Morphological typology
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Morphological typology

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Tiphology Morphology

Tiphology Morphology

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Morphological typology Morphological typology Presentation Transcript

  • Tipologi Morpologi
  • Group 2 Agustina Lestary Ninuk Krismanti Peny Kustiati Rezqan Noor Farid
  • Discussion Introduction Types of Languages Morphological Operations Words Meaning
  • IntroductionWhat is “Morphology”?What is “Typology”?What is “Morphological Typology”?Morphology Across Language.
  • Morphology How language users understand complex words and how they create new ones. The study of the patterning of morphemes within a word and how morphemes combine to form new complex words.
  • Typology Typology is the classification of languages on the basis of shared formal characteristics. The ultimate goals of typology are to ascertain the ways in which languages are similar in structure and to determine just how different human languages can be.
  • investigating the cross composition of linguistichuman languages comparison structural similarities between languages has fundamental properties that can be generalized
  • Morphological TypologyThe study of differences among theworld’s languages relating to the ways inwhich words are formed from smallermeaningful units referred to as‘morphemes’.
  • Morpology Across Languages‘Isolating’ or ‘analytic’‘Synthetic’  ‘Agglutinating’  ‘Fusional’‘Polysynthetic’
  • 1. Isolating (or analytic) languageAn isolating language is a language in which almostevery word consists of a single morpheme.An analytic language conveys grammaticalrelationships syntactically — that is, via the useof unbound morphemes, which are separate words,rather than via bound morphemes, whichare inflectional prefixes, suffixes or infixes.
  • ->Vietnamesekhi tôi dên nhà ban tôi, chúng tôi bát dâu làm bài.when I come house friend I, Plural I begin past do lessonWhen I came to my friends house, we began to do lessons.->Chineseta bu hui yong dao chi fanhe no can use knife eat riceHe cannot eat rice with a knife
  • 2. Inflectional (synthetic)While isolating languages use onlyindependent words for grammatical purposes,synthetic languages often use affixes andinternal modifications of roots for thosepurposes.
  • • AgglutinatingIn agglutinative languages, each affix typically representsone unit of meaning (such as "diminutive", "past tense","plural", etc.), and bound morphemes are expressed byaffixes (and not by internal changes of the root of theword, or changes in stress or tone).In agglutinating languages, morphemes are strungtogether to create complex words. Any number ofmorphemes can be added in this way. All morphemeshave a single meaning and are easily recognizable.
  • Example:Turkish ev → house (nom. sg.) ev-ler → houses (nom. pl.) ev-i → his/her house (sg.+poss.) ev-ler-i → his/her houses (pl.+poss.) ev-den → in front of the house (sg.+abl.) ev-ler-den → in front of the houses (pl.+abl.)
  • • FusionalFusional languages combine affixes by"squeezing" them together, often changingthem drastically in the process, and joiningseveral meanings in one affix. A fusional affixcan carry a single meaning or several, such asperson, gender and number
  • Example:-> Spanish word comí "I ate", the suffix -í carries the meanings of indicative mood, active voice, past tense, first person singular subject and perfective aspect).-> Latin word bonus "good". The ending -us denotes masculine gender, nominative case, and singular number. Changing any one of these features requires replacing the suffix -us with a different one.
  • 3. PolysyntheticIn many polysynthetic languages a word maycontain bound morphemes corresponding toboth verb and noun in English. This meansthat what are subject and predicate in anEnglish sentence will often be expressed by asingle word in a polysynthetic language.
  • Nootkainikw-ihl-minih-is-it-a (verb)fire-in house-plural-small-past ongoingseveral small fires were burning in the houseinikw-ihl-minih-isit-i (noun)fire-in house-plural-small-past ongoing-the several small fires burning in the house
  • Definition:A morphological process is a means ofchanging a stem to adjust its meaning to fit itssyntactic and communicational context.
  • Two ways of Morphological Process1. concatenative morphology: putting morphemes together2. non-concatenative: modifying internal structure of morphemes
  • Morphological Process Scheme
  • CONCATENATIVE MORPHOLOGY1. COMPOUNDINGEnglish shares with many languages the ability to createnew words by combining old words.Compounding can be analyzed through its constituents.
  • a. Endocentric: compound that has heade.g.: ‘coffee table’ coffee is modifier table is headCoffee table is a kind of table
  • b. Exocentric: compound that has no heade. g:parent-teacherwhite-collar
  • CONCATENATIVE MORPHOLOGY (cont’d)2. INCORPORATIONIncorporation is a phenomenon by which aword, usually a verb, forms a kind of compoundwith, for instance, its direct object (objectincorporation) or adverbial modifier, whileretaining its original syntactic function.e. g:In English meat-eat (eat meat) dish-clean (clean the dishes)
  • CONCATENATIVE MORPHOLOGY (cont’d)3. AFFIXESa. Prefixesb. Infixesc. Suffixesd. Confixes or Circumfixes
  • NON-CONCATENATIVE1. REDUPLICATIONThis process can be classified according to theamount of a form that is duplicated, whethercomplete or partial, and if the latter, accordingto exactly which part.e. g: in Marshallese Initial C: liw (scold someone) lliw (be angry) Initial CVC: yetal (go) yetyetal (walk)
  • NON-CONCATENATIVE (cont’d)2. INTERNAL MODIFICATION a. Vowel Modification b. Ablaut and Umlaut c. Vowel Reversal d. Consonant Modification e. Tonal Modification f. Stress Modification g. Suppletion
  • NON-CONCATENATIVE (cont’d)3. CONVERSIONConversion is the way of forming a new wordmerely by shifting the category or part of speechof an already existing word without adding anaffixe. g:English table to table bread to bread
  • French gard-er (to guard)  garde (guard) visit-er (to visit)  visite (visit)Morphologists argue that conversion is differentfrom affixation, and treat it simply as change ofcategory with no accompanying change of form.
  • NON-CONCATENATIVE (cont’d)4. BACK DERIVIATIONBack-formation is the word formation process inwhich an actual or supposed derivational affixdetaches from the base form of a word to createa new word.e. g: donation – donate gambler – gamble
  • Dari referensi buku – buku linguistic,word meaning mengacu pada arti ataumakna untuk yang bisa ditemukan padakamus umum, kamus antar bahasamisalnya bahasa Inggris ke bahasaIndonesia, ataupun ensiklopedia.
  • KataBerdiri sendiri yang merupakanunsur bahasa yg diucapkan ataudituliskan yang merupakanperwujudan kesatuan perasaan danpikiran yg dapat digunakan dalamberbahasa;
  • KataSuatu ujaran bunyi terkecil, atau juga dalam linguisticmorfem atau kombinasi morfem dianggap sebagaisatuan terkecil yg dapat diujarkan sebagai bentuk yangbebas; satuan bahasa yg dapat berdiri sendiri, terjadidari morfem tunggal (misal batu, rumah, datang) ataugabungan morfem (misal pejuang, pancasila,mahakuasa).
  • Kata leksikalBentuk ajektif yang diturunkan darinomina leksikon. Leksikon merupakanbentuk jamak. Adapun satuannya adalahleksem. Leksikon dapat disamakandengan kosakata atau perbendaharaankata. Adapun leksem dapat disamakandengan kata.
  • Perhatikan contoh berikut ini:a. rumahb. berumah
  • Kata bentuksuara fonologi atau ortografi ataupenampilan dari sebuah kata yangdapat digunakan untukmenggambarkan ataumengidentifikasi sesuatu.
  • Kata - Akar Kata(linguistik) bentuk kata setelahsemua afiks yang dihilangkan.
  • linguistik - studi ilmiah bahasaDeskriptor, bentuk, penanda, bentukkata - suara fonologi atau ortografi ataupenampilan dari sebuah kata yang dapatdigunakan untuk menggambarkan ataumengidentifikasi sesuatu.
  • Makna LeksikalMakna dasar yang terdapat pada setiapkata atau leksikon. Maksudnya, maknaleksikal adalah makna yang sesuaidengan acuan atau referennya ataukamus. Soedjito (1986) menjelaskanbahwa makna leksikal ialah makna katasecara lepas, tanpa kaitan dengan katayang lain dalam sebuah konstruksi.
  •  Persepsi lain mengenai arti juga terdapat pada beberapa istilah seperti: Arti harfiah, makna harfiah atau arti/makna literal adalah arti kata secara leksikal atau arti yang paling mendasar. Bukan arti turunan (derivatif)
  •  kata makna - makna yang diterima dari arti word word - arti diterima kata Kata akal, akseptasi atau keterbeterimaan, menandakan, akal - arti sebuah kata atau ungkapan, cara di mana sebuah kata atau ungkapan atau situasi dapat diartikan, "kamus memberikan beberapa arti untuk kata", "penanda ini terkait dengan signified ".
  • Lexical SemantikSebuah teori linguistik yang meneliti makna kata. Teoriini memahami bahwa arti kata sepenuhnya tercerminkonteksnya. Di sini, makna kata didasari oleh hubungankontekstualnya. Oleh karena itu, perbedaan antaratingkat partisipasi serta mode partisipasi dibuat. Dalamrangka untuk mencapai perbedaan ini setiap bagian darikalimat yang beruang arti dan menggabungkan denganmakna konstituen lainnya diberi label sebagaikonstituen semantik. Konstituen semantik yang tidakdapat dipecah menjadi konstituen dasar lebih dicapsebagai konstituen semantik minimal
  •  Kamus adalah bagian utama dari deskripsi bahasa apapun. Sebuah kamus rumah tangga yang baik biasa biasanya memberikan (setidaknya) tiga jenis informasi tentang kata-kata, informasi fonologis tentang bagaimana kata tersebut diucapkan, tata bahasa (sintaksis dan morfologi) informasi tentang perusahaan pidato bagian od seperti kata benda, kata kerja, dan infleksi nomor contoh plural atau tegang dan semantik informasi masa lalu tentang makna kata itu
  •  Kamus, yaitu keterkaitan, penggunaan istilah teknis atau teoritis tertentu dan perangkat dan presisi, menunjukkan titik-titik kesamaan dan perbedaan antara pendekatan dari biasa kamus-penulis dan ahli ilmu semantik linguistik teoritis. Approah semantik lingustic ini ditandai dengan desakan ketat menjelaskan hanya properti-properti dari sebuah kata yang berhubungan dengan arti
  •  Arti adalah denotasi. Sedangkan makna adalah konotasi. Kadang-kadang "makna" itu selaras dengan "arti" dan kadang tidak selaras. Apabila makna sesuatu itu sama dengan arti sesuatu itu, maka makna tersebut disebut Makna Laras (Explicit Meaning). Apabila maknanya tidak selaras dengan "arti", maka sesuatu itu disebut memiliki Makna Kandungan (Implicit Meaning) atau Makna Lazim (Necessary Meaning).
  • ReferencesBussman, H. (ed). 2006. Routledge’s Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. New York: Routledge.Lieber, Rochelle.2009. Introducing Morphology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Strazny, P (.ed). 2005. Fitzroy’s Encyclopedia of Linguistics. New York: Taylor and Francis Books, Incwww.kul.pl/files/30/UW/06Morphology-class-handout.pdfhttp://www2.hawaii.edu/~bender/process.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incorporation_%28linguistics%29http://www.linguexperience.com/A_Linguistics_Experience/Morphology.ht mlhttp://www.linguexperience.com/A_Linguistics_Experience/Morphology.ht mlhttp://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ling201/test1materials/typology.htmhttp://www.sfs.unituebingen.de/~gjaeger/lehre/ws1011/languagesOfTheWorl d/morphologicalTypology.pdf