Smart Grid - An Outline


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Smart Grid is a domain that straddles several technologies. This is an attempt to present a quick outline of the relevant technologies. The presentation also includes a bird's eye view of the key smart grid players including large companies, start-ups and power utilities.

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  • Smart Grid - An Outline

    1. 1. Smart Grid – An Outline Shyam Penubolu
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Overview of existing electricity grid </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of the smart grid </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the smart grid </li></ul><ul><li>Smart grid players – participating companies </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Overview of existing electricity grid </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of the smart grid </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the smart grid </li></ul><ul><li>Smart grid players – participating companies </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Grid is Already Smart! <ul><li>In the USA: </li></ul><ul><li>9200 electricity generating units </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 miles of transmission lines </li></ul><ul><li>99.97% reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Termed as the greatest engineering achievement of the 20 th century by the National Academy of Engineering </li></ul>
    5. 5. So, what are the issues? <ul><li>Does not address modern concerns such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability: increasing number of black-outs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow mechanical switches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No automated analytics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No situational awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>National Economy increasingly dependent on electronic equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Affordability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising fossil fuel costs triggering increase in energy costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid not prepared to easily accommodate renewable sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate Change: Electricity accounts for 40% of GHG emissions. </li></ul>If Alexander Graham Bell were somehow transported to the 21st century, he would not begin to recognize the components of modern telephony – cell phones, texting, cell towers, PDAs, etc. – while Thomas Edison, one of the grid’s key early architects, would be totally familiar with the grid. - From DOE's Smart Grid: An Introduction
    6. 6. Some Startling Numbers <ul><li>Power outages cost $180 billion per year </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in peak demand exceeds growth in transmission by almost 25% every year </li></ul><ul><li>If the grid were just 5% more efficient, the energy savings would equate to eliminating 53 million cars </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Microsystems estimates that a blackout costs the company $1 million every minute . </li></ul><ul><li>Load from chip technologies and automated manufacturing is about 40% currently. Expected to reach 60% by 2012 . </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000, the one-hour outage that hit the Chicago Board of Trade resulted in $20 trillion in trades delayed . </li></ul><ul><li>Average efficiency of legacy grids is 33% whereas the efficiency of those using modern technologies is 60% </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Overview of existing electricity grid </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of the smart grid </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the smart grid </li></ul><ul><li>Smart grid players – participating companies </li></ul>
    8. 8. Benefits to Consumers <ul><li>Can monitor their energy consumption in real-time. </li></ul><ul><li>Can control their consumption based on real-time pricing information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the control can be automated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>even possible via the web. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can power electric and plug-in/hybrid vehicles and </li></ul><ul><li>feed locally generated energy back to the grid. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Benefits to Utilities <ul><li>Monitor load in real-time, anticipate demand and automatically adjust energy flows </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Load Balancing – interact with customers to reduce demand at peak load </li></ul><ul><li>Enable integration of external renewable energy sources to pump electricity back into the grid </li></ul><ul><li>Fault Isolation – advanced sensors allow quick isolation of faults in the network and speedy recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Power Plant Growth – better management of demand and supply allows utilities to reduce need for additional power plants </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Overview of existing electricity grid </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of the smart grid </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the smart grid </li></ul><ul><li>Smart grid players – participating companies </li></ul>
    11. 11. Components of the Smart Grid <ul><li>The Smart Grid is a widely distributed electricity delivery network, characterized by 2-way flow of electricity and information and is capable of monitoring everything from power plants to customer appliances. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Key Smart Grid Technologies <ul><li>Integrated Communication: enables 2-way communication for monitoring and controlling grid components in real-time. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing and Measurement : enable remote monitoring and more accurate response. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Components : apply the latest research in superconductivity, fault tolerance, storage etc. . </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Control Methods : monitor essential components, enabling rapid diagnosis and precise solutions to events. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Interfaces and Decisions Support : enable grid operators and managers to take informed decisions. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Integrated Communications – Key Benefits <ul><li>Enable the grid to become a dynamic, interactive medium for 2-way real-time information and power exchange. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate media that will provide the necessary infrastructure to transmit information accurately, securely, reliably. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances reliability – enables Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Demand Response (DR). </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances security – better detection of physical and cyber threats to the grid </li></ul><ul><li>Economic benefits to both users and utilities via real-time pricing information, DR, DER etc. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Integrated Communications – Current State <ul><li>Communications too slow and not integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly, no standards exist, currently under development – e.g. OpenAMI, IEEE is working on Broadband Power Line (BPL) </li></ul><ul><li>BPL is being deployed in some cases but Wireless is emerging as a viable alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Exception where a standard is available is Substation Automation (SA) – IEC 61850. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Communication Technologies <ul><li>4G Wireless technology that provides longer distance communications (10 – 30 miles) with data rates of 75 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used as the core transmission and distribution communications system that supports WiFi applications for SA or DA. </li></ul>WiMax <ul><li>Point to multi-point, secure radio-system where frequency hops in a particular band. </li></ul><ul><li>Used as last-mile connection to a main communications system </li></ul>Spread-spectrum radio systems <ul><li>Short-range wireless communication based on IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for communication within the premises. </li></ul>WiFi <ul><li>Communication over low and medium voltage lines </li></ul><ul><li>Currently being used for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR), DER, DR, video monitoring etc. </li></ul>Broadband Over Power Line <ul><li>Consists of a master radio transmitter/receiver and several remote transmitters/receivers </li></ul><ul><li>Currently deployed for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Distribution Automation (DA). </li></ul>Multiple Address System Radio Comments Technology
    16. 16. Communication Technologies <ul><li>Family of standards that includes GSM EDGE, UMTS and HSPA. Data rates up to 14 Mbps downlink are possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be applied as a low-cost solution for SA to control, monitor substation performance when small bursts of information are needed </li></ul>Cellular 3G <ul><li>Broadband communication over fiber-optic connections to customer premises </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in connecting the end users – homes and industrial facilities </li></ul>Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) <ul><li>Low-to-medium speed communication over electric power lines </li></ul><ul><li>Supports AMI deployments and grid control functions, such as load shedding </li></ul>Power-line carrier <ul><li>Satellite-based 2-way communication that offers data rates of 56 kbps to 4 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Typically used for narrowband communication such as in SCADA. </li></ul>Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Comments Technology
    17. 17. Integrated Communications – Future <ul><li>Integrated communications will enable the grid to become a dynamic, interactive medium for real-time information and power exchange. </li></ul><ul><li>Open communications standards </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate media that will provide the necessary infrastructure to transmit information accurately, securely, reliably. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Advanced Sensing and Measurement <ul><li>Current customer-focused advances: </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer gateway: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced meter reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time pricing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of energy generated by customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building energy management system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote power quality monitoring </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Advanced Sensing and Measurement <ul><li>Residential consumer network - a subset of consumer gateway </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Meter </li></ul><ul><li>Uses digital technology to read and record electrical parameters </li></ul>
    20. 20. Utility focused advances <ul><li>Wide-area Monitoring System (WAMS): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS based PMUs measure voltage and current at various locations on the grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides global view of the grid, automatically monitors it and alerts the operator in case of (possible) issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines phasor data with SCADA for enhanced state estimation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most promising of all the technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic line rating technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures the ampacity (current carrying capability) of lines in real-time </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Utility focused advances <ul><ul><li>Conductor/compression connector sensor: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines line rating by measuring the conductor temperature and line sag </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication via BPL or wireless </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation contamination leakage current sensor: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuously monitors leakage current to determine key parameters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in protection – Digital relays that have replaced electro-mechanical ones have better fault isolation, detection and self-checking diagnostics </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Advanced Sensing and Measurement - Future <ul><ul><li>Customer focused: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid-state meters are the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will record usage at different times of day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will listen to real-time pricing signals sent by the provider and display to user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be capable of controlling loads based on customer profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May even provide non-utility services such as fire and burglar alarms </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Advanced Sensing and Measurement - Future <ul><ul><li>Utility focused: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools that will provide info on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power factor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power quality throughout the grid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phasor relationships (WAMS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment health and capacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meter tampering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation intrusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fault location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transformer and line loading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New host software systems will collect, store, analyze, and process the abundance of data that flows from these modern tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future digital relays that employ computer agents will further enhance reliability </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Advanced Components – Current State <ul><li>Both AC and HVDC transmission equipment requiring power electronics. These devices aid in: </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage control at various load conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Power quality enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive power balance </li></ul><ul><li>Stability problems in long-distance transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of devices using power electronics (FACTS – Flexible AC Transmission System): </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Power Flow Contoller: does reactive power compensation and flow control </li></ul><ul><li>DVAR (Dynamic VAr): Mobile device. Provides voltage support and improves power quality </li></ul><ul><li>MV SVR: Boosts load voltage during source voltage sags caused by faults in the utility distribution grid or in the transmission system </li></ul><ul><li>Static VAr Compensator: Most important and most prevalent device. Improves transmission line efficiency by resolving dynamic voltage problems </li></ul>
    25. 25. Advanced Components – Current Research <ul><li>Superconductivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Generation Wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-temperature Superconductor (HTS) Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2G Wire (5-10 years development required) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DER – small capacity – 3 to 10000 KW power generation, located close to where energy is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed Generation– Wind, Solar PV, Fuel Cells and Microturbines. </li></ul><ul><li>DER: Distributed Storage: </li></ul><ul><li>NaS battery </li></ul><ul><li>Vanadium Redox battery </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra-capacitors </li></ul><ul><li>Composite conductors: allows doubling of amperage limits without modifications to line support or towers. </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum conductor composite core cable </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum conductor composite reinforced cable </li></ul><ul><li>Annealed aluminum, steel supported, trapezoid cross section conductor wire </li></ul><ul><li>Grid-friendly appliances – that can be switched off or on to modulate load during system disturbances. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Advanced Components – Role of Plug-in Hybrid EVs (PHEV) <ul><li>According to NREL’s research, the following are the benefits of PHEVs: </li></ul><ul><li>Significant reduction in oil consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities can control the time at which PHEVs are recharged. Say, overnight when the demand is low </li></ul><ul><li>PHEVs can be used to store energy that can be used in periods of extreme demand or system emergencies. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Advanced Control Methods (ACM) <ul><li>ACM refers to the devices and algorithms that analyze the current state of the grid and predict fault conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>ACM may also take automatic corrective actions to prevent outages and power quality disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>Currently deployed ACM have a local scope and do not have a system-wide perspective </li></ul><ul><li>ACM relies on three areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed Intelligent Agents – semi-autonomous entities that respond to local conditions rapidly. E.g. Energy Management Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical Tools such as Phasor Measurement Analyzer, System Performance Monitoring, Simulation and Prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational Applications such as SA, DA and DR </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Advanced Control Methods - Future <ul><li>ACM will process real-time information received from Low cost Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) </li></ul><ul><li>PMUs integrated with GPS time signals will be deployed to provide the grid status, and will enable prediction of grid instabilities </li></ul><ul><li>System diagnosis at local, regional and system-wide levels </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Data Analysis will help in load forecasting, risk analysis, planning and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Take autonomous actions when appropriate or present data to human operators </li></ul>
    29. 29. Integrated Interfaces and Decision Support (IIDS) <ul><li>IIDS helps present complex smart grid data in a simple manner and not let operators feel swamped by data overload. </li></ul><ul><li>IIDS enables operators to analyze the state of the grid and predict issues rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques include animation, colour contouring and virtual reality </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, the required amount and quality of data is not available </li></ul><ul><li>Research being done in the area of visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Progress mostly happening in the area of transmission </li></ul>
    30. 30. Integrated Interfaces and Decision Support - Future <ul><li>IIDS will enable operators at generation, distribution, transmission levels to get a better understanding of the state of the grid. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved information sharing among uses via integration with enterprise-wide technologies such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather forecasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work management system and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asset management processes </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Overview of existing electricity grid </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of the smart grid </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the smart grid </li></ul><ul><li>Smart grid players – participating companies </li></ul>
    32. 32. Cisco <ul><li>Aiming to be a one-stop shop for end-to-end distribution and transmission secure communication infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Offer Cisco’s data center portfolio to enable data collection and storage for smart grid data analysis and optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Software for centralized management and control – distribution management, automated metering infrastructure, GIS, asset management etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Partnering with smart meters and other smart grid device vendors to create an ecosystem that utilities have multiple options </li></ul><ul><li>Has announced a building energy management software product called EnergyWise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>integrated platform for monitoring and controlling energy usage of computers, phones, HVAC, lighting etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leverages capabilities of products from partner companies: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer power management from Verdiem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network management software from SolarWinds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building controls from Schneider Electric. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. IBM <ul><li>Aims to be the system integrator for smart grid infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Formed the Global Intelligent Utility Network – an alliance of innovative utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of the alliance – optimize usage of wind energy, energy efficiency and reliability. </li></ul><ul><li>The alliance helps share experiences and best practices. </li></ul><ul><li>The alliance has also created a Smart Grid maturity model </li></ul>
    34. 34. GE <ul><li>Smart appliances such as washing machines and dryers that can respond to Demand Response commands </li></ul><ul><li>Smart HomeEnergy Manager – a device to link smart appliances </li></ul><ul><li>Smart meters, smart thermostats, grid sensors, wind turbines and energy storage </li></ul>
    35. 35. Google <ul><li>Google PowerMeter software: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enables access to home energy usage information from any computer/mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracks historical data and predicts future trends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Google working with utilities and smart energy meter manufacturers to interoperate with PowerMeter. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a big player in Smart Grid currently but a company to watch. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Other Key Players – Smart Meters <ul><li>Plans to install 430,000 smart meters in Hawaii. </li></ul><ul><li>US based public company </li></ul>Sensus Metering Systems <ul><li>Startup making smart meters that communicate over GPRS/WiFi using IP network technology </li></ul><ul><li>About $80 million in funding from Credit Suisse, Battelle Ventures, Beacon Group, Endeavor Capital Management, GulfSouth Capital, Innovation Valley Partners, Kinetic Ventures, OPG Ventures and Siemens Venture Capital </li></ul>SmartSynch <ul><li>Has won smart meter deals worth over $400 million. </li></ul><ul><li>A $1.25+ billion public Swiss company </li></ul>Landis & Gyr <ul><li>Won a 5.3 million smart meter contract from S. California Edison. Working with several other utilities. </li></ul><ul><li>A $1.6 billion public company </li></ul>Itron
    37. 37. Other Key Players – Smart Meters <ul><li>A startup, developing a dashboard that helps consumers monitor and cut energy consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired by Silver Spring Networks in Oct 09. </li></ul>Greenbox Technologies <ul><li>Sells IP based hardware and software to connect utilities and customers </li></ul><ul><li>About $250 million funding received. Investors include Google Ventures, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, Northgate Capital, Edison Electric Institute, JVB Properties. </li></ul>Silver Spring Networks <ul><li>Sells software to help utilities manage the grid having smart meters in homes and businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>$56 million funding received from Sequoia Capital, Foundation Capital, Siemens Corporation & DBL Investors. </li></ul>eMeter <ul><li>Provides an energy management system to reduce energy costs through demand control and demand response </li></ul><ul><li>About $13 million funded by @Ventures, Expansion Capital, Siemens Venture Capital and Arcelor Mittal. </li></ul>Powerit Solutions <ul><li>A startup, working on helping utilities balance energy loads through hardware and software. </li></ul><ul><li>Total funding of $214 million. Investors include Altira Group, Craton Equity Partners, Goldman Sachs, New Enterprise Associates, Perella Weinberg Partners, Quercus Trust, Robeco and The Susquehanna International Group of Companies . </li></ul>Gridpoint
    38. 38. Key Players in Smart Grid – Networks <ul><li>Provides demand response services. Over 500 utility clients already. </li></ul><ul><li>$41 million funding from Rockport Capital Partners, Nth Power, EnerTech Capital Partners, Ridgewood Capital, NorskHydro Ventures. </li></ul>Comverge <ul><li>Makes open standards based software and hardware for time-of-use metering and two-way communication </li></ul><ul><li>$40 million funded by MissionPoint Capital, Zouk Ventures </li></ul>Trilliant <ul><li>Provides demand response services. Helps Industrial and commercial building owners reduce their energy consumption over a peak-demand time period. </li></ul><ul><li>$7.75 million received from New Atlantic Ventures, Foundation Capital, Braemer Energy and Draper Fischer Jurvetson </li></ul>EnerNOC <ul><li>Makes home energy management software as well as hardware such as energy displays and smart plugs </li></ul><ul><li>$43 million received from RRE Ventures, Vista Ventures, Access Venture Partners, Appian Ventures, VantagePoint, Good Energies. </li></ul>Tendril
    39. 39. Other Key Players - Utilities <ul><li>Southern California Edison – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>installing computerized systems to ensure a more rapid, accurate, automated response to grid problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing legacy electro-mechanical devices with digital ones for increased efficiency and reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installing advanced sensors and control systems to respond to stress rapidly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SmartConnect program to install 5 million smart meters. The smart meters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PG&E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 5 million smart meters installed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XCel Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SmartGridCity initiative in Boulder, CO. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding green energy to the mix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deploying smart meters and smart devices in homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digitally enhanced and resilient energy grid </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Other Key Players - Utilities <ul><li>Austin Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Grid intiative called Pecan Street Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves deployment of 500,000 smart devices and 410,000 smart meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the network side, 3000 computers and network devices and 2500 sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sempra Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.4 smart meters in San Diego region by 2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Grid demonstration funded by the Dept of Energy and California Energy Commission: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporated solar power generators on homes and small businesses. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinated new peak load management technology. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve overall power quality. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraged smart meters. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated and remotely control distributed generation storage devices to allow access to electricity in emergencies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Oncor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Won a $7.3 million Federal grant for demonstrating Dynamic Line Rating (DLR). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The DLR demo will showcase monitoring technology to reduce transmission-line congestion and increase the carrying capacity of the transmission lines. </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. <ul><li>Thank You! </li></ul>