Here’s the book which you were looking
Mrs. Jackson, who is very intelligent, lives
on the corner.
Relative pronouns / adverbs
that in defining
that in defining
only in defining
=the day on which
the reason for which
That: can only be used in defining
Where and Whose: cannot be left
out or replaced by “that”
Which: can refer to one clause in
non-defining relative clauses:
got married again, which surprised
Relative clauses provide extra
information. This information can
either define something (defining
clause), or provide unnecessary,
added information (non-defining
Defining Relative Clauses
They identify or classify nouns.
The information provided in a defining relative
clause is crucial in understanding the meaning
of the sentence.
People who/that take exercise live longer.
The woman who/that lives next door has been
That / pronoun omission
We can replace WHO/WHICH with THAT.
who (that) play with fire are in great
danger of harm.
-We can leave out the pronoun when it
functions as object:
city (which/that) I visited was great.
Non-defining relative clauses
Non-defining relative clauses provide
interesting additional information which is not
essential to understanding the meaning of the
They tell us more about a person/thing.
That cannot be used
The relative pronoun cannot be omitted
Rogers, who is a skilled worker, has been
what / that
= the things which
It is not a pronoun, so it is not used after a
I hope you have what I need (the thing
They only thing that keeps me awake is
So, after a noun/pronoun: use that.
1-Before the pronoun: more formal
was respected by the people with
whom he worked.
It is a society to which many important
2-At the end: less formal
was respected by the people
(that/who) he worked with.