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Background of the Study
The way grammar is typically taught in schools today is most likely very
different from how you learned basic grammar rules. Although declarative
knowledge was once the primary goal of grammar instruction, today's teachers
now place a greater importance on helping students develop procedural
Traditionally, English grammar was viewed as a separate part of the
educational experience. Teachers helped students learn by requiring regular
substitution or pattern practice drills and diagramming sentences. Memorization
was a key part of grammar instruction, with frequent quizzes and worksheets
available to test a student's mastery of grammar rules. This philosophy is
sometimes referred to as prescriptive grammar instruction.
Today, grammar is viewed as an essential communication tool. Instead of
viewing grammar as a separate area of study, teachers often strive to integrate
grammar instruction into other subject areas. Drills are minimal, often replaced by
a practical discussion of how grammar can be used to aid in effective
communication or how grammar is used in a particular piece of literature.
Prescriptive grammar emphasizes learning the proper terms for grammatical
elements, such as nouns, verbs, adverbs, and adjectives. Prescriptive grammar
also emphasizes learning many rules of English grammar. Students learn the
right and wrong ways to write sentences and are encouraged to write and
The objective of teaching English at the elementary level are to:
understand simple statements when spoken; understand questions asked, short
talks and short passages when read out; ask simple questions orally; read with
fluency and understand simple passages within the vocabulary and structural
range of the syllabus; and express in writing with reasonable accuracy within the
range of the syllabus or topics within his experience. These general objectives
are specified in terms of teachers teaching competencies, which is the ability to
modify assignments for students; how to design classroom activities with so
many levels that all students have a part.
In view of the foregoing, the researchers were prompted to investigate the
teaching competencies of elementary English teacher and the student's
Teaching English grammar can be difficult for the teacher and the
students. It doesn't have to be difficult or painful, however. English grammar can
be taught using fun learning games and before knowing it your students will be
more than willing. There has been a movement away from the traditional
methods of teaching English grammar through writing, rewriting and worksheets
to using a more active approach through games. Researchers have also begun
to look at how and why these new methods work.
The study is premised on the theory of intrinsic motivation Vernon (2007)
which gives some insight as to how teaching grammar through games actually
works. Intrinsic motivation refers to the internal factors that encourage us to do
something. Most young learners will not internally decide that they want to learn
grammar. They don't yet understand the concepts of why it's important to know
proper grammar, so these external factors won't affect them much either.
Instead, intrinsic motivation can lead encourage them to play games. If these
games are good then they will be learning while they are playing. Using some
movement is crucial because movement helps activate the student’s mental
capacities and stimulate neural networks, thus promoting learning and retention.
It is related to the present study because it implies other techniques to the
teacher to catch their student’s attention when teaching grammar. It can also be
a way to increase students’ interests in grammar.
- Sex - Sex
- Age - Age
- Length of - Sibling
- Educational - Educational
Attainment Attainment of
Attended - Socio-
A Conceptual Framework Showing the Interplay of Variables of the Teaching
Competencies of the Elementary English Teachers and the Student’s
The first box contains the independent variable in the study which is the
Teaching Competencies of the Elementary English Teachers. The second box
contains the dependent variable which is the Student’s Performance. The boxes
at the bottom contain the moderating variables include the profile of the two
subjects of the study. The first contains the teacher’s profile which includes the
sex, age, length of service, educational attainment and trainings attended while
The second the student’s profile which includes sex, age, and sibling position,
educational attainment of the parents and the socio economics status of the
The lines that connect the three boxes show the relationship that exists
among the different variables in the study.
Statement of the Problem
The study aimed to find out the teaching competencies of the elementary
English teachers and the student’s performance.
Specifically, the researchers intend to answers to the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the teachers in terms of :
1.3 length of service;
1.4 educational attainment; and
1.5 trainings attended?
2. What is the profile of the students in terms of:
2.3 sibling position;
2.4 educational attainment of parents; and
2.5 socio-economic status of the family?
3. What is the extent of the teaching competencies of the elementary
4. What is the level of student’s performance in English?
5. Is there significant relationship between the teacher’s profile and their
6. Is there a significant relationship between the students’ profile and the
teaching competencies of elementary English teachers?
7. Is there a significant relationship between the teachers profile and the
8. Is there a significant relationship between the students’ profile and their
9. Is there a significant relationship between the teaching competencies
of elementary English teachers’ and the students’ performance?
The following hypotheses have been formulated by the researchers in
attempt to solve the research questions.
1. There is no significant relationship between the teachers’ profile and
their teaching competencies of elementary English teachers.
2. There is no significant relationship between the students’ profile and
the teaching competencies of elementary English teachers’.
3. There is no significant relationship between the teacher’s profile and
the student’s performance.
4. There is no significant relationship between the students’ profile and
5. There is no significant relationship between the teaching competencies
of elementary English teachers and the student’s performance.
Significance of the Study
The researchers viewed that the following benefits may be derived from
To the students, the result of the study will be helpful particularly for those
who are in grade six who will become freshmen. They will learn more
comprehensive grammar as response to the improvement of the teaching style of
their English teachers in terms of teaching grammar. They will be more familiar of
the correct usage of words. Grade six pupils will not have a hard time adjusting
themselves being high school students.
To the elementary English teachers, the output of the study will help them
to determine which lessons in grammar require more focus. It will help them to
seek more effective strategies on how to improve their teaching competencies
and teaching styles.
To the high school teachers, the result of the study could serve as a
baseline information to further the knowledge of the teachers’ in the factors that
could possibly affect the learning of the students.
To the school, the output of the study will help achieve higher quality of
education, because of the well-trained teachers and good performance of the
To the community, the result of the study can help stabilize the condition
of the society through competent teachers and high performing students. It can
also be a great opportunity to the people to have jobs related in grammar tutorial.
To the other researchers, it can lead to future researches, because it will
be a good basis to know why students have low performance in a particular
Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study focused on the teaching competencies of the nine (9)
elementary English teachers and the performance of 90 grade six students, from
nine (9) public elementary schools in Siniloan, Laguna, namely; SES, AOJ, BES,
HES, AAMES, MES, KES, FKRES and PES on the teaching competencies of
elementary English teachers and the students’ performance with respect to the
teachers’ profile which included are sex, age, length of service, educational
attainment and trainings attended and the students profile which are sex, age,
sibling position, educational attainment of the parents and the socio-economic
status of the family. The descriptive method in research will be utilized in this
study. The study will be conducted during the second semester at Siniloan
National High School, Siniloan, Laguna.
Definition of Terms
The following terms have been defined operationally to provide a clearer
understanding of the variables in the study.
Educational Attainment. The highest possible degree of education the teacher-
respondents have attained.
Grammar. It is the focus of the researcher’s study that deals with the correct
usage of words and sentence construction.
Length of Service. It refers to the possible duration of service of the teacher-
Sex. It tells whether the subject is male or female.
Sibling Position. In this study, it tells whether the subject/ respondents is the
eldest, the middle, the youngest children in the family.
Socio-economic Status. It refers to the financial stability of the family whether it
is low, average or high.
Students Performance. The degree of learning of the students in English
grammar as reflected by the scores in the researcher made test.
Teaching Competencies. Ways or strategies of the teacher in teaching
English grammar as perceived by the students.
Trainings Attended. It pertains to the highest possible level of
seminars/workshops that the elementary English teachers have attended.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY
This chapter presents the literature and studies relevant to the study.
Musumeci (1997) mentions the idea of connecting form and meaning in
grammar teaching as a developing trend in reference to the proficiency oriented
curriculum. She points out that students should be able to learn explicit grammar
rules as well as have a chance to practice them in communication in the
authentic or simulation tasks. Interestingly, Musumeci advocates giving students
a chance to look at the language on a sentence level to see how certain
grammatical rules are applied.
It is related to the present study because it suggests other strategy to the
teacher to know their student’s development in terms of grammar by means of
practicing authentic communication task. This is also a way to improve the
teaching competencies of the teacher and the student’s performance.
Ehrenworth (2003) suggested two possible reasons why students did not
learn grammar through the direct instruction method to which Shuman (1991)
referred. First, the researcher noted that most direct grammar instruction is
confusing and filled with exceptions,
Which renders students unable to think independently about grammar schemes
on a sentence level? Secondly, the researcher noted the resistance theory
research conducted by Heshusius (1989, as quoted in Ehrenworth, 2003), who
claimed that “resistance theory provides a framework for understanding these
children’s behavior as active resistance to a situation they find threatening,
boring, or otherwise intolerable”.
It is related to the present study because as compared in the present
situation, many elementary students find hard in learning grammar, and so the
resistance theory might help them to resist in a situation they find boring
specifically in grammar
Vavra (1993) noted that few English teachers are prepared to teach
grammar and receive little or no instruction on how to do it in their teacher
preparation classes. Therefore, often, teachers teach grammar the only way
they know how, the way they were taught years ago. Moreover, Weaver (1996)
referred to learning theory to support why students did not learn grammar in the
traditional method. She argued that grammatical concepts were so complex that
the traditional behaviorist strategies of repeated skills practice done in isolation
do not work. She cited Harris and Rowan (1989) who showed “quite convincingly
that a conscious grasp of grammatical concepts requires a depth of
understanding that is often not gained through practice exercises alone.
It is related to the present study because it cited that most of the teachers
in English teacher have no prepared topic to teach, and just like in the present it
can greatly influence to their teaching competencies. In addition to that traditional
way of teaching grammar and other common way of teaching might not be so
Lindblom, et. al.(2003) Recommended three vitalization of
grammar in authentic and purposeful ways. These integrated strategies
included: Build and Make Use of a Grammar-Controversy Archive that is used by
and contributed to by both students and teachers; Hold Public Grammar
Debates that combines speaking, writing, and listening with a real audience and
purpose can be a powerful way to have students see the importance of
grammar; and Assign Descriptive Grammar Studies so that students can see
that grammar is not just one set of rules used by people in power, but that
different grammars are used for different situations. According to them the use of
all of these activities achieves the goal of integrating grammar and helps student
to internalize the importance of grammar. Also, asserted that students would
begin to see that grammar is not just a boring set of rules, but a subject that is
alive and constantly changing. The authors argued that these grammar
strategies and others would not only reestablish the importance of grammar in
the classroom, but would also invigorate writing, speaking, listening, and reading
in the classroom. Used of this approach not only taught the grammar needed to
help students, but Integrated the areas of language arts and made more
meaningful connections for all.
It is related to the present study because today elementary students do
not give much importance and focus in learning grammar and so this will be their
basis to recognize grammar not only just a boring subject but can help them
better in the four macro skills in English.
Griffin et al. (1998) suggest that children must become skilled users of
language. They must be highly competent in reading and writing to pass the
various assessments that constitute gateways for completing schools, getting
into college, and finding jobs. Teachers need a wealth of content and
pedagogical knowledge to ensure that they are providing appropriate instruction
to all students. Teachers also need a thorough understanding of educational
linguistic- how language figures in education. This foundation would support
teachers practice overall, and in particular, it would help them literacy skills.
It is related to the present study because it shows that student should
perform well in English to acquire high achievements. And so teachers have
great responsibility to that they should also be highly competent in English
grammar to sustain to the knowledge require by their students.
There is scarcity of studies especially local studies related to teaching
competencies of elementary English teachers. The following are some abstract
of related studies taken from the internet.
Geimer et. al.(2000) studied the Improving Student Achievement in
Language Arts through Implementation of Multiple Intelligences Strategies says
that student achievement has been low in language arts in Suburban, Chicago,
IIIinois school districts. This action research project was designed to determine
the effect of incorporating multiple intelligence strategies into the language arts
curriculum. Further was indicated through teachers observation of student
performance other factor that impact low students achievement are mobility, lack
of teacher training and support in implementing curriculum, and teachers not
addressing students’ various learning styles.
It is related to the present study because, it suggested that teachers must
subjected to the different trainings and workshops that can help to the poor
learning styles of the teachers.
Carter (1999) studied The Grammatical Vocabulary: A Plea for the Re-
Introduction of Grammatical Concepts says that schools stopped teaching any
grammatical system some time ago, as they probably should have. But the
schools also, at the same time, stopped teaching grammatical terminology, a
mistake which has had lasting sequences. Students need to be told what
“infinitive,” “preposition,” “case.” and “predicate complement” mean. They need
the tools to think about and analyze their sentences. This paper argues that
students should have vocabulary for discussing language. The paper contends
that if students know the meaning of grammatical terms and phrases and have
practice identifying the concepts, they will then be able to recognize the
structures in their writing, educators will enable them to improve their work .
It is related to the present study due to the fact that many of the students
today have poor knowledge about grammatical terms and phrases that
commonly led to the poor performance when writing sentences and speaking
Einarsson (1999) in his The Place of Grammar in the Language Arts
Curriculum says that the history of grammar instruction includes two approaches:
the handbook approach, which is practiced today, and the textbook approach.
The handbook approach focuses on rules for correct writing and is an error-
based view, while the textbook approach would treat grammar holistically and
interpretively and would systematically explain new concepts in light of previous
ones. One current example related to textbook approach envisions a creative,
activity base classroom, but asserts that no theory should be thought. Knowing
grammar is a holistic and theoretical way, however, cannot be harm in students
writing, and studies are showing benefits to heightened awareness of language
on student’s composition.
It is related to the present study because it asserts that text book can also
be a help to increase knowledge on how to use proper words. It can also be a
basis to follow different rule on using different terms. Students will be benefited
through the use of text books.
Marlow (1998) the title of the researchers’ study was Grammar Revisited
in the English Curriculum says that pupils need to study grammar that is useful
and functional. Good teaching emphasizes proceeding from the concrete to the
semi-concrete in teaching –learning situations, then the abstract phase of
learning needs to be emphasized. To learn adjectives, pupils might play a game
in which they would provide adjective alternative to those in a sentence printed
on the chalk board. Pupils can make numerous substitutions in a prepositional
phrase, playing with words and developing their vocabularies. To be
knowledgeable about grammar and its use, pupils also should understand
sentence patterns. The most appealing aspect of word study is the student
centered activities. Word study that focuses on spelling-meaning and spelling-
grammar connection helps students expand their vocabulary, develop sensitivity
to word choice in reading and writing, and build explicit basic awareness of how
English orthography functions in the integrated language arts program.
It is related to the present study because it emphasizes how to teach more
effectively, and that is to proceed to concrete to semi-concrete so that student’s
canned easily understood grammar. It also emphasizes the studying of words
that will surely help to the students’ vocabulary development.
McCleary (1995) the title of the researchers study was Grammar Making a
Comeback in Composition Teaching says that the result of new assertiveness of
people who never loss interest in grammar as part of English curriculum and by
better teaching method. Another influence may be a growing in interest in several
aspects of composition that seem to require students to have at least a modicum
of knowledge about grammar. One of these is stylistic grammar, which promises
users a clearer, more graceful style and elimination of bureaucratese,
sociologies’ and other ridiculed styles
It is related to the present study because it implies benefits if ones do not
loss interest in grammar, student will be convince to study grammar because it
will give them the advantage and that is it will be easier for them to write essays
and other composition.
Viñes (2000). The title of the researchers study is Grammar Learning
through Strategy Training: A classroom study on learning conditionals through
cognitive and cognitive strategy training says that grammar teaching to students
with the focus on form and meaning. A method of integrative grammar teaching,
consisting of three major stages (a) exploration, (b) explanation, and (c)
expression (EEE), is proposed. The basic aim of teaching English is to enable
the student to develop the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing
English. A student must be equipped not only to get information and knowledge
from books written in English, but must also has the ability to use the language
for intelligent discussion and communication.
It is related to the present study most especially in learning
grammar because with proper information from teachers students will learn easily
which they will not only know but they can use to communication.
Lacang (2005) the title of the researchers study was Competencies and
Characteristics of Effective Teachers. Base on the findings of the study,
administrators, and master teachers as well as the high achieving pupils have
similar perceptions on professional competencies, teaching strategies and
techniques and personality traits. They considered very important on teaching
effectiveness and success. Administrators, teachers and high ability pupils have
similar perceptions on the importance of rank order of competencies and traits for
effective teaching. This leads one to conclude that a more valid evaluation of
teaching performance should include the perceptions of various groups including
the pupils. Interco relations of ratings given by the four groups were high to very
high which means that any one of the four sets of ratings can be used as a valid
and reliable measure of teaching effectiveness.
It is related to the present study because like what happened today
teaching strategies is must, because it is also a way for students understanding
of the lesson.
Rubin (1999) in his Teaching Elementary Language Arts: A Balanced
Approach emphasizes the blend of theory and practice in teaching the language
arts to elementary students. This study continues to focus on the language arts
as thinking processes and on students as active consumers of information. A
practical approach is emphasized throughout to help teachers effectively
implement a dynamic language arts program. The book stresses that good
teachers are eclectics who utilize those approaches, methods and strategies that
best suit the needs of their students.
It is related to the present study because it stresses that having a
highly competent teacher and good strategies will be a benefit to students.
This chapter presents the Research Design, Setting of the Study, Subjects
of the Study, Research Instrument, Research Procedure and Statistical
Treatments Used in Study.
The descriptive method will be used in this study. This method will choose
because the primary purpose in this research is to determine the significance of
difference between the perceptions of the teachers and theirs students on the
extent of teaching competencies of elementary English teachers and the
student’s performance as well as the difference in their profile.
According to Steven W. Taylor (2002), descriptive research is used to
obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe
"what exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. The methods
involved range from the survey which describes the status quo, the correlation
study which investigates the relationship between variables, to developmental
studies which seek to determine changes over time.
According to De Marrais and Lapan (2004), defined descriptive research
in terms of the type of information gathered or the purposes for which the
information is collected.
Setting of the Study
The study will be conducted in the province of Laguna, Municipality of
Siniloan, is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Laguna, Philippines.
According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 29,902 people in 6,159
Siniloan lies between the plains of Sierra Madre Mountain and the Laguna
de Bay, it is about 84 kilometers from Manila, passing Manila East Road or
Marcos Highway, and about 113 kilometers via the South Luzon Expressway
passing the town of Santa Cruz, the capital of the province.
Siniloan is also a center of education, commerce and transportation, serving
towns in eastern Laguna and some towns from the provinces of Quezon and
Rizal. The municipality has active business and trade activities.
It will be conducted in 9 public elementary schools in Siniloan. Laguna.
Subjects of the Study
Purposive Sampling will be used in this study.
Table 1 Name of the school, number of students-respondents and number of
No. of teachers
Name of Schools No. of students
1. AAMES 10 1
2. AOJ Memorial 10 1
3. Buhay Elementary 10 1
4. Francisco K. Redor 10 1
5. Halayhayin lementary 10 1
6. Kapatalan Elementary 10 1
7. Magsaysay Elementary
8. Palanas Elementary
9. Siniloan Elementary 10 1
Total 90 9
Table 1 The table shows nine (9) public elementary schools with (90)
students and nine (9) English teachers in Siniloan Laguna.
The research instrument to be used is a research questionnaire.
The questionnaire is divided in three parts. Part I contained personal related
information about the subjects of the study. The first subject of the teachers
which includes age, sex, and length of service, educational attainment, and
training attended. The second subject of the study is the student’s which includes
age, sex, and sibling position, educational attainment of parents and socio-
economics of the family. Part II contained items which determined the extent of
the teaching competencies of the elementary English teacher. Part III contained
items in the level of student’s performance in English grammar. Part II and Part
III were rated using the 5-point Likert scale described as follow:
4.20 – 5.00 – always
3.40 – 4.19 – often
2.60 – 3.39 – sometimes
1.80 – 2.59 – seldom
1.00- 1.79 – never
The researchers had undergone several steps which led them to the
completion of this study.
First, the conceptualized and formulated the research title and had it
approved by the research advisers.
Second, they prepared the chapters I, II and III and the research
instrument which is the questionnaire and had it edited.
Third, they subjected themselves to oral defense of chapters I, II and III or
Fourth, they administered and retrieved the questionnaires.
Fifth, they collated analyze and interpreted the data gathered and
prepared the last two chapters for the manuscript.
Sixth, they had the final oral defense where the results have been
scrutinized to find out its relevance and reliability.
Finally, they prepared the final draft of the manuscript for submission and
acceptance of the school authorities in partial fulfillment of the requirements in
To interpret the data gathered by the researchers the following statistical
treatment were used.
Variables Statistical Treatment
1. Teachers Profile- sex, age, length Frequency (f), Percentage (%), and
of service, educational attainment, Rank Distribution
2. Students Profile- sex, age, sibling Frequency (f), Percentage (%), and
position, educational attainment of Rank Distribution
parents, socio-economics status of
3. Extent of the Teaching Weighted mean (wx)
Competencies of the Elementary
4. Level of students Performance in Weighted mean (wx)
5. Teachers Profile vs. Student’s Pearson r
6. Teaching Competencies of Pearson r
Elementary English Teachers vs.