Pedagogy 3.0


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An overview of what Pedagogy 3.0 is all about

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Pedagogy 3.0

  1. 1. Incorporating mobile learning into the emerging pedagogy ABSTRACT: Research suggests that it is difficult to integrate information and communications technologies (ICT) in classrooms. This model presents the framework for the integration of mobile learning and pedagogies in the classroom settings in developing countries primarily in rural schools. Although numerous initiatives have made an attempt to place ICT resources in schools, it is evident that by merely introducing information communication and technological resources in schools is not enough and will not bridge the digital divide The knowledge teachers possess has been challenged by the demand of incorporating technology into their teaching. These require their abilities to effectively use resources to stimulate interest of the 21st century learners. It has become clear, however that the main concern should be on discovering ways of using and incorporating the emerging technology in the new pedagogies . Introduction In this project I am going to present a synopsis of Sir Ken Robinson’s talk in TED talks and the effect of his talk up to the minute. Secondly I will describe the principles of pedagogy 3.0 with regards to teaching and learning. I will further discuss mobile learning which is integrated in other types of learning for example Inquiry Based Learning, Problem Based Learning and Experiential Based Learning. Lastly I will choose learning style that I resonate with and briefly discuss it Ted Talks Students have a passion of learning through dance, therefore teachers could use this talent to enhance learning and develop their creative thinking. Robinson highlighted the natural abilities that humans are born with. He urges teachers to use these natural abilities to develop in student an innate talent. He raises concern about the kind of curricular that the education system has come up with in schools which impact on the lives of students. The Department of Education is has narrowed the curriculum by focusing on standardized testing without considering activities that develops creativity in students. He further argues that education system has reduced the curriculum into ‘laboring’ by refusing to acknowledge the major role played by exposing children to activities such as the arts which they passionately enjoy. The education system does not help student to discover their innate abilities which could assist them in doing subjects that focus more on content. Human beings have a variety of qualities which if harnessed can prove to be unerring. Much is accomplished through devotion and through passion. It is therefore imperative that the curriculum is designed in such a way as to accommodate all the processes that are deemed necessary for learning. Blending the arts into the content subject could improve creativity of students and they could perform better in anything they put their mind to. Brief description of Pedagogy 3.0 1
  2. 2. Pedagogy 3.0 is the, the dawn of civilization, with a shift from didactic content to participatory learning and yet few pedagogues have been prepared to meet the demands of the new era. “The challenges facing education and training providers who are steeped in traditional delivery styles when confronted with digitally literate students, where, rather than simply receiving and memorizing the wisdom of their elders, which has been the tradition for millennia, students are now demanding training that meets their specific information needs.” According to “new and emerging pedagogies have the power to harness the information and communication technologies by bringing dramatic change in the educational landscape, transforming the breadth, depth and opportunities for learning.” The emergence of new technologies has changed the structure of education and produced a new relation between educators and student. Pedagogy is an umbrella term encompassing the activities of learning and teaching, includes also methods for education which involve ways of knowing as well as ways of doing. Teaching is a pedagogy that focuses on education for social change (Nieto, 1999). An in-depth research and innovation are two factors that can ensure the future quality of pedagogy . A well-designed and effectively conducted analysis is an essential prerequisite that should provide knowledge and experiences for making each of the pedagogy’s components more enriching and appropriate to the needs of learners and teachers. Educators should be familiar with latest advanced teaching methods throughout their teaching profession to keep abreast with the emerging technologies. Their training courses should be organized in a way that allows them adapt to change to suit new purpose of pedagogically sound methods of teaching and learning with technology. The Inquiry, Problem and Experiential learning has contributed to the advancement of mobile learning, which is able to meet the demand arising from the needs of 21st century learners. Incorporating mobile learning with pedagogy 3 The study integrates mobile learning and pedagogy for Inquiry, Problem and Experiential based learning taking into consideration the needs and experience of rural school teachers. It is a tremendous fact in human experience; that a whole pedagogy achieves an advanced stage of development which is dependent on the effective use of mobile technology. The integration of the new pedagogies of the mobiles is integral to Inquiry, Problem and Experiential based learning The 21st century learners require learning that offers trendy ideas that demonstrate the authenticity of mobile learning devices. The emerging pedagogy of mobiles has a potential of being perceived by the senses. Its capability includes tangibility, easily perceptible sounds and hearing audible range, perceptible changes in behavior and conversational processes that enable learners to develop the skills required to investigate, examine, inquire, analyze and solve problems in real context. Its distinct properties contribute to its popularity as a device for learning. The emergence of the mobile learning pedagogies recognizes the 21st century learning and pedagogies of learning (experiential, inquiry and problem based learning). Hence Pedagogy 3.0 is the new approach that will transform teaching from classroom based learning to learning that is situated in various places and provide for a variety of favorable combination of circumstances. The emergent of the new pedagogies give rise to a democratized mobile learning classroom that is adapted for the benefit of learners at large. 2
  3. 3. The Inquiry, Problem and Experiential learning has contributed to the advancement of mobile learning, which is able to meet the demand arising from the needs of 21st century learners. Overview of the Inquiry based learning (IBL) Initially Inquiry based learning (IBL) emanate from the perspectives of the constructivist . Learners’ construct their own meaning rather than receive knowledge from the educator . It is learner centered and based on the principle that learners learn best by discovering things on their own with the teacher as a facilitator. defined Inquiry based learning as “an approach to learning that involves a process of exploring the natural or material world, and that leads to asking questions, making discoveries, and rigorously testing those discoveries in the search for new understanding” Learning is an active process engaging learners in higher cognitive process such as using knowledge acquired in practical situations, to facilitate personal interpretation of learning content. They design their activities and embark on bold new ventures through inquiry and work cooperatively to search for knowledge and create tasks that reflect their interpretation and meaning. It is thought provoking and engages learners to pursue knowledge by asking questions that stimulate their natural curiosity to participate in an activity. Being inquisitive, compel learners seek information and probe questions. A teacher offers guidance and support as a facilitator which follows a short account of examining the learning experience at the end. Teachers empower learners to develop their innate abilities and to acquire necessary skills to explore, examine and discover essential features related to the real world. The focus is away from the teacher and towards the learner. The teacher assumes the role of a facilitator. A facilitator alleviates the process by guiding learners towards the more challenging lessons and arriving at their own conclusion. In Inquiry learning the learner is portrayed as an inquirer into unfamiliar and authentic activities who develops innate abilities and skills essential to carry out a research project. He has distinctive intellectual depth of a diversity of disciplines to discover concepts that are appropriate and relevant to the context and to the entire world. Furthermore, inquiry based learning provide worthwhile activities within the context of learners to gain knowledge and skills to be able to comprehend concepts. IBL approaches help learners to create their own meaning and understanding, by considering their cognitive skills, which include the capacity to evaluate sources, analyze and synthesize data, and communicate findings. Learners are more likely to benefit from research through investigation of inquiring into unfamiliar activities when they engage actively in research, for example, through a variety of active learning, such as an action research. The primary purpose of action research is to produce practical knowledge that is useful for students. It is aimed at taking both action and creating knowledge about theory. Figure 1 The Action Research inquiry model 3 Identify a Evaluate action problem
  4. 4. Table 1 Summary of the Action Research inquiry model 4 Investigate problem (Just give me the facts.) Evaluate Data (What does it all mean?) List possible actions Predict outcomes Implement action (Let’s hit the road.) Select best action (This is IT!) Identify a new problem and follow procedure (Just give me the facts.) Predict outcome Make a prediction about the conclusion. Envision the results. Give evidence by finding a solution to a problem Select best action Recognize or perceive the difference. Reach a conclusion after a discussion Implement action Carry out some action. Keep evidence of improvement to show possible and achievable solution. Design a systematic action plan Evaluate action Discuss the result. Form a critical opinion of the action plan Identify problem It is important to critically discover causes of a problem Investigate problem Research, explore, examine and find the reasons to the problem Evaluate data Determine the nature, value, quality, ability, extent and the significance of information List possible actions Execute methods of problem solving. Explain how to solve the problem
  5. 5. Problem based learning (PBL) Problem Based Learning (PBL) that is presently known has developed from innovative health sciences program introduced in North America thirty years ago .PBL was initially initiated by the health sciences and has been adopted by other discipline, for example, education and acknowledged by primary and secondary schools due to being successful. With a relatively long history and its success in medical use, educators in schools, have also adopted the principles of PBL. In the school setting PBL is a sophisticated approach to learning that impart skills or knowledge to numerous approaches that are critical for a century learning . PBL strategies guide learners to develop an investigation process that combines theoretical knowledge into practical skills, fostering its application in defined contexts. “PBL is extremely engaging, motivating and involving a form of experiential learning” demonstrate effective communication skills, and to use content knowledge and intellectual skills to become lifelong learners Essential characteristics of PBL providing information on how to relate PBL to the real world situation It is necessary that problems relate to real life experience in PBL. Tasks are designed and controlled by the facilitator to allow learners to find solutions on their own. These tasks develop in learners the ability to analyze, criticize, identify the problem and find solution. During the lesson learners should be given a variety of sources to promote and encourage quizzical ideas to develop new branch of 5
  6. 6. knowledge. Obtaining information from a variety of sources enable learners to resolve problems in the same situation like people in the real world. Most of the jobs available today are opened to information sharing, whereby colleagues are required to collaborate with each other. PBL provide for the necessary skills required for collaboration. The autonomous study presented to learners must be applied to show feedback to the problem with analysis and solution. The study is relevant for individuals to collect information that informs the group’s decision-making by being judgmental in discerning individual’s ideas. At the end of each study individual or peer assessment should be carried out. The emphasis on importance of this activity to be able to reflect and to deeply think about knowledge gained in enhancing meta - cognitive processing skills. Figure 2 the following diagram give you a visual overview of the model (Barrows and Tamblyn 1980) Table 2 Summary of the PBL model 6
  7. 7. Overview of Experiential Based Learning (EBL) Experiential learning is the process of creating knowledge through the transformation of experience . Experience based learning (EBL) is recognized by distinct features that takes learners into cognizant. According to (EBL) is based on a set of assumption about learning from experience. These experiences has been identified as the basis of learning and used to motivate learners. Learners actively construct their own meaning by organizing ideas, arguments, and concepts. Learners’ experience is at the forefront of teaching and learning. Experience learning is learner centered which is based on active participation. The experience may encompass their pre – knowledge experience, successive events experienced in contact with the teacher and instructors. The focus in experience learning is that learners explore and discover the meaning of their learning experience by considering the solution to the problems to be solved. This includes the ability to reason and solve real world problems. Experiential knowledge includes all kind of learning, namely, informal, formal, non formal education which links learners’ past experience with new concepts to be learned . In EBL, learners use concrete apparatus and not abstract or imaginary. Experiential learning makes use of experience in a unique context to facilitate knowledge acquisition and creation. It has characteristic features that serve to distinguish it from other approaches of the same kind. The essential characteristics of experience-based learning 7 1. Students are given a problem 2. Students talk about the problem in a small group PBL tutorial. They give clarity and facts of the case. They define what the problem is. They brainstorm ideas based on the prior knowledge, identify what they need to learn to work on the problem, what they do not know (learning issues). They reason through the problem. They specify an action plan for working on the problem. 3. Individuals engage in autonomous and authentic studies. They use various sources of information such as the internet and library. 4. They come back to the PBL tutorial (s) sharing information, peer teaching and working together on the problem 5. They present and discuss their solution to the problem 6. They review what they have learnt from working on the problem. All who participated in the process engage in self, peer and tutor review of the PBL process and each person’s contribution to that process
  8. 8. It involves and develops the person as a whole i.e. the knowledge, senses, emotions and attitude and belief. For example, engaging in activities such as role plays and games stimulate the mind and some other senses. Learning takes place. Experiential learning recognizes knowledge that results from direct participation in activities. In (EBL) the teacher is the facilitator who has the positive influence in the students learning. Both the facilitator and the students assume the same relationship involving mutual connections by bringing ideas collectively whilst giving learners autonomy and control. EBL it is outcomes based through processes and assessment which depends on how results are obtained. It offers suitable assessment tasks that are appropriate and aligned with EBL. The learner’s direct involvement in experiential learning is in direct contact with the subject being studied . Kolb’s four-stage cycle of experiential learning can be regarded as reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation” and has extensive information that enables students to comprehend knowledge gained through experience. Figure 3 Kolb’s model of experiential learning 8
  9. 9. Table 3 summary of Kolb’s cycle of experiential learning 1. In concrete experience stage students begin from the concrete, using the senses from direct observation or participation in activities. 2. Students reflect on what they did i.e. what went wrong and how they could improve on it. 3. In the abstract stage student are now independent of tangible apparatus. 4. In active experiment stage, the students apply the knowledge that they have acquired to practical situation. Learning style that I resonate with I choose Experiential Based Learning (EBL) because I have applied methods of EBL in the classroom and also because mobile learning offers enhanced learning experiences. Learners I in grade 3 predominantly engage in hands - on activities. They bring in the pre – knowledge experience which I use to further develop their knowledge by linking theory and practice. Learners get involved in what they using their senses to perceive information. Knowledge is acquired through experience. It corroborates the importance of experiential methods such as simulation and games. It affords mobile learning with innovative and high-value learning styles. It has unique, multi-facetted range of strategies that are relevant to world experience. Although it is challenging, it requires that teachers focus of attention on learners and to be flexible in order to take them through the processes of learning. Conclusion In this project I discussed the TED talks, principles of pedagogy 3.0 and the implication of blending the types of learning and the mobile learning. I conclude that incorporating mobile learning with other styles of learning is a big concern that needs constant review and evaluation 9
  10. 10. Reference Barrows, H. S. (1996). Problem‐based learning in medicine and beyond: A brief overview. New directions for teaching and learning, 1996(68), 3-12. Bell, S. (2010). Project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for the future. The Clearing House, 83(2), 39-43. Boud, D., Cohen, R., & Walker, D. (1993). Introduction: Understanding learning from experience. Using experience for learning, 1-17. Buckner, E., & Kim, P. (2013). Integrating technology and pedagogy for inquiry-based learning: The Stanford Mobile Inquiry-based Learning Environment (SMILE). PROSPECTS, 1-20. De Jong, T. (2006). Technological Advances in Inquiry Learning. Science. Gordon, K. (1999). Inquiry approaches in primary studies of society and environment key learning area. Occasional Paper for the Queensland School Curriculum Council. Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of educational computing research, 32(2), 131- 152. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (Vol. 1): Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Lai, C. H., Yang, J. C., Chen, F. C., Ho, C. W., & Chan, T. W. (2007). Affordances of mobile technologies for experiential learning: the interplay of technology and pedagogical practices. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23(4), 326- 337. Nguyen, P. M., Terlouw, C., & Pilot, A. (2006). Culturally appropriate pedagogy: the case of group learning in a Confucian Heritage Culture context. Intercultural Education, 17(1), 1-19. Peters, K. (2009). m-Learning: Positioning educators for a mobile, connected future. Mobile Learning, 113. 10
  11. 11. Savery, J. R. (2006). Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and distinctions. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 1(1), 3. Williams, J. B., & Goldberg, M. (2005). The evolution of e-learning. Proceedings of Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. Retrieved November, 17, 2011. 11