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“Forget antiwar protests,Woodstock,
even long hair. The real legacy of the sixties
generation is the computer revolution.”
• AT&T Bell Lab
• Ken Thompson and
The Hacker's Ethics
• Access to computers - and anything which might
teach you something about the way the world
works - should be unlimited and total.
• All information should be free.
• Mistrust authority - promote decentralization.
• Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not
bogus criteria such as degrees, age, race, or
• You can create art and beauty on a computer.
• Computers can change your life for the better.
• MIT AI Lab
• Richard Stallman
• GNU project
Four kinds of freedom
• The freedom to run the program, for any purpose.
• The freedom to study how the program works,
and adapt it to your needs.
• The freedom to redistribute copies so you can
help your neighbor.
• The freedom to improve the program, and release
your improvements to the public, so that the
whole community beneﬁts.
• Bill Gates
• “An Open Letter to
“As the majority of hobbyists must be aware,
most of you steal your software.
Hardware must be paid for,
but software is something to share.
Who cares if the people who worked on it get paid?”
• University of Helsinki
• Linus Torvalds