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  1. 1. STRESS Margaux LoescheSLIDE 1- Stress By Margaux Loesche .Stressors : demands made by the internal or external environment that upsets balance, thus affectingphysical and psychological well-being and requiring action to restore balance. Can be defined asany event, real or imagined, cognitive, environment or biology that leads to stress.Coping :constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internaldemands that are appraised as taxing"[1] or "exceeding the resources of the person".[2]Coping is thus expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master,minimize or tolerate stress or conflict.SLIDE 2- Behavior rational and predictable, researchers found out that when exposed to stress →heart beats faster, body temperatures increases, glucose is sent to the muscles, you start eatingexcessively and the adrenal gland releases stress hormones : adrenalin. Also the physiologicalchanges of the sympathetic nervous system prepare the individual to either escape or confront thesource of stress -fight or flight-SLIDE 3- HANS SELYE → Endocrinologist (Endocrinology: The study of hormones, theirreceptors, the intracellular signaling pathways they invoke, and the diseases and conditionsassociated with them.) Famous for his work on stress : GAS General Adaptation Syndrome.Aim:To find a new hormoneMethod :Experiments on rats : injected them with ovarian extract. His hope was to uncover changes in theorganism that could not be caused by any known sex hormone.Findings:The rats developed symptoms from the extract injections → including enlargement of the adrenalcortex (Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stressresponse through the production of mineralocorticoids andglucocorticoids,including aldosterone and cortisol respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis.),atrophy of the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes and deep bleeding ulcers in the lining of thestomach and duoderm (all of which could be decreased or increased in severity by adjusting theamount of extract injected)Limitations : Humans are not rats cant generalize this study to humansRICHARD LAZARUS Observations → Argued that, for a situation to be stressful, it must beconsidered or appraised as such by the person concerned. Therefore there is not a clear cognitivecomponent to stress because any event or phenomenon, real or imagined, can be discovered orperceived as stressful. The Model consists of : a primary appraisal, secondary appraisal and stressresponse .SLIDE 4- PET SCANS- PET = Positron Emission Tomography . Stress test, they first inject theindividual with a drug used to exercise or work your heart, then they inject radioactive tracer thatattach to muscle cells to be able to see them on the scan . 3 to 4 hours later same but without drug.SLIDE 5- An important issue is that PET involves administering patients with ionising radiationg,which in high dose become dangerous. If PET is being used for research purposes it cannot be usedwith children or women of child bearing age. There are also issues with deciding what the results ofa PET scan mean. For example, imaging techniques have been used by some to provide evidencefor things like psychopathic personality disorder.
  2. 2. SLIDE 6-The term psychoneuroimmunology is used to describe the interaction between thepsychological and the physiological systems. Most psychologists agree stress has a negativeoutcome on physical health. Powell et al. ( 1967) Found that children who had been exposed tosignificant stress in their home life ( eg marital discord, alcoholism and child abuse), had impairedgrowth due to a lowering of the production of growth hormone in the pituitary gland. Stone et al.( 1987) correlated negative life experiences with respiratory illness while also arguing positive lifeexperiences decline in the run up to serious illness. He also report a correlation between a change inmood and a change in antibody concentration in bodily fluids- suggesting good mood contribute toa healthy immune system.SLIDE 7-SLIDE 8- Hans Selye : General Adaptation syndrome, stress syndrome. It is what he calls theprocess under which the body confronts “stress”. In the gas there are three stages of coping firstthere is an “alarm reaction” in which the body prepares itself for “fight or flight” . The second stageis called “the resistance stage” and involves coping, along with attempts to reverse the effects of the“alarm reaction”. The third stage is called the “exhaustion” this is reached after the individual hasbeen repeatedly exposed to stressors and can no longer cope anymore !Lazarus – Model of Stress Primary appraisal : determining whether the stressor is positive ornegative . Then Secondary Appraisal : What are your options ?, prior to how to deal with thestressor. And Stress Response : coping and problem focused coping .SLIDE 9- ADRENALINE – What is it ? Adrenaline is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland inthe body of many animals. When it is produced in the body it stimulates the heart-rate,contracts blood vessels, dilates air passages, and has a number of more minor effects. Adrenaline isnaturally produced in high-stress or physically exhilarating situations.The term "fight or flight" is often used to characterize the circumstances under whichadrenaline isreleased into the body. It is an early evolutionary adaptation to allow better coping with dangerousand unexpected situations. With dilated air passages, for example, the body is able to getmore oxygen into the lungs in a timely manner, increasing physical performance for short bursts oftime.The adrenal glands may be found directly above the kidneys in the human body, and are roughly 3inches (7.62 cm) in length. Norepinephrine (or noradrenaline) is also released from the adrenalglands when they are active. In a healthily functioning human, approximately 80% of the releasedsubstance is adrenaline, and the other 20% is norepinephrine.SLIDE 10-Glutamine, is a conditionally essential amino acid.It is used to make neurotransmitters which keep you feeling calm, focused and in control, butduring periods of stress the body cannot make its own supply of glutamine and needs an outsidesource, diet or otherwise.In handling daily stress the brain uses feel good transmitters called endorphins(opiods). When large amounts are needed to handle stress, the RATIO of manyof the other transmitters, one to another, becomes upset creating a chemicalimbalance. We begin to FEEL stress more acutely -- a sense of urgency andanxiety creates more stress. Harmful chemicals are released in our bodies thatdo damage, causing more stress. We call this vicious cycle the "stress cycle."Emotional fatigue can result, and be experienced and felt as depression.
  3. 3. The body responds to EMOTIONAL STRESS exactly as it responds toPHYSICAL DANGER. Without our being aware of it, usually not feeling it atall, our bodies are continuously reacting to emotions such as frustration,irritation, resentment, hurt, grief and anxiety -- responding to these MENTALand EMOTIONAL STRUGGLES with a primitive physiological "fight orflight" response designed to prepare our bodies to face immediate danger. Inmodern day life we dont fight, we dont flee. Instead, the high-energy chemicalsproduced in many everyday situations boil inside of us, potentially taking yearsoff our lives. Almost all the body functions and organs react to stress.Your body responds to stress with a series of physiological changes that includeincreased secretion of adrenaline, elevation of blood pressure, acceleration of theheartbeat, and greater tension in the muscles. Digestion slows or stops. Within24 to 48 hours after a stress-anxiety-anger reaction, major physicalsymptoms can and do occur. Stress creates an excellent breeding ground for illness.Increased adrenaline production causes the body to step up its metabolism ofproteins, fats and carbohydrates to quickly produce energy for the body to use.The pituitary gland increases its production of andrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH), which in turn stimulates the release of the hormones cortisone andcortisol. These have the effect of inhibiting the functioning of disease fightingwhite blood cells and suppressing the immune system response. This complex ofphysical changes known as the "fight or flight" response is also the reason thatstress can lead to nutritional deficiencies. Long-Term Stress is Particularly Dangerous.Continual stress eventually wears out the body. Consider the fact that only a fewof the veterans, Russian or German, who fought during the siege of Stalingradlived to age 50. Few lived to 45, and most died soon after their 40th birthdays.All of these individuals suffered extreme stress 24 hours a day for more than sixmonths. With Amino Acids, Vitamins, and Minerals, Opiods (Endorphin) Levels Are Maintained.High-energy chemicals are not pumped into your body to do damage. Youremain relaxed, at peace, and maintain a sense of well-being. ___________________________________ Researchers estimate that stress contributes to as many as 80% of all major illnesses that include cardiovascular disease, cancer, endocrine and metabolic disease, skin disorders and infectious ailments of all kinds.
  4. 4. Studies by the American Medical Association have shown stress to be a factor in over 75% of all illnesses today. Research linking stress to a variety of diseases and illnesses has been the subject of more than 20,000 scientific studies. ___________________________________ PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome): Dr. James Chuong, director of Baylor University Medical Schools PMS Program, has found LOW LEVELS of endorphins ("feel good" neurotransmitters) in women suffering from PMS! Afternoon DelightThe afternoon hunger that leads us to the cookie jar, soda pop or chocolate barmay have more to do with a brain chemical imbalance than actual hunger. Whenthe stress of the day accumulates and too many of our own natural "feel good"transmitters become depleted we reach for something to make us feel better.Consider the fact that chocolate contains high amounts of phenylethylamine, aneurotransmitter that causes feelings of bliss and is involved in feelings ofinfatuation. Hence, the love affair many "chocoholics" have with chocolate!Four decades of research strongly suggests that when the brain has adequatesupplies of the specific amino acids that it uses to make the transmitters thathelp us to think clearly, pay attention and sleep well, behavior tends to benormal. Did you ever notice that when you are feeling good you are less hungry? Amino Acids, Vitamins, and Minerals Therapy Neurotransmitter deficiencies can be expressed as both psychological (behavioral pattern) and physiological (physical craving) problems. Amino acid therapy provides the nutrition needed to overcome the physiological problems so that 12-step recovery programs, counseling and diets can work.Neurotransmitter Function Drugs that Affect Neurotransmitter Amino Acid Neurotransmitters Deficiencies Result Supplement InNorepinephrine Arousal, Cocaine, speed, Lack of drive, L-phenylalanine energy, drive caffeine, tobacco depression, lack of energyGABA Staying calm, Valium, alcohol, Free-floating L-glutamine relaxation, marijuana, tobacco anxiety, focus fearfulness, insecurity, cant relax or sleep, unexplained panicEndorphins Psychological / Heroin, marijuana, Overly sensitive, dL-phenylalanine physical pain alcohol, sugar, feelings of relief, tobacco incompleteness,
  5. 5. pleasure, anhedonia reward, good / (inability to loving feelings experience toward others pleasure normally), world lacks color, inability to loveSerotonin Emotional Sugar, marijuana, Depression, Chromium stability, pain ecstasy, tobacco obsession, worry, Picolinate tolerance, self- low self-esteem, Increases L- confidence sleep problems, Tryptophan hunger, irritability availability ADD / ADHD Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) DisorderADD has nothing to do with intelligence. Many people with ADD are highlyintelligent. According to experts in the field of ADD/ADHD, the disorder is theresult of a neurotransmitter imbalance. Recognizing ADDNot all children who are naturally rambunctious or extraordinarily curious haveADHD. Nor do all disorganized adults who have many things going on at onetime have ADD. A professional diagnosis is the best way to determine ADD /ADHD in any individual. However, the following description, as given by expertsin the field of ADD / ADHD, serves as a guide.A high level of frustration causes ADD people to be ADD / ADHD, likeimpatient. Whatever is going on -- they want it to depression, occurs ingo quickly and be finished. People with ADD suffer varying degrees offrom "overload"; they have a heightened intensity. Not allawareness of incoming environmental stimuli. symptoms are present.Their world tends to be too bright, too loud, too There may be just one orabrasive and too rapidly changing for comfort. a combination of them.Unable to filter out normal background "noise"they find it difficult to concentrate on a task before them. Disorientation to timeand space is often a problem. For instance they may have to stop and thinkwhich hand is their right or left. They may have difficulty following a set ofinstructions or reading a map. ADD people tend to be disorganized. They havetrouble making and carrying out plans. Many ADD people are hyperactive. Asyoungsters theyre constantly moving, squirming, twisting and getting intoeverything. As adults theyre restless and easily distracted. They often tend toforget appointments, to pay bills and complete tasks. Because theyre always in ahurry, delays of any kind make them frantic. ADD people live under such stress,frustration is difficult to tolerate, and when theyre frustrated theyre likely tobecome angry.
  6. 6. SLIDE 11- doctors are once more looking to the idea that stress -- and sometimes "trying too hard" -- mayactually play a role in up to 30% of allinfertility problems."Its becoming more and more important, in terms of what studies we do, to focus our efforts on thephysiological effects of stress and how they may play a role inconception," says Margareta D. Pisarska, MD,co-director of Center for Reproductive Medicine at Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles and editor-in-chief of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine News.While doctors say that right now there arent enough data to draw a clear and obvious link, many believe itsonly a matter of time before we connect all the dots and see the bigger picture."What we do know now is that when stress-reduction techniques are employed, something happens in somewomen that allows them to get pregnant when they couldnt get pregnant before," says Allen Morgan, MD,director of Shore Institute for Reproductive Medicine in Lakewood, N.J.While the exact pathways between fertility and stress remain a mystery, Morgan believes hormones like cortisolor epinephrine -- which rise and often remain high during times of chronic stress -- play a key role.Morgan says that its also possible that reducing stress may help enhance proteins within the uterine lining thatare involved in implantation. She says that stress reduction may increase blood flow to the uterus, which alsoaffects conception.The Science of Stress and FertilityPisarska tells WebMD that the effects of stress may be different for each woman."Stress may cause one set of reactions in one woman, and something else in another, so ultimately the reasonsbehind how or why stress impacts fertility may also be very individual," says Pisarska.While doctors may not know the exact links between stress and fertility, a series of studies shows the impact ishard to ignore.In research published in the journal Human Reproduction, doctors compared pregnancy rates in couples thatreported being stressed and those who were not.What they found: Pregnancy was much more likely to occur during months when couples reported feeling"good" -- happy and relaxed. It was less likely to occur during the months they reported feeling tense oranxious.SLIDE 13- The personality characteristics of Type A Personality & Hardiness tell us about theinteraction between cognition and physiology in terms of the stress response system. Type Apersonality and Hardiness, effect cognition or ‘cognitive style’ which influences the way weexperience stress and the physiological effects of stressors. This interaction is clearly shown inFreidman & Rosenmans’s (1974) study of Type Personality and CVD and Kobasa’s (1977) researchinto Hardiness with white collar workers.Culture and gender can also influence this interaction between cognition andphysiology. Culture and gender can effect ones ‘cognitive style’ influencingones experience and perception of stress. For example, being in a culturalminority can increase stress related illness, and there are physiologicaldifferences in the stress response system between males and females, thataccording to Taylor et al. (2000) have an evolutionary basis.