Modernization of Rice Irrigation and Drainage

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Modernization of Rice Irrigation and Drainage

Modernization of Rice Irrigation and Drainage

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  • 1. Modernization of Rice Irrigation and Drainage Systems in Cuba. Case Study: Yucayo Farm 40th International Course on Land Drainage By: José A. Rodríguez Alvarez
  • 2. Contents 40th International Course on Land Drainage 1.- Overview of Rice Production in Cuba. 2.- Objectives. 3.- Material and Methods. 4.- Results. 5.- Conclusions.
  • 3. Overview of Rice Production in Cuba 40th International Course on Land Drainage
    • There are 8 State Rice Enterprise in Cuba with a total area of
    • more than 200 000 ha.
    • The rice in Cuba is directly seeded, not transplanted, with wet
    • and dry seeding technologies. Wet seeding is used in wet sea-
    • son, while dry seeding is used in dry season.
    • The Rice production sector is the most important water consu-
    • mer in Cuban agriculture.
  • 4. Overview of Rice Production in Cuba 40th International Course on Land Drainage
    • The typical rice irrigation system is formed by very large level
    • basins (4 to 12 ha ), with 50 m/ha or less irrigation canals den-
    • sity, low irrigation discharges and adverse topographic condi-
    • tions (insufficient land levelling).
    • The rice yields are very low and insufficient to cover the na-
    • tional demand.
  • 5. Objectives 40th International Course on Land Drainage 1.- To develop and apply a methodology for studying modernization scenarios in a rice farm. 2.- To evaluate modernization policies that can be extended to other rice farms sharing similar problems.
  • 6. Material and Methods 40th International Course on Land Drainage Yucayo Farm
  • 7. Material and Methods 40th International Course on Land Drainage ADVANCE DATA Advance front was determined at variable time intervals, locating flags at the edge of the advancing front. Irrigation Trial Irrigation Trial
  • 8. Material and Methods 40th International Course on Land Drainage
    • STANDAR DESVIATION OF FIELD ELEVATIONS
    • Conventional Land Levelling= 24.8 mm
    • Laser Land Levelling (Zero Slope)= 12.4 mm
    • Laser Land Levelling (Residual Slope)= 18.8 mm
  • 9. Material and Methods 40th International Course on Land Drainage
    • B2D SURFACE IRRIGATION MODEL
    • Developed by Playán et al. (1996)
    • Solve the 2D hydrodinamic Saint Vennant equations
    • Use an explicit finite-difference Leapfrog scheme
    • Can accommodate spatially varied infiltration and soil elevations
    • CALIBRATION OF B2D MODEL
    • Computational grid of 5x5 m
    • Manning’s n= 0.04
  • 10. Material and Methods 40th International Course on Land Drainage
  • 11. Material and Methods 40th International Course on Land Drainage
    • SIMULATION OF THE FIRST IRRIGATION
    • In direct-seeded rice with dry seeding technology there are:
    • A strong correlation between the time of water standing on sur-
    • face (first irrigation) and the rice germination percent.
    • A strong correlation between the time of water standing on sur-
    • face (first irrigation) and the rice total yield.
    Time of Water Standing on Surface (First Irrigation) (h) Time of Water Standing on Surface (First Irrigation) (h)
  • 12. Material and Methods 40th International Course on Land Drainage
    • ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
    • Rehabilitation Cost= 20% Initial Investment
    • Rice Production Cost of Yucayo Farm
    • Water Price = 0.005 USD/m 3
    • Modernization Cost (land levelling, new inflow and
    • outflow structures, new levees, etc.)
    • Rice Selling Price= 265 USD/T
    • Interest Rate = 12%
  • 13. Results (Validation of B2D Model) 40th International Course on Land Drainage Simulated Measured 10 min. Measured 20 min. Measured 35 min. Measured 50 min. Measured 110 min. Measured 170 min. Measured 200 min. Measured 230 min.
  • 14. Results (Simulation Results) 40th International Course on Land Drainage
  • 15. Results (Modernization Actions) 40th International Course on Land Drainage Water Management Laser Land Levelling Reuse System
  • 16. Results (Economic Analysis) 40th International Course on Land Drainage
  • 17. Conclusions 40th International Course on Land Drainage 1.- The performance of the rehabilitation scenarios is low. Distri- bution Uniformity and Germination Percent have been estimated as 66% and 65% respectively. 2.- Relatively simple mordernization actions as change in water management, laser land levelling and introduction of reuse sys- tems, can increase the Distribution Uniformity by about 20% and the Mean Germination by 50%, as well as, reduce the Applied Volume of Water by more than 60%.
  • 18. Conclusions 40th International Course on Land Drainage 3.- Of all modernization actions, change in water management (increase the irrigation discharge of the first irrigation at rice basin level) has the highest positive impact on the performance of irri- gation and drainage systems. 4.- From the technical and economical points of view, sloping basin with reuse systems (Scenario III-b), is the best suited mo- dernization scenario for the predominant conditions in Field 19 of Yucayo Farm.
  • 19. Conclusions 40th International Course on Land Drainage 5.- Increase the price of water could be a stimulating measure for introducing more efficient irrigation and drainage systems in the rice production sector of Cuba.