Performance coaching handbook

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  • 1. Performance Coaching E-learning 1 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 2. 2 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 3. CONTENTS WELCOME TO PERFORMANCE COACHING…………………………………….4 WHAT IS COACHING/PERFORMANCE COACHING……………………………5 PERFORMANCE COACHING……………………………………………………...6 HOW COACHING DIFFERS FROM OTHER APPROACHES……………………...7 THE MANAGER AS COACH……………………………………………………….8 BENEFITS OF COACHING………………………………………………………....9 HOW COACHING WORKS………………………………………………………10 THE ELEMENTS OF PERFORMANCE COACHING……………………………...11 SILENCE……………………………………………………………………………12 LISTENING………………………………………………………………………....13 QUESTIONING……………………………………………………………………14 THE PRECISION MODEL…………………………………………………………15 THE GROW MODEL……………………………………………………………....16 NOTE SHEETS: WHEN CAN I USE COACHING………………………………………………….17 EXAMPLES OF COACHING………………………………………………………18 POTENTIAL PITFALLS AND HOW TO AVOID THEM…………………………....19 PRACTICE WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT…………………………………………..20 NEXT STEPS………………………………………………………………………..21 3 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 4. What is Coaching? What is Performance Coaching? Coaching gets its name from a town where carriages were made – a coach became a faster way to get to a destination. Modern coaching is about moving forward through learning and change, and getting to a destination (a goal). Coaching is a dialogue between coach and coachee (the person receiving coaching), followed by practical actions. It is led by the coachee- the coach facilitates (helps the coachee come to conclusions), rather than directing. Dialogue = New Understanding + Actions = Change (Setting clear goals, removing barriers) Performance coaching focuses on improving performance at work. It enables the coachee to perform a task, reach a decision, or make changes. It is: A practical approach – developing skills and behaviour through actions Solution focused- looking at what will work rather than dwelling on any problems Focussed on outcomes – the purpose is always to move forward from the starting point. Coaching suits all levels of performance, because there is always a requirement for further improvement as demands and responsibilities at work change. The next page gives a picture of performance coaching 4 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 5. Performance Coaching Coachee Coach Coachee sets the destination and has the map. Coach drives the process (structures sessions) (has a clear goal and the means to get there) Coach has confidence that the coachee can get there. Coach asks questions to check that the goal is clear. Coach sets tasks and gives feedback on how the coachee is doing Coachee Coach Barriers Coach asks questions to discover barriers and helps coachee plan to overcome these. Lack of knowledge or skill Limited Thinking Coach notices barriers in the coachee’s thinking and challenges these. Behaviours Tasks enable coachee to learn and make real changes 5 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 6. Coachee Coach Goal The outcomes Coaching is the means of getting here Improved performance Observable behaviours Business / service outcomes 6 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 7. How Coaching Differs From Other Approaches Coach Helps coachee improve. Aids with goal setting. Asks questions to increase coachee’s understanding. Lets coachee find own solutionsasks more than tells. Focuses on developing skills and attitude for a specific task or role. Counsellor Mentor Is the expert. Offers advice and examples from own experience. Mixture of ask and tell. Takes individual ‘under their wing’. Helps individual develop broad potential. Helps client become well. Looks to the past to understand problems. Advises and supports to solve problems. 7 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 8. Traine r Consultant Input of knowledge to advise on processes and approaches. Provides solutions. Input of knowledge to advise on processes and approaches. Provides solutions. 8 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 9. The Manager as Coach As a manager, coaching your member of staff is slightly different to coaching someone you don’t line manage. So what are the realities of coaching your staff? What is expected of you as a manager? Traditional style of Management Direction of travel Manager asks questions so individuals can understand the situation and solve it for themselves Manager’s team smaller in past, emphasis on technical skills of manager, narrower responsibilities Manager Staff not empowered, manager unable to delegate, even as demands of role increase Coaching skills give you more choice in the way you manage Typically, you will manage a larger number of diverse people – one approach will not fit all. Manager asks questions to understand the situation or problem – in order to give the answer, instruction or hint about how to move forward Emphasis on appraising staff and telling them what to do New style of Management – manager as coach There are still times when you will need to direct or ‘tell’ – coaching is another tool you can use, when appropriate You are not expected to have all the answers all the time. You don’t need to be an expert to use a coaching approach with staff. As a minimum, you need to have completed this e-learning and visited the coaching and mentoring website. Emphasis on appraising staff and also developing them – Managers need a broader ‘toolkit’ of skills. Staff expect to be developed in their roles, and the organisation needs to deliver more through developing staff and retaining talent 9 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 10. Benefits of Coaching Benefits for Managers Cost effective, just in time and individualised staff development Improve your team’s performance Develop own people management skills Able to delegate more Enhance working relationships Free up time for other priorities Identify and retain talent Staff are: More self-reliant More motivated More productive More responsive to feedback Better able to cope with change Involved in decisions Benefits for the organisation Development of staff to higher roles (succession planning) Retention of staff (talent management) Increased productivity Quality outcomes Staff identify more with organisational goals Develops culture of learning and continuous improvement Reduced costs of poor performance Staff feel valued by the organisation Enhances relationships Develops skilled managers Facilitates organisational and cultural change Cost-effective and targeted form of development – enhances other forms of development; e.g. training 10 Benefits for Coachees Cost effective, just in time and individualised staff development Increased confidence Achieve your goals at work Enhanced personal performance Improved communication skills Better team working Better people management skills Improved work/life balance Improved job motivation Better able to deal with change Comfortable in role – less stress Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 11. How Coaching Works The 2 key elements of coaching are the relationship and the actions: Relationship Coach Coachee Supports the coachee – actively listens to them Is interested in the coachee – asks questions Has confidence in the coachee – demonstrated through letting the coachee find their own solutions instead of telling them what to do. Suspends judgement of the coachee listens Helps the coachee gain insight – by listening, questioning and challenging them Is clear about what they want to achieve Is open to change Is open to feedback Is open to being challenged about their habits, thinking and behaviours Is accountable – owns their own goals Asks for help where needed Coachee Actions Coach Is accountable – owns their own goals Is open to trying things out Reflects on what they have learned Is persistent in trying to make changes Helps the coachee to set goals through questions Uses experiences to help coachee learn rather than blame Suggests tasks and activities to help the coachee develop Follows up on tasks - asking what was learnt Incorporates development planning into the IPP process Observes the coachee and gives them feedback 11 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 12. The Elements of Performance Coaching Coaching is Coaching is Learning and change is at the heart of the coaching process – to achieve these is the purpose of coaching. Supportive structured Coaching dialogue is Coaching dialogue is Supportive Learning and change takes place Coaching is Key Coaching Tools: ★ Silence ★ Questioning ★ Challenge structured Coaching is structured Coaching dialogue is Supportive Coaching dialogue is Coaching is Supportive These key tools of coaching will be covered in detail in the next section of this e-learning module. structured Supportive It is essential that coaching is supportive. It helps individuals achieve their goals, and applies to all levels of performance. Coaching is tightly structured to ensure it is focused and an effective use of time (it’s not a chat!). Whether you are having a short adhoc coaching dialogue in a corridor, or a longer coaching session, we recommend using the GROW model to structure sessions. This will be covered later in this elearning module. High support together with high challenge are ideal for creating the most change- this is the coaching relationship you should aim to develop. 12 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 13. Silence Silence is a key tool for a coach. It is very simple to do, but often we feel a need to fill silence. The real progress in coaching comes from changes in the coachee’s perception, as they think something through - just because a coachee isn’t talking doesn’t mean they aren’t thinking! If they are constantly being bombarded with questions, they miss out on time to think. “The art of the coach is not to know when to be silent, but when to break the silence.” – Dr Angus McLeod Hand in Hand with silence goes the key skill of Listening… 13 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 14. Listening 2 3 4 1 5 Level 2 Level 1 Giving our own experience Waiting for our turn to speak Coachee I’m going on a course next week Coachee I’m not sure what to do about this Coach You won’t believe the meeting I’ve just been to Coach The last course I went on was really interesting. What happened was…. How often have you experienced this level of ‘listening’? How valued did it make you feel? How motivating is it? How often have you given someone else this experience? There are times and places for Levels 2 and 3 – giving advice and sharing your own experience can be valuable in managing your staff but these levels do not qualify as active listening, or coaching. 14 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 15. 2 3 4 1 5 Level 3 Level 4 Giving advice Listening and asking for more Coachee I’m having trouble writing this report Coachee I’ve got so much work, I don’t know where to start Coach What you need to do is use a template Coach Tell me more about that There are times and places for Levels 2 and 3 – giving advice and sharing your own experience can be valuable in managing your staff but these levels do not qualify as active listening, or coaching. As a coach, you should be operating mostly at levels 4 and 5. At level 5, the coach is reading between the lines by observing the coachee and drawing on their knowledge of them. Although this level of listening is rare, and you can develop it with practice. At level 4, the coach has the coachee’s agenda at heart and is interested in finding out more 15 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 16. 2 3 1 4 5 Level 5 Intuitive listening Coachee I know I couldn’t get a promotion and I’m not that interested really Coach Are you really not that interested or is there something else going on here? As a coach, you should be operating mostly at levels 4 and 5. At level 5, the coach is reading between the lines by observing the coachee and drawing on their knowledge of them. Although this level of listening is rare, and you can develop it with practice. At level 4, the coach has the coachee’s agenda at heart and is interested in finding out more 16 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 17. Questioning Coaching works by giving individuals new insights into barriers for improvement. Questioning is a key tool to promote insight. To be able to answer your questions, the coachee needs to access, organise and articulate their thoughts. They are instantly involved because a question requires a response and causes them to think. Through questioning, the coachee discovers more choices for making a change. Because the coach hasn’t told them the answer, the coachee has gone through a thought process, so that they own the outcome. Key points about coaching questions: 1. As a coach, your questions do not have to be elaborate, elegant or deeply profound – they just need to get the coachee to think. 2. If you are catch yourself thinking about the next question you are going to ask, focus instead on listening to the coachee – this is the best way to ensure that your questions are relevant 3. Remember the importance of silence, you don’t have to interrogate the coachee with constant questions 4. Open questions tend to work best in coaching (e.g. ones that start with ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘when’, ‘where’) 5. The coachee should be thinking about and answering the question for their own insight, not to please you and not to give you the ’right’ answer 6. Avoid leading questions ‘don’t you think you should?’ If you want to offer advice, it is much better to just do so rather than manipulate the situation 7. Questioning is a skill you can develop like any other 8. You can download lots more information about questioning from the ‘downloadable documents’ section of this website 17 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 18. Challenge Challenge involves noticing imprecise language and questioning it. The benefits of challenge are: To establish clear goals and to ensure the goals are right for the coachee To cause the coachee to think about where they might be limiting their own performance through their thoughts and or behaviours The model below shows some examples of what to look out for, and brief examples of how the coach can challenge. Verb Coachee: I’m progressing on this project Coach: What does ‘progressing’ mean for you exactly? – you and the coach might have different ideas about this and you need to check what they mean Comparison Coachee: I’m not as good at this as some other people Coach: Not as good as who exactly? And who says? Noun e.g. ‘communication’/pronoun; e.g. ‘they’ Coachee: I need to improve my communication skills Coach: what exactly do you mean by ‘communication’? What will you be able to do if you improve your skills? Precision Model Coachee: They won’t support me Coach: Who do you mean exactly? Who are ‘they’ Self-Limitation Coachee: I couldn’t do that Coach: What would happen if you did? What needs to be in place for you to be able to do it? 18 Generalisation Coachee: Things never go right for me Coach: Is that true? Never? What are you basing that on? Can you tell me about a time when things did go right for you? Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 19. The GROW Model - How to Structure Coaching R= Reality What is the current situation? Key questions: What is the situation right now? What have you done so far? This stage is key in helping the coachee gain new insights – challenge is important here. Key questions: What are you basing that on? What’s stopping you? You may need to go back and adjust the goal in the light of this discussion. G= Goal Start by establishing the coachee’s overall goals Key questions: What would you like to achieve? What specifically do you want? Then establish the goals for this coaching conversation. Key questions: What would you like to focus on now? How can I support you right now? Ensure that the coachee is motivated by the goal. R O G W W= Will What are the actions required? Key questions: What will you do first? Will that get you what you want? What might get in the way? How committed to this action are you on a scale of 1-10? O = Options What are the options for change? Key questions: What could you do? And what else? What support do you need? The coach can offer ideas here, but only after the coachee has finished. The coach needs to follow up on actions through observing and feedback or through discussing the coachee’s progress. 19 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 20. When can I use coaching? As coaching is about learning, the coach should ensure that the coachee follows each stage of the learning cycle. For more information, see the downloadable documents on learning styles on the website. Some examples of where you can start to use coaching are shown below. Plan Make Links Improve on high performance Repeat success in other situations Raise awareness of impact of behaviour Challenge poor behaviour IPP development Planning When delegating tasks New to role New skills needed As a result of change To develop high performers To improve current performance Plan to meet targets Share best practice/ new skills Reflect Do Delegate tasks and follow up New tasks More complex / strategic / challenging tasks Develop confidence by trying tasks out Develop skills by trying tasks out After a mistake After a success After training/ learning At IPP review At regular intervals, e.g. in supervision or one to ones 20 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 21. Examples of Coaching Using the grow model to discuss critical feedback: Your member of staff has received some critical feedback and you want to support them to ensure they can improve. G Goal: Obviously the goal is to learn from the feedback or mistake and not repeat it. It is best to get the coachee to interpret what this actually means for them: example questions: What do you see as the key issue here? What do you need to be able to do differently? What’s the outcome you want? R Reality: What caused the issue and how likely is it to happen again? What are the current positives and negatives? Example questions: What resources do you currently have that will help here? What do you need to develop? What might get in the way? O Options: The more the coachee comes up with options themselves, the more likely they are to actually go away and make them work. Example questions: What are your options? What else could you do? What will get the best result? Which is most practical? W Will: This is all about planning actions. Find out what they will do and check their motivation to do it. Some follow up with you needs to be planned here. Example questions: What will you do first? And then? What support do you need? When shall we meet to review how it’s going? 21 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 22. Potential Pitfalls and how to avoid them It has been said that it is much easier to understand coaching than it is to do – so what are the pitfalls and how can you avoid them? Lack of time Coaching is an investment in time and will eventually pay off when you have developed confident and motivated staff. Sometimes things do come up, but not finding time for something in the long run shows that it’s not a priority for you and you don’t value it – think about the message you are sending your staff by always being too busy for them. Plan to coach and protect the time. Share responsibility for organising and following up with the coachee. Judging 8 You should never use ‘weaknesses’ revealed by the coachee to form a judgement, or you will quickly lose their trust. Coaching is about openly discussing positive and negative performance and moving forward, not being judgemental. Part of your role is to appraise the performance of your staff, and this will be more formal than a coaching approach. 22 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 23. Telling “It may be harder to give up instructing than it is to learn to coach” - Sir John Whitmore. A major pitfall! Sometimes telling is appropriate, but remember that a solution is far more effective and embedded if the coachee has come up with it themselves. It is also far more likely to work. Get in the habit of not telling when you have your coaching ‘hat’ on. Coachee agrees actions then does nothing Check coachee is actually motivated by the actions (they might have agreed to them because you are their line manager!). Check coachee is able to carry out actions – more coaching or other forms of support might be needed. Bring patterns you spot out into the open, e.g. if the coachee says they never have time to complete their actions, challenge them “I’ve noticed that you say you want to progress, but you don’t seem to be making time to actually do what we’ve agreed” What do you think about that?” 23 Performance Coaching E-learning
  • 24. Next Steps Visit the Performance Coaching and Mentoring Website – for more on coaching and mentoring, including downloadable documents to support you and recommended reading. Book on Performance Coaching for Managers – one day course – beginner/intermediate level www3.hants.gov.uk/learningzone 24 Performance Coaching E-learning