20100820080859 lecture 7,8,9,10( steps of proposal0


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20100820080859 lecture 7,8,9,10( steps of proposal0

  1. 1. Topics ofThe DiscussionsTopics ofThe Discussions Steps in Preparing Proposal Purpose ofThe research Approaches to Research Design Data Collection  Categories of Research Data Ways of collecting data Guideline of Question forQuestionnaire or interview Recommendation and conclusion
  2. 2. Steps in the Preparation of ResearchSteps in the Preparation of Research ProposalProposal
  3. 3. Approaches to the Research DesignApproaches to the Research Design
  4. 4. Qualitative ResearchQualitative Research
  5. 5. Qualitative Research (cont..)Qualitative Research (cont..) Ethnography research : Ethnography research refers to the collection of data through interview and observation.  For example ; a researcher might wish to investigate a school class room disabled students are included. The researcher would observe a lengthy period of time and would gather data from students and the teacher through interview and observations. The researcher will keep about practically everything that the researcher noticed.
  6. 6. Qualitative Research (cont..)Qualitative Research (cont..) Case study: A case study involves an in depth examination of one individual. Case studies are in-depth studies of particular events or situations or even people, objects, and procedures. It also examines the relationship of subject’s behavior, history and environment.
  7. 7. Qualitative Research (cont..)Qualitative Research (cont..) Content Analysis : Another type of qualitative research is content analysis. It focuses on an analysis of the content of a written document.
  8. 8. Quantitative ResearchQuantitative Research
  9. 9. Quantitative Research (cont)Quantitative Research (cont) Surveys: Surveys are concerned with collecting data about the occurrence or incidence of events from respondents. Instrument used may be questionnaire, interview, sheets, and observations schedules
  10. 10. Quantitative Research (cont)Quantitative Research (cont) Casual-comparative studies These are studies set out to determine the relationship which exists between different factors. E.g. the level of smoking and health failure.
  11. 11. Quantitative Research (cont)Quantitative Research (cont) Co-relational studies: Correlations are statistical relationship based on quantitative measures on two or more parameters. E.g. data acquired from a sample of smokers, it may be found that frequency of smoking correlate with personality factors.
  12. 12. What is data ?What is data ? Data is one kind of information that researcher have obtained in relation to the objective of their research. Data are equally facts which researcher requires establishing the findings.
  13. 13. Categories of Research DataCategories of Research Data Basically, there are two types of research data. These are:  Primary data  Secondary data
  14. 14. Primary DataPrimary Data This is the main data that the researcher obtains directly from the respondents. Primary data is the most important in any research because the source of information is well-planned and mentioned clearly in the methodology.
  15. 15. Secondary DataSecondary Data Secondary data is such kind of information that obtained from secondary sources such as books, magazine, newspapers, or comments, feedbacks from people. These sources are not really described or stated in the methodology.
  16. 16. Data collectionData collection The next step is data collection. In any research, conclusion is made based on data collection.  The researcher must therefore take great care in collecting and recording information. Every research method has its own limitations and researcher must take them into account at all times.
  17. 17. Data collection TechniquesData collection Techniques Basically , data can be collected two ways: Interview Questionnaire
  18. 18. InterviewsInterviews There are many ways in which data are gathered, including observation interview, focus group discussion phone calls
  19. 19. QuestionnairesQuestionnaires Personal and official documents Photographs, Recordings Mailed questionnaire
  20. 20. Personal Interviews An interview is a purposive interaction between two or more persons in order to obtain information from the other. Interview permit researcher to obtain important data when they can not obtain from observation. Researcher can examine attitudes, feelings, concerns and values more easily than using observation. Personal InterviewPersonal Interview
  21. 21. Advantages of InterviewAdvantages of Interview Advantages of interview  The researcher reads the question to the respondent a face-to-face setting and records the answers.  One of the most important aspects of the interview is its flexibility.  The researcher has the opportunity to observe the subject and the total situation in which he or she is responding.  Question can be repeated or their meaning explained in case they are not understood by the respondents.
  22. 22. Disadvantages of InterviewDisadvantages of Interview Disadvantages of interview Major disadvantage of personal interview is that it is expensive and time consuming to transcribe the interview recordings, especially long ones. Another disadvantage the possibility of interviewer bias, which occurs when the interviewer’s own feelings and attitudes or the interviewer’s gender, race and other characteristics influence the way in which the questions are asked. In that case, the researcher verbally or nonverbally encourages “correct” responses that fit his or her
  23. 23. ObservationObservation Observation In an observational study, the current status of a phenomenon is determined not by asking by observing.. The observer can be a participant observer, who engage fully in the activities being studied but is known to the participants as a researcher.
  24. 24. Focus Group DiscussionFocus Group Discussion Focus group discussion Focus group discussion is a discussion with groups of respondents of five to ten as representative of the study population. They discuss about the research objectives or research issue. A moderator keeps the discussion focused on an agenda and ask question to clarify comments.
  25. 25. Guideline of Question for aGuideline of Question for a Questionnaire or interviewQuestionnaire or interview Type of Interview Questions Basically, six types of questions that can be asked to the respondents. Any or of these following questions might be asked during an interview these are: 1. Background of demographic questions 2. Knowledge questions 3. Experience or behavior questions 4. Opinion or values questions 5. Feelings questions and 6. Sensory questions
  26. 26. Guideline of Question for aGuideline of Question for a Questionnaire or interviewQuestionnaire or interview Background of demographic questions: Background question refers to questions about the background characteristics of the respondents. They include questions about education, previous occupation, age, income, and so on.
  27. 27. Guideline of Question for aGuideline of Question for a Questionnaire or interviewQuestionnaire or interview Knowledge questions: knowledge questions are questions researcher asks to find out what factual information (as castrated with their opinions, beliefs and attitudes) respondents posses.
  28. 28. Guideline of Question for aGuideline of Question for a Questionnaire or interviewQuestionnaire or interview Experience or behavior questions: Experience or behavior questions are questions a researcher asks to find out what a respondent is currently doing or he has done in the past.
  29. 29. Guideline of Question for aGuideline of Question for a Questionnaire or interviewQuestionnaire or interview Opinions or values questions: Opinions or values questions are questions researchers ask to find out what people think about some topic or issue. Example: “what do think you about the principles’ new policy about recruitment?
  30. 30. Guideline of Question for aGuideline of Question for a Questionnaire or interviewQuestionnaire or interview Feelings questions: Feeling questions are a question a researcher asks to find out how respondents feel about things. They are directed towards the emotional responses of people to their experiences. Example might include for this question “how do you feel about the way students behave in this school.
  31. 31. Format of QuestionFormat of Question Researchers seek information through several approaches. These are in the forms of: Questions Statement
  32. 32. Questions and QuestionnairesQuestions and Questionnaires Example for questions Answer  You smoke regularly Yes No  You are addicted to cigarettes Yes No  You recite Quran everyday Yes No
  33. 33. Questions and Questionnaires (cont..)Questions and Questionnaires (cont..) Example for statement Answer  You smoke regularly Agree Disagree  You are addicted to cigarettes Agree Disagreed
  34. 34. Questions and Questionnaires (cont..)Questions and Questionnaires (cont..) Likert Scale  Scales are used to measure attitudes, values, opinions and other characteristic that are not easily measured by tests or other measuring instruments.  The likert scale is one of the most widely used techniques to measure attitudes.  A likert scale asks participants to respond to a series of statements by indicating whether they strongly agree (SA), agree (A), are undecided (U), disagree (D), or strongly disagree (SD).  Each response is associated with a point value, and an individual’s score is determined by summering the point of values of each statement.
  35. 35. Ways of Collecting InformationWays of Collecting Information Likert Scale  Example of a two-point Likert Scale 1 2 Weak strong  Examples of three-point likert scale 1 2 3 Bed Average Good  Examples of four-point likert scale 1 2 3 4 bed average good excellent  Examples of five-point likert scale 1 2 3 4 5 Very bed bed average good very good
  36. 36. Different Forms of Question for aDifferent Forms of Question for a QuestionnaireQuestionnaire Questionnaire contains question that the researcher would use to get information from respondents. Questionnaire takes several forms depending on the interest of the researcher. Most popular forms are Open-ended Closed -ended
  37. 37. Different Forms of Question for aDifferent Forms of Question for a QuestionnaireQuestionnaire Types of questioning that most researchers can use and these are: Closed-ended questionnaire: For example, Do you go to school every day? yes no
  38. 38. Different Forms of Question for aDifferent Forms of Question for a QuestionnaireQuestionnaire Close-ended question or statement may also be in the form of the likert scale For example: Education is important for women empowerment 1 2 3 Weak strongly very strongly
  39. 39. Different Forms of Question for aDifferent Forms of Question for a Questionnaire (Cont..)Questionnaire (Cont..) Open-ended question: Example, In your opinion what is effecting factor to women empowerment? ............................................... ............................................................................. ............................................................................. .......................................................................
  40. 40. Data AnalysisData Analysis When all data has been collected the researcher begins to classify the facts, clarifying the trends, and relationships and tabulating the information in such a way that it can be accurately analyzed and interpreted. Data can be interpreted or analyzed in several ways to evaluate each of theses possibilities with much objectivity.
  41. 41. Conclusions and RecommendationConclusions and Recommendation The final step in the research process is the conclusion Assuming that all has done as planned The report may also identify unanswered questions, and the researcher may suggest new hypotheses that other researchers or scholar can explore.