do not even consider high value crops with out irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Drip most efficient </li></...
 
 
Irrigation <ul><li>Work with a good irrigation company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They will design for free </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Irrigation <ul><li>How much water? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G=50×Ep×S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>G=gallons required per d...
Trellising <ul><li>Trellising takes more labor  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It needs to be fast to put up  and  take down </li><...
 
 
 
Transplant Production <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>The only way to produce certain crops </li></ul><ul><li>Early season ...
Transplant Production
Keys to Transplant Production <ul><li>Proper cell size </li></ul><ul><li>Soil less potting mix </li></ul><ul><li>Correct g...
Containers <ul><li>Liners in trays </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible thin plastic trays </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid plastic trays </l...
 
Germination <ul><li>Fill flats well </li></ul><ul><li>Wet soil completely </li></ul><ul><li>Seeders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
 
Growing On <ul><li>Adequate light </li></ul><ul><li>Water early in day until water drains from bottom of plug </li></ul><u...
 
Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>The New Organic Grower </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Vegetable Product...
Profitable Crops <ul><li>Every market is different </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate yourself from the other market sellers ...
US Fresh Vegetable Rankings 2004 <ul><li>By Value of Production   </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Iceberg Let...
Hmmm?  Statistics <ul><li>+(X) means increase from 1997 and previous rank </li></ul><ul><li>Total per capita fresh consump...
Vegetable income per bed <ul><li>Total veg income $52,388  ÷ 126 beds = $416/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes $24,458 ÷ 22 b...
Crop Scheduling- Making a Plan <ul><li>What season does it grow best in? </li></ul><ul><li>a.  What season will it  not  g...
Sorted by crop
Sorted by planting order based on temperatures
Steps to making a plan cool season crops <ul><li>Determine last harvest date based on temperatures for good growth </li></...
Steps to making a plan direct seeded   spinach example <ul><li>Maximum avg. temp 75 °-  ~ 6/15 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 wee...
Steps to making a plan   transplanted lettuce example <ul><li>Maximum avg. temp 75 °-  ~ 6/15 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 week...
 
Steps to making a plan   warm season crops <ul><li>Determine last frost date </li></ul><ul><li>Plant first planting at coo...
Steps to making a plan   fall cool season crops <ul><li>Crops need to reach maturity by the first frost date </li></ul><ul...
Production Plan
 
 
 
 
Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Knott's Handbook for Vegetable Growers </li></ul><ul><li>How to Grow M...
Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor We...
Keys to Weed Control <ul><li>Reduce weed seed bank </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation design </li></ul><ul><li>Timing is everythin...
 
Tools for Weed Control <ul><li>Transplanting  </li></ul><ul><li>High density planting </li></ul><ul><li>Mulches </li></ul>...
 
 
 
 
Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>The New Organic Grower </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Vegetable Product...
Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor We...
The 4 legged pests <ul><li>More damage than the flying and crawling kinds </li></ul><ul><li>Deer adapt very quickly </li><...
 
Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Pests Of The Garden And Small Farm- A Growers Guide to Using Less Pest...
Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor We...
Harvest <ul><li>This is where the majority of the labor is </li></ul><ul><li>This is where the bulk of Food Safety and GAP...
 
 
 
Post Harvest <ul><li>Get the heat out and keep it out </li></ul><ul><li>There is a lot of water involved </li></ul><ul><li...
 
Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor We...
 
Labor hiring good help <ul><li>Have an honest job description </li></ul><ul><li>Have them come to the farm for a face to f...
Labor doing the work <ul><li>Know the job yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Be organized and have a daily plan </li></ul><ul><li>...
Season Extension is really about    Climate Modification <ul><li>Air Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Temperature (the k...
Decision Time <ul><li>What factor are you trying to modify?  Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What problem are you trying to correct...
 
 
 
The Season Extension Continuum <ul><li>South facing fields </li></ul><ul><li>Raised beds </li></ul><ul><li>Orient beds Eas...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>The New Organic Grower - Coleman </li></ul><ul><li>The Winter Harvest ...
Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor We...
Record Keeping Tools <ul><li>Record the things that give you the information  you  need to make decisions </li></ul><ul><l...
Tips to keeping records <ul><li>Make it simple so you will do it </li></ul><ul><li>Write it down and keep all receipts </l...
Production Plan
 
 
 
Market Records <ul><li>Need to know what went  and  what came home. </li></ul><ul><li>This is hard to do  </li></ul><ul><u...
Market Record Sheet
 
Sales Chart
Accounting Software <ul><li>Quicken Home and Business $80 </li></ul><ul><li>Quickbooks Pro $160 </li></ul><ul><li>The  Qui...
Quicken  vs.  Quickbooks <ul><li>Very simple </li></ul><ul><li>Invoices </li></ul><ul><li>Product tracking </li></ul><ul><...
 
What do we want to know? <ul><li>Total business profitability </li></ul><ul><li>Compare income year to date </li></ul><ul>...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Costs per vegetable bed <ul><li>3 Acres in annuals- 12 blocks with 22 beds each= 264 beds </li></ul><ul><li>1 acre in pere...
Vegetable income per bed <ul><li>Total veg income $52,388  ÷ 126 beds = $416/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes $24,458 ÷ 22 b...
Money, Money, Money <ul><li>Borrow only for long term items </li></ul><ul><li>Pay cash for everything you can </li></ul><u...
Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Market Farm Forms </li></ul><ul><li>The Quickbooks Farm Accounting Coo...
Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor We...
Higher Selling Price Most time off the farm Smaller scale operation Higher quality Lower volume Higher management input Mo...
 
 
2005 1986
Keys to Marketing Success <ul><li>Diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>High Quality </li></u...
Keys to Marketing Success diversification <ul><li>Multiple marketing options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different crops </li></...
Keys to Marketing Success specialization <ul><li>Differentiate yourself from the other market sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Gr...
 
 
Keys to Marketing Success high quality <ul><li>Quality is more important than price </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper stage of ...
Keys to Marketing Success display <ul><li>Good displays attract customers </li></ul><ul><li>Make it look like a lot </li><...
 
 
Keys to Marketing Success consistency <ul><li>You need to be there every week once you start </li></ul><ul><li>Have a cons...
Keys to  Marketing  Success customer relations <ul><li>This is what it is all about </li></ul><ul><li>Tie them to you and ...
 
Keys to  Marketing  Success participate in market governance <ul><li>Would you let somebody else run your business? </li><...
Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>The New Farmers Market </li></ul><ul><li>Sell What You Sow: The Grower...
Keys to Success <ul><li>Good markets </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing Education </li></ul><ul><li>Good Records </li></ul><ul><...
 
 
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Advanced organic vegetable production and marketing ssawg 2011

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Transcript of "Advanced organic vegetable production and marketing ssawg 2011"

  1. 1. Advanced Organic Vegetable Production and Marketing Alex Hitt Peregrine Farm Graham, NC www.peregrinefarm.net
  2. 2. SCHEDULE Wednesday January 19th, 2011 8:00-8:45 Introductions and Burning Issues Identification: 8:30-9:00 Peregrine Farm Story 9:00-9:30 Potomac Vegetable Farms Story 9:30-10:45 Soils, Fertility and Rotations Break 11:00-12:30 Planting Considerations LUNCH 12:30 – 1:30 1:30-2:00 Profitable Crops 2:00-3:00 Weeds and Pests 3:00-3:30 Harvest and Post Harvest Break 3:45-4:30 Labor 4:30-5:00 Questions Thursday January 20th, 2011 8:00-8:30 Season Extension 8:30-9:30 Business Management Issues and Retirement Planning 9:30-10:00 Marketing 10:00-10:30 More Questions 10:30-11:00 Wrap up and Evaluation
  3. 3. Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor Weed Control Harvest & Post-Harvest Pest Management Irrigation Trellising
  4. 4. Advanced Thinking
  5. 5. Each Situation is Different site specific Nothing Is Fixed In Stone a goal to work towards Rome Wasn't Built In A Day long term perspective They're Not Makin' Anymore Of It have to preserve and improve the natural resource This Isn't Easy complex information and management dependent systems Keep It Simple and Close to Home Local is best We're Runnin' Out of Some of The Stuff They're Not Makin' Anymore Of only 40 years of oil and 60 years of phosphorus left Environmental Social Economic Alex’s Laws of Sustainability Business
  6. 6. The Social Component It’s About Quality of Life <ul><li>Employees and Family </li></ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market, CSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chefs, Wholesale Produce Buyers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighbors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fellow Farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Towns people </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Peregrine Farm history <ul><li>First generation farmers </li></ul><ul><li>First crops planted in 1982 (blackberries and raspberries for PYO) </li></ul><ul><li>First restaurant sales 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>First vegetables and flowers 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>First wholesale sales 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Last PYO sales 1989 </li></ul>
  8. 10. 1981 Today Rome wasn’t built in a day
  9. 11. Today 1986
  10. 12. Peregrine Farm crop diversification <ul><li>1982 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 acres each blackberries and raspberries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 acre annual vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 ¼ acre annual cut flowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¼ acre blueberries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/2 acre perennial and woody cut flowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 turkeys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¾ acre covered/protected production </li></ul></ul>
  11. 15. Peregrine Farm change in marketing <ul><li>Early years- all PYO </li></ul><ul><li>1986-1995- 50% wholesale, 50% PYO and farmers’ market (4 grocery stores, a few restaurants, 1 Saturday market) </li></ul><ul><li>1996+- 75% farmers’ market (2 days), ~15% wholesale (1 grocery store), </li></ul><ul><li>~10% restaurants (8-17 chef owned all picked up at market ) </li></ul>
  12. 16. Keys to Success <ul><li>Good markets </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing Education </li></ul><ul><li>Good Records </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>High Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Participate In The Greater Farming Community </li></ul><ul><li>Teach </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul>
  13. 17. Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor Weed Control Harvest & Post-Harvest Pest Management Irrigation Trellising Soil Fertility -get the soil right -don't depend on supplements, you will fail -Two phases 1.Building 2.Maintaining balance -Sources of Fertility -on site- nutrient cycling, manure, cover crops -off site- think about all the costs
  14. 21. Sustainable Soil Management <ul><li>Three parts of soil </li></ul><ul><li>physical- sand/silt/clay </li></ul><ul><li>can’t do much to change other than additions of OM and when and how you till </li></ul><ul><li>biological- organic matter and the soil food web that feeds on it </li></ul><ul><li>chemical- nutrients </li></ul>
  15. 23. Biological <ul><li>Organic matter maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding the beast </li></ul><ul><li>Where does OM come from? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crop residue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cover crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inoculate the soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compost </li></ul></ul>
  16. 26. Biological <ul><li>Organic matter maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>The right conditions to maximize biological activity: </li></ul><ul><li>warmth </li></ul><ul><li>aeration </li></ul><ul><li>moisture </li></ul><ul><li>near neutral pH (6.0 up to 6.5 in cooler climates) </li></ul><ul><li>This will release the most nutrients but also burn up the most organic matter </li></ul>
  17. 27. Biological <ul><li>Organic matter maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>till as little as possible which reduces aeration and warmth </li></ul><ul><li>tilling when either cool or dry will burn up less O.M. </li></ul><ul><li>a reasonable goal is about 1/2 the surrounding natural O.M. levels </li></ul><ul><li>trying to attain the slow burn, constant release during the growing season </li></ul>
  18. 28. Legumes and Nitrogen Fixation <ul><li>Rhizobium bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Inoculate or not? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh inoculant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct rhizobia species for the crop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becker Underwood 801 Dayton Avenue Ames, Iowa 50010 (515) 232-5907 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.beckerunderwood.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximum N at about ½ bloom </li></ul>
  19. 31. Cover Crops <ul><li>Annuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biennials </li></ul><ul><li>Perennials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Brassicas </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations are best </li></ul>
  20. 32. Winter Annual Cover Crops <ul><li>Legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Crimson Clover </li></ul><ul><li>Hairy Vetch </li></ul><ul><li>Winter Peas </li></ul><ul><li>Red Clover </li></ul><ul><li>Brassicas </li></ul><ul><li>Rapeseed </li></ul><ul><li>Mustards </li></ul><ul><li>Radishes (oil seed and forage) </li></ul><ul><li>Grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Rye (grain) </li></ul><ul><li>Oats </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Triticale </li></ul><ul><li>Barley </li></ul>
  21. 34. Summer Annual Cover Crops <ul><li>Legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Soybeans </li></ul><ul><li>Cowpeas </li></ul><ul><li>Velvetbean </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnhemp </li></ul><ul><li>Grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Sorghum-Sudangrass </li></ul><ul><li>Millets </li></ul><ul><li>Buckwheat </li></ul>
  22. 36. Biennial and Perennial Cover Crops <ul><li>Legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet Clover </li></ul><ul><li>White Clover </li></ul><ul><li>Lespedezas </li></ul><ul><li>Grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Fescues </li></ul><ul><li>Perennial Rye grass </li></ul><ul><li>Orchard grass </li></ul><ul><li>Bermuda grass </li></ul>
  23. 37. Nutrient Management <ul><li>Cation Exchange Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cation nutrients- K, Ca, Mg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test at the same time every year (fall best) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only way to monitor the mineral nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull many samples from a field in a Z pattern when soil is not wet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix in a clean plastic bucket </li></ul></ul>
  24. 40. Nutrient Management <ul><li>Not just a substitution of materials-rethink the entire system and ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Where do they come from? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crop residues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cover crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rock powders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seed meals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>animal by-products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Know your area-do the math! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One acre is 43,560 square feet, 208 feet by 208 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A quarter of an acre is 104 feet by 104 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple & close to home </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to try and close the nutrient loops </li></ul>
  25. 41. Nutrient Management <ul><li>lime- watch Mg </li></ul><ul><li>correct P&K- watch Mg </li></ul><ul><li>cover crops for N and to recycle nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>supplemental N </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seed meals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>animal by-products </li></ul></ul>
  26. 42. Nutrient Management <ul><li>What we use </li></ul><ul><li>lime- dolomitic (would use Hi-Cal) </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus (P)- prefer black rock </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium (K)- potassium sulfate 0-0-50 </li></ul><ul><li>supplemental N </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manures- Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seed meals- have used soybean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>animal by-products- now use feather meal 12%N </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compost- vermicompost only in transplants </li></ul><ul><li>cover crops for N, OM and to recycle nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter- Oats/Crimson Clover, Rye/Hairy Vetch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer- Millet/Soybeans, Sudangrass/Cowpeas </li></ul></ul>
  27. 43. Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Building Soils for Better Crops </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile Soil- A Growers Guide to Organic & Inorganic Fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Cover Crops Profitably </li></ul><ul><li>The real dirt : farmers tell about organic and low-input practices in the Northeast </li></ul><ul><li>SSAWG sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Soil Improvement Techniques for Sustainable Farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Using Mycorrhizae To Improve Soil Fertility and Plant Health </li></ul><ul><li>Managing for Healthy Roots </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Cover Crops for Fertility </li></ul>
  28. 44. Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor Weed Control Harvest & Post-Harvest Pest Management Irrigation Trellising Rotations -the most important pest management tool -hand in hand with Soil Fertility -diversity is the key ingredient -include cover crops, animals (pastures), perennial crops and rest periods in planning
  29. 45. Why Bother? <ul><li>“ From his experience as a researcher at Rutgers, Firmin Bear stated that well-thought-out crop rotation is worth 75% of everything else that might be done, including fertilization, tillage, and pest control. </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely are all principles of crop rotation applied as thoroughly as they might be in order to garner all of their potential benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>To my mind, crop rotation is the most important practice in a multiple-cropping program.”-Eliot Coleman </li></ul>
  30. 46. What is Crop Rotation? <ul><li>A planned system of growing different kinds of crops in recurrent succession on the same piece of land </li></ul><ul><li>Generally the aim is to plant crops that are not related botanically, do not share the same nutrient requirements, and do not share the same pest problems </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation is both spatial (crops move over an area) and temporal (crops change over time) </li></ul>
  31. 47. Why Is Crop Rotation Important? <ul><li>Crop Rotation is planned diversity, which provides stability to biological systems </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation breaks up disease, weed, and insect life cycles by spacing susceptible crops at intervals sufficient to hinder the buildup of their specific pest organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation encourages better use of soil nutrients and amendments </li></ul>
  32. 48. Why Is Crop Rotation Important? <ul><li>Rotation preserves and improves soil structure </li></ul><ul><li>A good rotation plan can improve efficiency on the farm </li></ul><ul><li>Crops can affect or be affected by the preceding or succeeding crop </li></ul>
  33. 49. Three Types of Rotations <ul><li>Cash crop based </li></ul><ul><li>Cover crop based </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient based </li></ul>
  34. 50. Rotation Guidelines <ul><li>Separate similar crops or families of crops as much as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apiaceae (Carrot Family): carrot, parsnip, parsley, celery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asteraceae (Sunflower Family): lettuce, endive, radicchio, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brassicaceae (Mustard Family): cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, turnip, radish, Chinese cabbage, kale, collards, rutabaga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot Family): beet, Swiss chard, spinach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convolvulaceae (Bindweed Family): sweet potato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cucurbitaceae (Gourd Family): cucumber, muskmelon, watermelon, squash, pumpkin, gourd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fabaceae (Pea Family): garden pea, snap bean, lima bean, soybean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liliaceae (Onion Family): onion, garlic, leek, shallot, chive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malvaceae (Mallow Family): okra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poaceae (Grass Family): sweet corn, popcorn, ornamental corn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solanaceae (Nightshade Family): tomato, pepper, eggplant, potato, husk tomato </li></ul></ul>
  35. 52. Rotation Guidelines (cont’d) <ul><li>Alternate cover crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>legumes/grasses, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cool-season/warm-season </li></ul></ul>
  36. 53. Rotation Guidelines (cont’d) <ul><li>Alternate heavy feeders with light feeders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy feeders : broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, collards, corn, cucumbers, eggplant, endive, escarole, kale, kohlrabi, lettuce, okra, onions, parsley, pumpkins, rhubarb, spinach, squash, tomatoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light feeders : beets, carrots, garlic, leeks, mustard, parsnips, potatoes, radishes, rutabagas, shallots, sweet potatoes, Swiss chard, turnips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil builders : alfalfa, broad beans, clover, lima beans, peanuts, peas, snap beans, soybeans, vetch </li></ul></ul>
  37. 54. Rotation Guidelines (cont’d) <ul><li>Alternate flowering crops with vegetative crops </li></ul><ul><li>Place crops with different canopy heights next to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate cool season crops with warm season crops </li></ul><ul><li>Be mindful of the allelopathic effects of certain crops </li></ul>
  38. 55. Rotation Guidelines (cont’d) <ul><li>Alternate deep-rooted crops with shallow-rooted crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow-rooted crops are those whose main root system is in the top 1-2 feet of soil. Examples are cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, celery, sweet corn, onion, white potato, and radish. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderately deep-rooted crops are those that have the main root system in the top 1-4 feet of soil. Examples are snap bean, carrot, cucumber, eggplant, peas, pepper, and summer squash. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep-rooted crops are those whose main root system is in the top 1-6 feet of soil. Examples are cantaloupe, pumpkin, tomato, and watermelon. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 56. Tips to make it easier to “live” with a Rotation <ul><li>“A rotation that really suits your farm will create a structure that actually allows for a lot of options and flexibility. What’s really remarkable is how many aspects of a market garden can be rotated and integrated in an organized fashion.” – Anne and Eric Nordell, Beech Grove Farm, Pennsylvania </li></ul>
  40. 57. Tips to make it easier to “live” with a Rotation <ul><li>Make rotational units (blocks/sections/fields) the same size if possible, with the size large enough to hold either the crop with the most space/production requirements or half of it </li></ul><ul><li>If the rotational unit is not filled with cash crops then grow a cover crop </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for expansion </li></ul>
  41. 59. Tips to make it easier to “live” with a Rotation <ul><li>You can have more than one rotation scheme on a farm </li></ul>
  42. 60. Tips to make it easier to “live” with a Rotation <ul><li>Try and have rotational units with crops going in at the same time and coming out at the same time to better accommodate planting and turning under of cover crops </li></ul><ul><li>Try and group crops with similar cultural requirements (weeding, irrigation, etc.) </li></ul>
  43. 61. Tips to make it easier to “live” with a Rotation <ul><li>Maintain good records of your crop rotation plans! </li></ul><ul><li>“ Although vegetable crop rotations are unlikely to be fulfilled exactly as planned, it is still advisable to develop a written plan and to follow it up by writing down what was actually planted where. Such record-keeping is key to improving rotations over time, since it helps track what worked and what didn’t) – information that should be the basis of future plans.” – Vernon Grubinger </li></ul>
  44. 62. Rotation with Livestock and Perennials <ul><li>Moving animals annually through cropping fields. </li></ul>
  45. 63. Rotation with Livestock and Perennials <ul><li>Alternating annuals production with several years in soil building perennials. </li></ul>
  46. 64. Steps to Planning a Rotation <ul><li>Identify all crops to be grown and expected acreage requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Using the guidelines from above, group crops based on botanical family, production practices, pest complex, or other features </li></ul><ul><li>Define the size of the rotational unit </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the land area (number of rotational units) needed for each grouping of crops </li></ul>
  47. 65. Steps to Planning a Rotation <ul><li>Make a map of available farm land showing size of fields and locations of rotational units, noting significant differences among fields such as drainage, deer fencing, or weed problems. Make extra copies of this map. </li></ul><ul><li>Using copies of the farm map, compare possible rotations. </li></ul><ul><li>Or use 3 X 5 cards, each one a rotational unit, arranging them until as many guidelines as possible are met. </li></ul>
  48. 67. <ul><li>“ Time spent planning a rotation is never wasted. Not only will you learn a great deal about important biological balances on the farm, but the results will be so effective in halting problems before they occur that you may sometimes have to remind yourself that a lot is happening. Very often farmers fail to take full advantage of a well-planned rotation, because rotations don’t have any computable costs and because they work so well at preventing problems that farmers are not aware of all the benefits. Those benefits are, in a sense, invisible.” – Eliot Coleman </li></ul>
  49. 70. Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>The New Organic Grower - Coleman </li></ul><ul><li>Crop Rotation on Organic Farms, a planning manual - Mohler & Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Vegetable Production From Start-Up to Market - Grubinger </li></ul>
  50. 71. Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor Weed Control Harvest & Post-Harvest Pest Management Irrigation Trellising Planting Considerations -efficiency and access -planting system -equipment -transplants vs. direct seeding -spacing -timing -season extension
  51. 72. Farm Design Considerations <ul><li>Infrastructure Development (in order of importance) </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation First! </li></ul><ul><li>Well, pond, buried mainlines to fields </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Your planting system (wide bed, narrow bed, row crop) will determine your equipment width and implement needs </li></ul><ul><li>Supply and Equipment Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Centrally located and easy access to fields and supply trucks </li></ul><ul><li>Transplant Greenhouse </li></ul><ul><li>Water, power, gas. supply storage, seeding area, germination box or room </li></ul><ul><li>Packing Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Washing, grading, packing, cool storage. Lots of water use and runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Deer/Livestock Fencing </li></ul><ul><li>May be needed sooner depending on deer pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Season Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to grow the crop in its main season first </li></ul><ul><li>Your house doesn’t make you money! </li></ul>
  52. 76. In the Field Soil Preparation <ul><li>Do major/deep soil work in fall (or when it’s the driest) </li></ul><ul><li>Spread mineral soil amendments in fall </li></ul><ul><li>Raised beds drain and warm up faster in the spring </li></ul><ul><li>Turn under cover crop 4 weeks before planting </li></ul><ul><li>Day of planting apply additional N and shallowly till for good seed bed </li></ul>
  53. 78. In the Field Soil Preparation-Equipment Needs <ul><li>Deep soil turning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom plow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsoilers, field cultivators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Residue incorporation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manure/compost spreader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk harrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rototiller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spaders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seed bed preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bed shapers/hillers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilizer spreader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rototiller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rolling baskets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand raking </li></ul></ul>
  54. 82. In the Field Planting system <ul><li>Tractor tire width determines bed width or row spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Straight-parallel rows facilitate accurate and fast cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Spacing between rows affects cultivation, irrigation and trellising </li></ul><ul><li>Spacing between plants dependent on crop </li></ul>
  55. 84. In the Field Planting system <ul><li>Synthetic mulches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally laid in fall with drip irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black, white, colored plastics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape fabric </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural mulches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied just before or after planting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper, straw, leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bare ground </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close spacing, fast crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about the cultivation system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No-till </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependant on heavy cover crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul>
  56. 86. In the Field Seeding <ul><li>A fine seed bed is needed for good soil to seed contact </li></ul><ul><li>Soil worked too fine will result in crusting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old row covers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seeders- depends of seed size and spacing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earthway $90-$109 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glaser (1 row) $169 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Johnny’s European push seeder $295 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jang Clean Seeder $375+ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planet Jr. $500 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tractor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plate- Planet Jr. $535 per row </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belt- Stanhay $1300 push model, $1500 per row </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum- Matermac, Monosem $4700 and up, per row </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 89. In the Field Transplanting <ul><li>Water flats well before planting </li></ul><ul><li>Mark rows </li></ul><ul><li>Cover root balls with soil to prevent drying </li></ul><ul><li>Water in </li></ul>
  58. 91. Irrigation <ul><li>Do not even consider high value crops with out irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Drip most efficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less water required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses less energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer disease problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some crops more efficient to water overhead (food safety regs.?) </li></ul>
  59. 94. Irrigation <ul><li>Work with a good irrigation company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They will design for free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You need good service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water is the limiting factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It takes more than you think. ¼ acre of beds with one drip line per bed takes approximately 12 gallons per minute, 750 gal. per hour, 1500 gal. per day every day </li></ul></ul>
  60. 95. Irrigation <ul><li>How much water? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G=50×Ep×S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>G=gallons required per day per 100’ of row </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ep=average daily evaporation in July, inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S=row spacing in feet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 50×.27×4=54 gallons/day/100’ of row </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How long to irrigate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation hrs./day=G÷60×R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>G=gallons required per day per 100’ of row </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drip line flow rate, gal./minute/100’ of line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 54÷60×.5=1.8 hrs. per day </li></ul></ul>
  61. 96. Trellising <ul><li>Trellising takes more labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It needs to be fast to put up and take down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trellising improves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>space efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disease control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>harvesting speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crop quality </li></ul></ul>
  62. 100. Transplant Production <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>The only way to produce certain crops </li></ul><ul><li>Early season production </li></ul><ul><li>Insure true variety </li></ul><ul><li>Grown for your schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Better quality plants </li></ul><ul><li>Less disease and insect problems </li></ul>
  63. 101. Transplant Production
  64. 102. Keys to Transplant Production <ul><li>Proper cell size </li></ul><ul><li>Soil less potting mix </li></ul><ul><li>Correct germination requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Correct watering </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Good airflow in greenhouse </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the greenhouse and area around clean </li></ul><ul><li>Harden-off before transplanting to field </li></ul>
  65. 103. Containers <ul><li>Liners in trays </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible thin plastic trays </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid plastic trays </li></ul><ul><li>Styrofoam trays (Speedling) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual pots </li></ul><ul><li>Common flats </li></ul><ul><li>Soil blocks </li></ul>
  66. 105. Germination <ul><li>Fill flats well </li></ul><ul><li>Wet soil completely </li></ul><ul><li>Seeders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cover seed (maybe) </li></ul><ul><li>Water lightly </li></ul><ul><li>Keep at proper germination temperature with high humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Move out to light as soon as the cotyledons appear </li></ul>
  67. 107. Growing On <ul><li>Adequate light </li></ul><ul><li>Water early in day until water drains from bottom of plug </li></ul><ul><li>Cool nights and good airflow result in sturdy plants </li></ul><ul><li>Cool greenhouses increase time to produce a transplant </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to foliar feed after two sets of true leaves appear </li></ul><ul><li>Move up to larger containers after two sets of true leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Harden-off a week before planting to the field </li></ul>
  68. 109. Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>The New Organic Grower </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Vegetable Production From Start-Up to Market </li></ul><ul><li>Parks Success With Seed or The New Seed Starters Handbook </li></ul>
  69. 110. Profitable Crops <ul><li>Every market is different </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate yourself from the other market sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Grow more varieties of what you do well </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t be everything to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Produce what you really like but: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“grow what sells not sell what grows” </li></ul></ul>
  70. 111. US Fresh Vegetable Rankings 2004 <ul><li>By Value of Production </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Iceberg Lettuce </li></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf Lettuce </li></ul><ul><li>Onions </li></ul><ul><li>Peppers </li></ul><ul><li>Carrots </li></ul><ul><li>Broccoli </li></ul><ul><li>Corn </li></ul><ul><li>Cantaloupe </li></ul><ul><li>Watermelon </li></ul><ul><li>Cabbage </li></ul><ul><li>Snap Beans </li></ul><ul><li>Celery </li></ul><ul><li>Cucumbers </li></ul><ul><li>Cauliflower </li></ul><ul><li>Asparagus </li></ul><ul><li>Spinach </li></ul><ul><li>Garlic </li></ul><ul><li>Honeydews </li></ul><ul><li>Artichokes </li></ul><ul><li>By Weight Produced </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Iceberg Lettuce </li></ul><ul><li>Onions </li></ul><ul><li>Watermelon </li></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Carrots </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf Lettuce </li></ul><ul><li>Corn </li></ul><ul><li>Cabbage </li></ul><ul><li>Cantaloupe </li></ul><ul><li>Peppers </li></ul><ul><li>Celery </li></ul><ul><li>Broccoli </li></ul><ul><li>Cucumbers </li></ul><ul><li>Cauliflower </li></ul><ul><li>Snap Beans </li></ul><ul><li>Garlic </li></ul><ul><li>Honeydews </li></ul><ul><li>Spinach </li></ul><ul><li>Artichokes </li></ul><ul><li>By Per Capita Consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Retail fresh </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes 44.7# </li></ul><ul><li>Iceberg Lettuce 20.9# </li></ul><ul><li>Onions 20.4# </li></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes 16.4# </li></ul><ul><li>Watermelon 11.7# </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf Lettuce 11.2# +(12) </li></ul><ul><li>Corn 8.9# + (8) </li></ul><ul><li>Cantaloupe 8.7# </li></ul><ul><li>Carrots 8.6# </li></ul><ul><li>Cabbage 7.8# </li></ul><ul><li>Bell Peppers 6.5# +(11) </li></ul><ul><li>Cucumbers 5.8# </li></ul><ul><li>Celery 5.6# </li></ul><ul><li>Broccoli 5.4# </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet Potatoes 4.2# </li></ul><ul><li>Garlic 2.1# </li></ul><ul><li>Honeydews 2.0# </li></ul><ul><li>Snap Beans 1.8# +(19) </li></ul><ul><li>Spinach 1.8# +(20) </li></ul><ul><li>Cauliflower 1.6# </li></ul><ul><li>Asparagus .9# </li></ul>
  71. 112. Hmmm? Statistics <ul><li>+(X) means increase from 1997 and previous rank </li></ul><ul><li>Total per capita fresh consumption is 189.5# in 2004. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>193# in 1998, 202 # in 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>174# in 2000, 167 # in 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total per capita processed consumption is 218# (Tomatoes canned 73#, Potatoes frozen 61#, Corn canned and frozen 20#, 71%) and going up in 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Total per capita consumption of fruits and vegetables 709# in 1998, 680 # in 2007 </li></ul>
  72. 113. Vegetable income per bed <ul><li>Total veg income $52,388 ÷ 126 beds = $416/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes $24,458 ÷ 22 beds = $1112/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Lettuce $9297 ÷ 28 beds = $332/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Radish $525 ÷ 2 beds = $263/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Peas $595 ÷ 6 beds = $99/bed </li></ul>
  73. 114. Crop Scheduling- Making a Plan <ul><li>What season does it grow best in? </li></ul><ul><li>a. What season will it not grow in? </li></ul><ul><li>b. best temperatures for growth </li></ul><ul><li>Can you or should you succession plant this crop? </li></ul><ul><li>a. how long does a planting produce? </li></ul><ul><li>b. how many times to plant? </li></ul><ul><li>c. how much time between plantings? </li></ul><ul><li>Direct seed or transplant or both? </li></ul><ul><li>a. if direct seeded how long does it take to germinate? </li></ul><ul><li>b. how long does it take to grow a transplant? </li></ul><ul><li>Germination Requirements? </li></ul><ul><li>a. Optimum soil temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Plant spacing? </li></ul><ul><li>a. How many plants per bed? </li></ul><ul><li>b. How many seeds per foot of row? </li></ul>
  74. 115. Sorted by crop
  75. 116. Sorted by planting order based on temperatures
  76. 117. Steps to making a plan cool season crops <ul><li>Determine last harvest date based on temperatures for good growth </li></ul><ul><li>Count weeks backwards to get the plant in the field date based on days to maturity </li></ul><ul><li>If transplanted count the weeks backwards to get the seeding to flat date based on the weeks to grow a transplant </li></ul><ul><li>Take into account slower germination in cool soils early and slower growth in the field </li></ul><ul><li>Take into account faster growth in the last few weeks of the good growth period as temperatures and day length increase </li></ul>
  77. 118. Steps to making a plan direct seeded spinach example <ul><li>Maximum avg. temp 75 °- ~ 6/15 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 week of harvest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest window- 6/11 , 6/4, 5/28, 5/21, 5/14, 5/7, 4/30 , 4/23 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Days to maturity 42 or 6 weeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed to field on 4/30 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Succession plant every week (working backwards) until minimum soil temp for germination is reached- 45 ° </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4/23, 4/16, 4/9, 4/2, 3/26 , 3/19, 3/12 , 3/5 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take into account slower germination in cool soils early and slower growth in the field </li></ul><ul><li>Approximate soil temps- 40 ° – 2/15, 45 ° – 3/1, 50 ° – 3/15, 60 ° – 4/15 </li></ul>
  78. 119. Steps to making a plan transplanted lettuce example <ul><li>Maximum avg. temp 75 °- ~ 6/15 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 week of harvest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>harvest window- 6/11 6/4, 5/28 , 5/21 , 5/14, 5/7, 4/30, 4/23, 4/16 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Days to maturity (from johnny’s) for full heads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>r edleaf variety Vulcan 52 days = 7+ weeks (direct seeded) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subtract 10-14 days if transplanted = 5 weeks optimum growth conditions (60 ° -65°, ~4/15-5/7). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add up to 3 weeks or more in cooler weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transplant to field on 4/16 (5 weeks), 2/19 (8 weeks) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earliest possible transplant date ~2/1, temps >20 ° </li></ul><ul><li>It takes 5-7 weeks to grow a transplant, shorter with warmer temps and longer days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed to flat date 3/12 (5 weeks), 1/1 (7 weeks) </li></ul></ul>
  79. 121. Steps to making a plan warm season crops <ul><li>Determine last frost date </li></ul><ul><li>Plant first planting at coolest optimum soil temp or air temp </li></ul><ul><li>If transplanted count the weeks backwards to get the seeding to flat date based on the weeks to grow a transplant </li></ul><ul><li>Last planting generally 8-10 weeks before first frost for direct seeded crops </li></ul><ul><li>For tomatoes last planting by July 1st </li></ul>
  80. 122. Steps to making a plan fall cool season crops <ul><li>Crops need to reach maturity by the first frost date </li></ul><ul><li>Crops stop growing when daylight hours drop below 10 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Most crops are direct seeded in August and early September </li></ul><ul><li>Transplanted crops in late August and early September </li></ul>
  81. 123. Production Plan
  82. 128. Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Knott's Handbook for Vegetable Growers </li></ul><ul><li>How to Grow More Vegetables Than You Ever thought Possible on Less Land Than You Ever Imagined </li></ul>
  83. 129. Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor Weed Control Harvest & Post-Harvest Pest Management Irrigation Trellising Weed Control, Irrigation, Trellising -timing, rotation, and planting decisions are the keys to weed control -do not even consider high value crops with out irrigation -drip most efficient, fewer disease problems -trellising improves space efficiency, disease control, harvesting speed, crop quality
  84. 130. Keys to Weed Control <ul><li>Reduce weed seed bank </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation design </li></ul><ul><li>Timing is everything </li></ul><ul><li>Plant spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Planting system </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul>
  85. 132. Tools for Weed Control <ul><li>Transplanting </li></ul><ul><li>High density planting </li></ul><ul><li>Mulches </li></ul><ul><li>Mowing </li></ul><ul><li>Hand tools </li></ul><ul><li>Tractor equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Flame weeding and stale seed beds </li></ul>
  86. 137. Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>The New Organic Grower </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Vegetable Production From Start-Up to Market </li></ul><ul><li>Steel in The Field-a Farmer's Guide to Weed Management Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable Farmers and their Weed Control Machines- video </li></ul><ul><li>SSAWG sessions </li></ul><ul><li>My Life With These Plants Called Weeds: Sharing Challenges and Triumphs </li></ul>
  87. 138. Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor Weed Control Harvest & Post-Harvest Pest Management Irrigation Trellising Pest Management -if you did everything else right this is the least important part of the system -problems are generally an indication that some part of the system is not working properly
  88. 139. The 4 legged pests <ul><li>More damage than the flying and crawling kinds </li></ul><ul><li>Deer adapt very quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Fencing is the only real answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall standard fencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric </li></ul></ul>
  89. 141. Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Pests Of The Garden And Small Farm- A Growers Guide to Using Less Pesticide </li></ul><ul><li>Rodale’s Color Handbook of Garden Insects </li></ul><ul><li>SSAWG sessions </li></ul><ul><li>What’s an Organic Grower To Do About Those Pesky Pests?- Debbie Roos, NC </li></ul><ul><li>What's New in Ecological Pest Management: News That You Can Use in Your Fields Today </li></ul>
  90. 142. Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor Weed Control Harvest & Post-Harvest Pest Management Irrigation Trellising Harvest and Post Harvest -proper time and maturity -get the heat out and keep it out -quit messin' with it -store it right -get it to market ASAP
  91. 143. Harvest <ul><li>This is where the majority of the labor is </li></ul><ul><li>This is where the bulk of Food Safety and GAP practices occur </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency and good tools are key </li></ul><ul><li>Quit Messin’ with it! Reduce the number of times a piece is handled </li></ul><ul><li>Heat is the enemy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest in the cool of the day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep it out of the sun </li></ul></ul>
  92. 147. Post Harvest <ul><li>Get the heat out and keep it out </li></ul><ul><li>There is a lot of water involved </li></ul><ul><li>Store it at the right temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool season crops close to 32 ° </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm season crops 45 ° </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomatoes never below 55 ° </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get it to market ASAP </li></ul>
  93. 149. Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor Weed Control Harvest & Post-Harvest Pest Management Irrigation Trellising Labor -the most limiting factor in the system -the most expensive input -spread labor out, balance production -use efficiently and sparingly
  94. 151. Labor hiring good help <ul><li>Have an honest job description </li></ul><ul><li>Have them come to the farm for a face to face interview </li></ul><ul><li>Ask why they want to work on a farm </li></ul><ul><li>Do they have off farm obligations? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they have any physical limitations? </li></ul><ul><li>Pay them well </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible </li></ul>
  95. 152. Labor doing the work <ul><li>Know the job yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Be organized and have a daily plan </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why it’s done that way </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t have people work alone </li></ul><ul><li>Teach quality and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>It’s as much about quality of life as the job itself </li></ul>
  96. 153. Season Extension is really about Climate Modification <ul><li>Air Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Temperature (the key) </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul>
  97. 154. Decision Time <ul><li>What factor are you trying to modify? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What problem are you trying to correct? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the crop valuable enough? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$10,000 per acre or more for tunnels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is there a low technology answer? </li></ul>
  98. 158. The Season Extension Continuum <ul><li>South facing fields </li></ul><ul><li>Raised beds </li></ul><ul><li>Orient beds East-West </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the soil with black plastic or fabric </li></ul><ul><li>Use large transplants of early varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Plant windbreaks </li></ul><ul><li>Floating row covers </li></ul><ul><li>Low tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>High tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>Shade cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Combined techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Heated greenhouses </li></ul>
  99. 168. Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>The New Organic Grower - Coleman </li></ul><ul><li>The Winter Harvest Handbook - Coleman </li></ul><ul><li>SSAWG Sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Getting Started with High Tunnels: Getting Help from NRCS </li></ul>
  100. 169. Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor Weed Control Harvest & Post-Harvest Pest Management Irrigation Trellising Information -The glue that binds it all together -gathering is a continuous job -from where? records customer feedback conferences and trade shows farm tours written info from all sources -study, observe, think! Marketing Plan -affects everything -sets the whole train in motion -where to market and why -what to market and why -when to market
  101. 170. Record Keeping Tools <ul><li>Record the things that give you the information you need to make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Production Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Field History </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Work Records </li></ul><ul><li>Market Records </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Invoices </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Records </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Chart </li></ul>
  102. 171. Tips to keeping records <ul><li>Make it simple so you will do it </li></ul><ul><li>Write it down and keep all receipts </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a regular time to do office work </li></ul><ul><li>The computer is a powerful tool </li></ul><ul><li>Enter your sales weekly </li></ul><ul><li>Have sales books printed </li></ul>
  103. 172. Production Plan
  104. 176. Market Records <ul><li>Need to know what went and what came home. </li></ul><ul><li>This is hard to do </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry erase board next to walk-in coolers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next day return inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 cash boxes one for flowers and one vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also need to know price, unit and things that may have affected the days sales </li></ul><ul><li>We enter this information as an invoice in the computer </li></ul>
  105. 177. Market Record Sheet
  106. 179. Sales Chart
  107. 180. Accounting Software <ul><li>Quicken Home and Business $80 </li></ul><ul><li>Quickbooks Pro $160 </li></ul><ul><li>The QuickBooks Farm Accounting Cookbook www.goflagship.com/products/cbkhome.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Market Farm Forms- Rosenweig & Kaye-Blake $55 </li></ul><ul><li>Farm-Biz $250 www.farmbiz.com </li></ul>
  108. 181. Quicken vs. Quickbooks <ul><li>Very simple </li></ul><ul><li>Invoices </li></ul><ul><li>Product tracking </li></ul><ul><li>No payroll </li></ul><ul><li>Categories and sub-categories </li></ul><ul><li>Classes and sub-classes </li></ul><ul><li>Many bells and whistles </li></ul><ul><li>Invoices </li></ul><ul><li>Product tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Payroll </li></ul><ul><li>Time tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Credit cards </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts & sub-accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Items and sub-items </li></ul><ul><li>Classes and sub-classes </li></ul>
  109. 183. What do we want to know? <ul><li>Total business profitability </li></ul><ul><li>Compare income year to date </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different markets and customers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Track certain expenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Payroll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New capital projects (packing shed addition) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Track certain crop or enterprise numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New enterprises (turkeys) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yields (lettuce by type) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income per bed </li></ul></ul>
  110. 201. Costs per vegetable bed <ul><li>3 Acres in annuals- 12 blocks with 22 beds each= 264 beds </li></ul><ul><li>1 acre in perennials </li></ul><ul><li>Beds irrigated- 8 blocks × 22 beds = 168 beds </li></ul><ul><li>Debt cost $5664 ÷ 4 acres = $1888/acre ÷ 88 beds/acre = $21.46/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation cost $522 ÷ 168 beds = $3.11/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Annual overhead costs $34,463 ÷ 4 acres = $8616 ÷ 88 beds = $97.91/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Veg only costs $1227 ÷ 126 beds planted = $9.74/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Total cost per bed $132.22 </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigated Annual Beds (the most valuable) </li></ul><ul><li>Debt cost $5664 ÷ 168 = $33.71/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation cost $522 ÷ 168 = $3.11/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Annual overhead costs $34,463 ÷ 168 = $205.13/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Veg only costs $1227 ÷ 126 beds planted = $9.74/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Total cost per bed $251.69 </li></ul>
  111. 202. Vegetable income per bed <ul><li>Total veg income $52,388 ÷ 126 beds = $416/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes $24,458 ÷ 22 beds = $1112/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Lettuce $9297 ÷ 28 beds = $332/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Radish $525 ÷ 2 beds = $263/bed </li></ul><ul><li>Peas $595 ÷ 6 beds = $99/bed </li></ul>
  112. 203. Money, Money, Money <ul><li>Borrow only for long term items </li></ul><ul><li>Pay cash for everything you can </li></ul><ul><li>Do you really need it? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you build it or make it? </li></ul><ul><li>Make use of timely short term loans </li></ul><ul><li>Save money for the winter </li></ul><ul><li>Pay yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Save for retirement </li></ul>
  113. 204. Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Market Farm Forms </li></ul><ul><li>The Quickbooks Farm Accounting Cookbook </li></ul><ul><li>The Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook - Richard Wiswall </li></ul><ul><li>SSAWG sessions </li></ul><ul><li>You Can’t Farm Forever: Do You Have a Plan for Retirement? </li></ul><ul><li>Why Farms Fail: What Beginning Farmers Have to Learn From Ending Farmers   </li></ul><ul><li>Know Where Your Money Goes by Keeping Good Records   </li></ul>
  114. 205. Marketing Plan Information Diversity=Balance=Sustainability Soil Fertility Rotations Farm Design & Crop Decisions Labor Weed Control Harvest & Post-Harvest Pest Management Irrigation Trellising Marketing Plan -affects everything -sets the whole train in motion -where to market and why -what to market and why -when to market
  115. 206. Higher Selling Price Most time off the farm Smaller scale operation Higher quality Lower volume Higher management input More labor required Better Feedback   Lower Selling Price Least time off the farm Larger scale operation Lower quality Higher volume Lower management input Less labor required? Poor Feedback     Farmers’ Market     Roadside Stand     CSA     PYO     Restaurants     Direct to Store Wholesale     Cooperative     Direct to Warehouse Wholesale      Brokers   More Customer Contact Less Customer Contact Where Do You Fit In?
  116. 209. 2005 1986
  117. 210. Keys to Marketing Success <ul><li>Diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>High Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Display </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Relationships </li></ul>
  118. 211. Keys to Marketing Success diversification <ul><li>Multiple marketing options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread the workload </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple crops: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread the risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand the selling season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps with consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attract more customers </li></ul></ul>
  119. 212. Keys to Marketing Success specialization <ul><li>Differentiate yourself from the other market sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Grow more varieties of what you do well </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t be everything to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Produce what you really like but: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“grow what sells not sell what grows” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is hard to display many crops in a small space </li></ul>
  120. 215. Keys to Marketing Success high quality <ul><li>Quality is more important than price </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper stage of maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good post harvest treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigorous grading (would you by it?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present yourself well </li></ul><ul><li>Be genuine and original </li></ul>
  121. 216. Keys to Marketing Success display <ul><li>Good displays attract customers </li></ul><ul><li>Make it look like a lot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He who has the biggest pile wins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stack it high and kiss it goodbye </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good signage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell your story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the products story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make them readable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t make them ask the price </li></ul></ul>
  122. 219. Keys to Marketing Success consistency <ul><li>You need to be there every week once you start </li></ul><ul><li>Have a consistent supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple plantings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have a consistent message </li></ul><ul><li>Keep good records so you know what sells and when </li></ul>
  123. 220. Keys to Marketing Success customer relations <ul><li>This is what it is all about </li></ul><ul><li>Tie them to you and your farm </li></ul><ul><li>All you need is a core group </li></ul><ul><li>Information is what they want </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsletters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm tours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recipes </li></ul></ul>
  124. 222. Keys to Marketing Success participate in market governance <ul><li>Would you let somebody else run your business? </li></ul><ul><li>Help make decisions that make sense for farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Work within the market rules </li></ul><ul><li>Be a good market citizen </li></ul>
  125. 223. Further Information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>The New Farmers Market </li></ul><ul><li>Sell What You Sow: The Growers Guide to Successful Produce Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>The Legal Guide for Direct Farm Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Growing for Market - news and ideas for market gardeners </li></ul><ul><li>SSAWG sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Attracting Customers to Your Farm – Connecting with the Community </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing Customers, Sharing Risk: Two Models for Marketing Together </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Farm Loans and the Credit Institutions that Offer Them  </li></ul><ul><li>20 Years of Innovation: Marketing and Business Decisions that Have Sustained a Family Farm  </li></ul><ul><li>Local Food Goes to College </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced CSAs: What Works and What Doesn’t </li></ul><ul><li>Using New/Social Media to Market Your Farm or organization  </li></ul>
  126. 224. Keys to Success <ul><li>Good markets </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing Education </li></ul><ul><li>Good Records </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>High Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Participate In The Greater Farming Community </li></ul><ul><li>Teach </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul>
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