Chapter I


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Chapter I

  1. 1. 1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study The way grammar is typically taught in schools today is most likely very different from how you learned basic grammar rules. Although declarative knowledge was once the primary goal of grammar instruction, today's teachers now place a greater importance on helping students develop procedural knowledge. Traditionally, English grammar was viewed as a separate part of the educational experience. Teachers helped students learn by requiring regular substitution or pattern practice drills and diagramming sentences. Memorization was a key part of grammar instruction, with frequent quizzes and worksheets available to test a student's mastery of grammar rules. This philosophy is sometimes referred to as prescriptive grammar instruction. Today, grammar is viewed as an essential communication tool. Instead of viewing grammar as a separate area of study, teachers often strive to integrate grammar instruction into other subject areas. Drills are minimal, often replaced by a practical discussion of how grammar can be used to aid in effective communication or how grammar is used in a particular piece of literature. Prescriptive grammar emphasizes learning the proper terms for grammatical elements, such as nouns, verbs, adverbs, and adjectives. Prescriptive grammar also emphasizes learning many rules of English grammar. Students learn the
  2. 2. 2 right and wrong ways to write sentences and are encouraged to write and rewrite. The objective of teaching English at the elementary level are to: understand simple statements when spoken; understand questions asked, short talks and short passages when read out; ask simple questions orally; read with fluency and understand simple passages within the vocabulary and structural range of the syllabus; and express in writing with reasonable accuracy within the range of the syllabus or topics within his experience. These general objectives are specified in terms of teachers teaching competencies, which is the ability to modify assignments for students; how to design classroom activities with so many levels that all students have a part. In view of the foregoing, the researchers were prompted to investigate the teaching competencies of elementary English teacher and the student's performance. Theoretical Framework Teaching English grammar can be difficult for the teacher and the students. It doesn't have to be difficult or painful, however. English grammar can be taught using fun learning games and before knowing it your students will be more than willing. There has been a movement away from the traditional methods of teaching English grammar through writing, rewriting and worksheets
  3. 3. 3 to using a more active approach through games. Researchers have also begun to look at how and why these new methods work. The study is premised on the theory of intrinsic motivation Vernon (2007) which gives some insight as to how teaching grammar through games actually works. Intrinsic motivation refers to the internal factors that encourage us to do something. Most young learners will not internally decide that they want to learn grammar. They don't yet understand the concepts of why it's important to know proper grammar, so these external factors won't affect them much either. Instead, intrinsic motivation can lead encourage them to play games. If these games are good then they will be learning while they are playing. Using some movement is crucial because movement helps activate the student’s mental capacities and stimulate neural networks, thus promoting learning and retention. It is related to the present study because it implies other techniques to the teacher to catch their student’s attention when teaching grammar. It can also be a way to increase students’ interests in grammar.
  4. 4. 4 Conceptual framework IV DV Teaching IV DV Competencies of Student’s Performance Elementary English Teacher Teachers: Students: - Sex - Sex - Age - Age - Length of - Sibling Service Position - Educational - Educational Attainment Attainment of Parents - Trainings Attended - Socio- MV Figure 1 A Conceptual Framework Showing the Interplay of Variables of the Teaching Competencies of the Elementary English Teachers and the Student’s Performance
  5. 5. 5 Conceptual Framework The first box contains the independent variable in the study which is the Teaching Competencies of the Elementary English Teachers. The second box contains the dependent variable which is the Student’s Performance. The boxes at the bottom contain the moderating variables include the profile of the two subjects of the study. The first contains the teacher’s profile which includes the sex, age, length of service, educational attainment and trainings attended while The second the student’s profile which includes sex, age, and sibling position, educational attainment of the parents and the socio economics status of the family. The lines that connect the three boxes show the relationship that exists among the different variables in the study. Statement of the Problem The study aimed to find out the teaching competencies of the elementary English teachers and the student’s performance. Specifically, the researchers intend to answers to the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the teachers in terms of : 1.1 sex; 1.2 age;
  6. 6. 6 1.3 length of service; 1.4 educational attainment; and 1.5 trainings attended? 2. What is the profile of the students in terms of: 2.1 sex; 2.2 age; 2.3 sibling position; 2.4 educational attainment of parents; and 2.5 socio-economic status of the family? 3. What is the extent of the teaching competencies of the elementary English teachers? 4. What is the level of student’s performance in English? 5. Is there significant relationship between the teacher’s profile and their teaching competencies? 6. Is there a significant relationship between the students’ profile and the teaching competencies of elementary English teachers? 7. Is there a significant relationship between the teachers profile and the students’ performance? 8. Is there a significant relationship between the students’ profile and their performance? 9. Is there a significant relationship between the teaching competencies of elementary English teachers’ and the students’ performance?
  7. 7. 7 Hypotheses The following hypotheses have been formulated by the researchers in attempt to solve the research questions. 1. There is no significant relationship between the teachers’ profile and their teaching competencies of elementary English teachers. 2. There is no significant relationship between the students’ profile and the teaching competencies of elementary English teachers’. 3. There is no significant relationship between the teacher’s profile and the student’s performance. 4. There is no significant relationship between the students’ profile and their performance 5. There is no significant relationship between the teaching competencies of elementary English teachers and the student’s performance. Significance of the Study The researchers viewed that the following benefits may be derived from the study: To the students, the result of the study will be helpful particularly for those who are in grade six who will become freshmen. They will learn more comprehensive grammar as response to the improvement of the teaching style of
  8. 8. 8 their English teachers in terms of teaching grammar. They will be more familiar of the correct usage of words. Grade six pupils will not have a hard time adjusting themselves being high school students. To the elementary English teachers, the output of the study will help them to determine which lessons in grammar require more focus. It will help them to seek more effective strategies on how to improve their teaching competencies and teaching styles. To the high school teachers, the result of the study could serve as a baseline information to further the knowledge of the teachers’ in the factors that could possibly affect the learning of the students. To the school, the output of the study will help achieve higher quality of education, because of the well-trained teachers and good performance of the students To the community, the result of the study can help stabilize the condition of the society through competent teachers and high performing students. It can also be a great opportunity to the people to have jobs related in grammar tutorial. To the other researchers, it can lead to future researches, because it will be a good basis to know why students have low performance in a particular subject matter.
  9. 9. 9 Scope and Limitation of the Study The study focused on the teaching competencies of the nine (9) elementary English teachers and the performance of 90 grade six students, from nine (9) public elementary schools in Siniloan, Laguna, namely; SES, AOJ, BES, HES, AAMES, MES, KES, FKRES and PES on the teaching competencies of elementary English teachers and the students’ performance with respect to the teachers’ profile which included are sex, age, length of service, educational attainment and trainings attended and the students profile which are sex, age, sibling position, educational attainment of the parents and the socio-economic status of the family. The descriptive method in research will be utilized in this study. The study will be conducted during the second semester at Siniloan National High School, Siniloan, Laguna. Definition of Terms The following terms have been defined operationally to provide a clearer understanding of the variables in the study. Age . Educational Attainment. The highest possible degree of education the teacher- respondents have attained.
  10. 10. 10 Grammar. It is the focus of the researcher’s study that deals with the correct usage of words and sentence construction. Length of Service. It refers to the possible duration of service of the teacher- respondents. Sex. It tells whether the subject is male or female. Sibling Position. In this study, it tells whether the subject/ respondents is the eldest, the middle, the youngest children in the family. Socio-economic Status. It refers to the financial stability of the family whether it is low, average or high. Students Performance. The degree of learning of the students in English grammar as reflected by the scores in the researcher made test. Teaching Competencies. Ways or strategies of the teacher in teaching English grammar as perceived by the students. Trainings Attended. It pertains to the highest possible level of seminars/workshops that the elementary English teachers have attended.
  11. 11. 11 Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY This chapter presents the literature and studies relevant to the study. Related Literature Musumeci (1997) mentions the idea of connecting form and meaning in grammar teaching as a developing trend in reference to the proficiency oriented curriculum. She points out that students should be able to learn explicit grammar rules as well as have a chance to practice them in communication in the authentic or simulation tasks. Interestingly, Musumeci advocates giving students a chance to look at the language on a sentence level to see how certain grammatical rules are applied. It is related to the present study because it suggests other strategy to the teacher to know their student’s development in terms of grammar by means of practicing authentic communication task. This is also a way to improve the teaching competencies of the teacher and the student’s performance. Ehrenworth (2003) suggested two possible reasons why students did not learn grammar through the direct instruction method to which Shuman (1991)
  12. 12. 12 referred. First, the researcher noted that most direct grammar instruction is confusing and filled with exceptions, Which renders students unable to think independently about grammar schemes on a sentence level? Secondly, the researcher noted the resistance theory research conducted by Heshusius (1989, as quoted in Ehrenworth, 2003), who claimed that “resistance theory provides a framework for understanding these children’s behavior as active resistance to a situation they find threatening, boring, or otherwise intolerable”. It is related to the present study because as compared in the present situation, many elementary students find hard in learning grammar, and so the resistance theory might help them to resist in a situation they find boring specifically in grammar Vavra (1993) noted that few English teachers are prepared to teach grammar and receive little or no instruction on how to do it in their teacher preparation classes. Therefore, often, teachers teach grammar the only way they know how, the way they were taught years ago. Moreover, Weaver (1996) referred to learning theory to support why students did not learn grammar in the traditional method. She argued that grammatical concepts were so complex that the traditional behaviorist strategies of repeated skills practice done in isolation do not work. She cited Harris and Rowan (1989) who showed “quite convincingly that a conscious grasp of grammatical concepts requires a depth of understanding that is often not gained through practice exercises alone.
  13. 13. 13 It is related to the present study because it cited that most of the teachers in English teacher have no prepared topic to teach, and just like in the present it can greatly influence to their teaching competencies. In addition to that traditional way of teaching grammar and other common way of teaching might not be so effective. Lindblom, et. al.(2003) Recommended three vitalization of grammar in authentic and purposeful ways. These integrated strategies included: Build and Make Use of a Grammar-Controversy Archive that is used by and contributed to by both students and teachers; Hold Public Grammar Debates that combines speaking, writing, and listening with a real audience and purpose can be a powerful way to have students see the importance of grammar; and Assign Descriptive Grammar Studies so that students can see that grammar is not just one set of rules used by people in power, but that different grammars are used for different situations. According to them the use of all of these activities achieves the goal of integrating grammar and helps student to internalize the importance of grammar. Also, asserted that students would begin to see that grammar is not just a boring set of rules, but a subject that is alive and constantly changing. The authors argued that these grammar strategies and others would not only reestablish the importance of grammar in the classroom, but would also invigorate writing, speaking, listening, and reading in the classroom. Used of this approach not only taught the grammar needed to
  14. 14. 14 help students, but Integrated the areas of language arts and made more meaningful connections for all. It is related to the present study because today elementary students do not give much importance and focus in learning grammar and so this will be their basis to recognize grammar not only just a boring subject but can help them better in the four macro skills in English. Griffin et al. (1998) suggest that children must become skilled users of language. They must be highly competent in reading and writing to pass the various assessments that constitute gateways for completing schools, getting into college, and finding jobs. Teachers need a wealth of content and pedagogical knowledge to ensure that they are providing appropriate instruction to all students. Teachers also need a thorough understanding of educational linguistic- how language figures in education. This foundation would support teachers practice overall, and in particular, it would help them literacy skills. It is related to the present study because it shows that student should perform well in English to acquire high achievements. And so teachers have great responsibility to that they should also be highly competent in English grammar to sustain to the knowledge require by their students. Related Study
  15. 15. 15 There is scarcity of studies especially local studies related to teaching competencies of elementary English teachers. The following are some abstract of related studies taken from the internet. Geimer et. al.(2000) studied the Improving Student Achievement in Language Arts through Implementation of Multiple Intelligences Strategies says that student achievement has been low in language arts in Suburban, Chicago, IIIinois school districts. This action research project was designed to determine the effect of incorporating multiple intelligence strategies into the language arts curriculum. Further was indicated through teachers observation of student performance other factor that impact low students achievement are mobility, lack of teacher training and support in implementing curriculum, and teachers not addressing students’ various learning styles. It is related to the present study because, it suggested that teachers must subjected to the different trainings and workshops that can help to the poor learning styles of the teachers. Carter (1999) studied The Grammatical Vocabulary: A Plea for the Re- Introduction of Grammatical Concepts says that schools stopped teaching any grammatical system some time ago, as they probably should have. But the schools also, at the same time, stopped teaching grammatical terminology, a mistake which has had lasting sequences. Students need to be told what “infinitive,” “preposition,” “case.” and “predicate complement” mean. They need the tools to think about and analyze their sentences. This paper argues that students should have vocabulary for discussing language. The paper contends
  16. 16. 16 that if students know the meaning of grammatical terms and phrases and have practice identifying the concepts, they will then be able to recognize the structures in their writing, educators will enable them to improve their work . It is related to the present study due to the fact that many of the students today have poor knowledge about grammatical terms and phrases that commonly led to the poor performance when writing sentences and speaking english. Einarsson (1999) in his The Place of Grammar in the Language Arts Curriculum says that the history of grammar instruction includes two approaches: the handbook approach, which is practiced today, and the textbook approach. The handbook approach focuses on rules for correct writing and is an error- based view, while the textbook approach would treat grammar holistically and interpretively and would systematically explain new concepts in light of previous ones. One current example related to textbook approach envisions a creative, activity base classroom, but asserts that no theory should be thought. Knowing grammar is a holistic and theoretical way, however, cannot be harm in students writing, and studies are showing benefits to heightened awareness of language on student’s composition. It is related to the present study because it asserts that text book can also be a help to increase knowledge on how to use proper words. It can also be a basis to follow different rule on using different terms. Students will be benefited through the use of text books.
  17. 17. 17 Marlow (1998) the title of the researchers’ study was Grammar Revisited in the English Curriculum says that pupils need to study grammar that is useful and functional. Good teaching emphasizes proceeding from the concrete to the semi-concrete in teaching –learning situations, then the abstract phase of learning needs to be emphasized. To learn adjectives, pupils might play a game in which they would provide adjective alternative to those in a sentence printed on the chalk board. Pupils can make numerous substitutions in a prepositional phrase, playing with words and developing their vocabularies. To be knowledgeable about grammar and its use, pupils also should understand sentence patterns. The most appealing aspect of word study is the student centered activities. Word study that focuses on spelling-meaning and spelling- grammar connection helps students expand their vocabulary, develop sensitivity to word choice in reading and writing, and build explicit basic awareness of how English orthography functions in the integrated language arts program. It is related to the present study because it emphasizes how to teach more effectively, and that is to proceed to concrete to semi-concrete so that student’s canned easily understood grammar. It also emphasizes the studying of words that will surely help to the students’ vocabulary development. McCleary (1995) the title of the researchers study was Grammar Making a Comeback in Composition Teaching says that the result of new assertiveness of people who never loss interest in grammar as part of English curriculum and by better teaching method. Another influence may be a growing in interest in several aspects of composition that seem to require students to have at least a modicum
  18. 18. 18 of knowledge about grammar. One of these is stylistic grammar, which promises users a clearer, more graceful style and elimination of bureaucratese, sociologies’ and other ridiculed styles It is related to the present study because it implies benefits if ones do not loss interest in grammar, student will be convince to study grammar because it will give them the advantage and that is it will be easier for them to write essays and other composition. Viñes (2000). The title of the researchers study is Grammar Learning through Strategy Training: A classroom study on learning conditionals through meta cognitive and cognitive strategy training says that grammar teaching to students with the focus on form and meaning. A method of integrative grammar teaching, consisting of three major stages (a) exploration, (b) explanation, and (c) expression (EEE), is proposed. The basic aim of teaching English is to enable the student to develop the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing English. A student must be equipped not only to get information and knowledge from books written in English, but must also has the ability to use the language for intelligent discussion and communication. It is related to the present study most especially in learning grammar because with proper information from teachers students will learn easily which they will not only know but they can use to communication. Lacang (2005) the title of the researchers study was Competencies and Characteristics of Effective Teachers. Base on the findings of the study,
  19. 19. 19 administrators, and master teachers as well as the high achieving pupils have similar perceptions on professional competencies, teaching strategies and techniques and personality traits. They considered very important on teaching effectiveness and success. Administrators, teachers and high ability pupils have similar perceptions on the importance of rank order of competencies and traits for effective teaching. This leads one to conclude that a more valid evaluation of teaching performance should include the perceptions of various groups including the pupils. Interco relations of ratings given by the four groups were high to very high which means that any one of the four sets of ratings can be used as a valid and reliable measure of teaching effectiveness. It is related to the present study because like what happened today teaching strategies is must, because it is also a way for students understanding of the lesson. Rubin (1999) in his Teaching Elementary Language Arts: A Balanced Approach emphasizes the blend of theory and practice in teaching the language arts to elementary students. This study continues to focus on the language arts as thinking processes and on students as active consumers of information. A practical approach is emphasized throughout to help teachers effectively implement a dynamic language arts program. The book stresses that good teachers are eclectics who utilize those approaches, methods and strategies that best suit the needs of their students. It is related to the present study because it stresses that having a highly competent teacher and good strategies will be a benefit to students.
  20. 20. 20 Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the Research Design, Setting of the Study, Subjects of the Study, Research Instrument, Research Procedure and Statistical Treatments Used in Study. Research Design The descriptive method will be used in this study. This method will choose because the primary purpose in this research is to determine the significance of difference between the perceptions of the teachers and theirs students on the extent of teaching competencies of elementary English teachers and the student’s performance as well as the difference in their profile. According to Steven W. Taylor (2002), descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe "what exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. The methods involved range from the survey which describes the status quo, the correlation study which investigates the relationship between variables, to developmental studies which seek to determine changes over time. According to De Marrais and Lapan (2004), defined descriptive research in terms of the type of information gathered or the purposes for which the information is collected.
  21. 21. 21 Setting of the Study The study will be conducted in the province of Laguna, Municipality of Siniloan, is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 29,902 people in 6,159 households. Siniloan lies between the plains of Sierra Madre Mountain and the Laguna de Bay, it is about 84 kilometers from Manila, passing Manila East Road or Marcos Highway, and about 113 kilometers via the South Luzon Expressway passing the town of Santa Cruz, the capital of the province. Siniloan is also a center of education, commerce and transportation, serving towns in eastern Laguna and some towns from the provinces of Quezon and Rizal. The municipality has active business and trade activities. It will be conducted in 9 public elementary schools in Siniloan. Laguna. Subjects of the Study Purposive Sampling will be used in this study. Table 1 Name of the school, number of students-respondents and number of teachers-respondent. No. of teachers Name of Schools No. of students
  22. 22. 22 1. AAMES 10 1 2. AOJ Memorial 10 1 Elementary School 3. Buhay Elementary 10 1 School 4. Francisco K. Redor 10 1 Memorial School 5. Halayhayin lementary 10 1 School 6. Kapatalan Elementary 10 1 School 10 1 7. Magsaysay Elementary School 10 1 8. Palanas Elementary School 9. Siniloan Elementary 10 1 School Total 90 9 Table 1 The table shows nine (9) public elementary schools with (90) students and nine (9) English teachers in Siniloan Laguna. Research Instrument The research instrument to be used is a research questionnaire.
  23. 23. 23 The questionnaire is divided in three parts. Part I contained personal related information about the subjects of the study. The first subject of the teachers which includes age, sex, and length of service, educational attainment, and training attended. The second subject of the study is the student’s which includes age, sex, and sibling position, educational attainment of parents and socio- economics of the family. Part II contained items which determined the extent of the teaching competencies of the elementary English teacher. Part III contained items in the level of student’s performance in English grammar. Part II and Part III were rated using the 5-point Likert scale described as follow: 4.20 – 5.00 – always 3.40 – 4.19 – often 2.60 – 3.39 – sometimes 1.80 – 2.59 – seldom 1.00- 1.79 – never Research Procedure The researchers had undergone several steps which led them to the completion of this study. First, the conceptualized and formulated the research title and had it approved by the research advisers.
  24. 24. 24 Second, they prepared the chapters I, II and III and the research instrument which is the questionnaire and had it edited. Third, they subjected themselves to oral defense of chapters I, II and III or colloquium. Fourth, they administered and retrieved the questionnaires. Fifth, they collated analyze and interpreted the data gathered and prepared the last two chapters for the manuscript. Sixth, they had the final oral defense where the results have been scrutinized to find out its relevance and reliability. Finally, they prepared the final draft of the manuscript for submission and acceptance of the school authorities in partial fulfillment of the requirements in Research IV. Statistical Treatment To interpret the data gathered by the researchers the following statistical treatment were used. Variables Statistical Treatment 1. Teachers Profile- sex, age, length Frequency (f), Percentage (%), and of service, educational attainment, Rank Distribution trainings attended
  25. 25. 25 2. Students Profile- sex, age, sibling Frequency (f), Percentage (%), and position, educational attainment of Rank Distribution parents, socio-economics status of the family 3. Extent of the Teaching Weighted mean (wx) Competencies of the Elementary English Teachers 4. Level of students Performance in Weighted mean (wx) English 5. Teachers Profile vs. Student’s Pearson r Performance 6. Teaching Competencies of Pearson r Elementary English Teachers vs. Students Performance